%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141221050159+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141221050159+00'00') /Title (Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England 1558-1689) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4311 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England 1558-1689)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two anti-Trinitarians shared the distinction in 1612 of being the last persons to be burned for heresy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England. The execution of Oliver Plunkett in 1681 was the last martyrdom of a Catholic on English soil. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scottish student hanged for blasphemy in 1697 was the last person in the British Isles to be executed for his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious views. The careful noting of these milestones by John Coffey inevitably imparts a Whiggish tinge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to his admirable and stimulating study of religious persecution and toleration in England from the accession )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Elizabeth I to the passage of the Toleration Act of 1689. Indeed in terms of interest in the subject, if not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily in analysis and understanding, our debt to the Whig history of toleration has proved to be an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enduring one. Dr Coffey's book, the first overview of the subject to be published in over fifty years, derives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from his earlier study of a staunch defender of religious persecution, Samuel Rutherford \(a Scottish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Covenanter\), and it certainly has more to say about persecution than toleration. The first three chapters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical, conceptual and analytical in approach; the next four traced the themes in a chronological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framework; and the final chapter, bucking the trend of most recent research, celebrates 1689 and 'the rise of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The weaknesses of the Whig analysis are well rehearsed and familiar: a teleological, and sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anachronistic, account of the emergence from a dark and hostile pre-Protestant past of modern liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy and a corresponding rise of religious toleration. A crucial watershed in this progressive process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was argued, was the mid-seventeenth century 'Puritan Revolution' which permanently transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England by laying the basis for a liberal, multi-faith society. This is history enthused with national pride; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(192)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Coffey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(582304644X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Lindley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7967 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiar nature of its Protestant history was seen as enabling England not only to steal a lead over the rest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, but also to export its liberal and tolerationist principles to the New World. The story is told by those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical giants, S. R. Gardiner, William Haller, A. S. P. Woodhouse and W. K. Jordan, who have had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formative influence on a whole generation of historians. However, in the last thirty years or so 'revisionist' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians \(broadly defined\) exploring the same territory have launched a frontal assault on this Whig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis. The past, it is argued, should be understood in its own terms when peoples' ideas, values and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives could be radically different from our own. For much of the early modern period in England it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was religious )] TJ ET BT 100.676 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(intolerance)] TJ ET BT 155.336 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( rather than tolerance that was most noticeable, as instanced by the political impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of anti-popery and the bitter divisions among Protestants. The case put for religious toleration during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Puritan Revolution should not be exaggerated. Cromwell and others traditionally portrayed as pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerationist in the 1640s and 1650s had in fact much more modest aims; they were seeking to secure liberty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for godly Protestants and toleration was to be withheld from the ungodly and followers of false religions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were certainly not striving to create a liberal society in which divergent religious opinions were openly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerated. After the Restoration, a reinvigorated intolerance was the order of the day as firstly Dissenters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later Catholics experienced severe persecution. Those still prepared to argue the case for toleration did so in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(qualified terms; John Locke, a much cited example, explicitly excluded Catholics and atheists from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration. When legal toleration was finally achieved in the 1689 act it was never the intention to establish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious equality even when restricted to Protestants. The great Whig milestone was in fact a fortuitous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compromise and a fudge rather than the final triumph of a tolerationist ideal. England is also to be stripped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of its title to European leadership; at the start of the seventeenth century, Protestant England, in common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with most other Protestant countries, was still intent on enforcing religious uniformity, thus lagging behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Catholics lands of Poland and France where a remarkable degree of toleration had been established. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, the generally accepted narrative of a chronological progression from a backward persecuting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past to a modern tolerationist future has been shown to ignore earlier tolerationist efforts and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities, leaving those who seek to trace the rise of a tolerationist ideal with the problem of where to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place the Taliban and other religious fundamentalists in our own world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dr Coffey offers a persuasive post-revisionist approach to the central concerns of his book. Recognising in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one important respect the strength of the revisionist argument, he places an emphasis on the power of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intolerance in early modern England and devotes more space to discussing and explaining persecution than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerance. At the very outset, he bravely nails his colours to the mast declaring that it is his intention to argue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there is considerable truth in the Whiggish claim that seventeenth century England witnessed a dramatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformation from religious persecution and enforced uniformity to toleration and religious pluralism. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds himself in broad agreement with Haller and Woodhouse in arguing that the 1640s were the key decade )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that the initial impetus behind tolerationist ideas came from radical puritanism. The 'Puritan Revolution' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is alive and well. Tolerationists emerged during those years to provide a )] TJ ET BT 382.964 299.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(principled)] TJ ET BT 432.296 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( opposition to religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution, even of heretics and schismatics, and to make the case for the peaceful co-existence within one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society of a plurality of churches and religions. In the longer term, the stubborn survival of Dissenting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches \(and of Papists\) punctured the monopoly of the national church and an earlier consensus in favour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of using coercion to support religious uniformity crumbled. The 1689 toleration act was indeed an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landmark in the struggle to achieve religious toleration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book begins with a definition of the broad concept of toleration itself. 'Those who tolerate', Coffey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, 'disapprove of an opinion, act, or lifestyle, and yet choose to exercise restraint towards it' \(p. 10\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When applying such a definition in the early modern period it soon becomes clear that toleration could take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many different forms and exist at different levels, as Bob Scribner has shown and as Coffey himself is only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too aware. The two forms that lie at the heart of this study are civil and ecclesiastical toleration that are to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly distinguished. The policy of the state towards religious dissent, and especially the role of the civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrate, provides the focus for the debate about civil toleration and the preoccupation of pamphlets and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other primary sources with this subject helps to ensure its heavy emphasis by Coffey. At one end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale, civil tolerance might grant Dissenters relief from persecution but deny them full equality as citizens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as under the 1689 act\) while, at the other, it might bestow freedom of worship and full rights as citizens or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even separate church and state entirely. The degree of diversity tolerated within a particular church \(whether )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7786 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a radical sect or the Anglican establishment\) is the focus of ecclesiastical toleration. Coffey correctly stresses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this distinction and is critical of those historians who have blurred the two. Thus sectarian Protestants could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a heart-felt plea for civil tolerance while countenancing ecclesiastical intolerance within their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churches. A third form of toleration distinguished by Coffey, following Scribner and others, is toleration in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its social context; the practical tolerance of religious dissidents by neighbours, relatives or friends. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could of course swiftly turn sour when there were anti-popish panics or upsurges of political protest against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dissent. Yet the chief interests of the book, largely due to the kinds of source materials Coffey restricts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself to, are decidedly more theological, philosophical and political than social.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To fully understand the theory behind Protestant toleration we must first explain how its opposite, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution, was justified. Coffey gives us a familiar but clearly expressed account of the Protestant theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of persecution from the model established by Old Testament Israel, the accounts of the first centuries of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christian church, St Augustine's justification of the use of coercion by the magistrate, the persecution of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy down the centuries and the sanctioning and encouraging of persecution by the great Protestant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformers, with some initial reluctance on Luther's part. Protestantism's reputation as a liberating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernising creed has to face the fact that its founding fathers believed in persecuting, even to death, anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Trinitarians, Anabaptists and Jews and found some of each other's religious beliefs absolutely intolerable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toleration was to be condemned for encouraging erroneous, soul-destroying beliefs, leading to schism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inviting the wrath of an angry God. The many evils flowing from toleration and religious pluralism could all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be demonstrated from recent history; Europe's wars of religion, Popish plots and rebellions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association of religious dissent with sedition. Even the persecuted believed in persecution as both Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Dissenters demonstrated when they were in charge. However, it is remarkable that a study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution and toleration in the early modern period fails to mention the Anabaptist take-over of Mnster in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1534-5, and its legacy, and the contribution made by the social dimension generally to a climate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution does not receive the full attention that it merits. Toleration was widely condemned as subversive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of society and morality. That great advocate of persecution, Thomas Edwards, spent a good part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gangraena)] TJ ET BT 88.676 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( spelling out the dire consequences of toleration; if ever conceded men would never again enjoy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace in their families or 'ever after have command of wives, children and servants' and conventional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality would also be undermined. These were powerful arguments in a patriarchal society. At the 1648 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whitehall debates, where the role of the magistrate in religious matters was at issue, the Independent divine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Nye, recalled trying to convince a convicted bigamist of the error of his ways only to be met with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man's response that he was being persecuted for his conscience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coffey is right to insist on the importance of the debates of the 1640s in establishing a Protestant case for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration. Prior to then, there was very little public debate in England about the subject, the General Baptist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leonard Busher being a notable exception. It was Baptists and other radical puritans who were to be at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forefront of the call for toleration in the 1640s when for the first time \(and this deserves emphasis\) it could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be freely and openly debated. Roger Williams is traditionally seen as opening the debate in 1644 when his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(call for toleration went as far as embracing heretics, blasphemers, Catholics, Muslims and pagans. Coffey )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correctly reminds us of the importance of the theological arguments for toleration which some modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, usually those from a history of ideas tradition, tend to bypass in favour of philosophical arguments. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The New Testament teachings of Jesus, and especially the calls to love your neighbour and to do unto others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as you would be done by, and the replacing of the old dispensation by the new with the coming of Messiah, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the biblical and theological foundation for toleration. The parable of the wheat and the tares \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believers and non-believers\) was a key text; both should be allowed to grow peacefully together until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judgement day for any attempt to uproot the tares risk pulling up wheat as well. The need was to restore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primitive Christianity and to experience the freedom that had been lost in the fourth century when worldly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerns came to preoccupy the church. Importance was also attached to drawing a clear distinction between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Old and the New Testaments; the duty incumbent on the magistrate under the old dispensation to punish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idolatry and enforce the Ten Commandments \(and the First Table in particular\) was now gone with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coming of Jesus and Israel could no longer provide a model for justifying magisterial coercion in religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matters. Secular arguments supporting coercion were now turned on their head; rather than war, chaos and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine, toleration would bring political stability in place of the wars of religion caused by intolerance and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7686 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tolerating societies were indeed viable and peaceful, and economically prosperous, as the often cited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example of the Netherlands proved. For instance, the Independent divine Hugh Peter at the Whitehall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates quoted the example of the Netherlands as both a tolerant and a flourishing society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the goals envisaged by some of those endorsing toleration could be very restrictive and some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beliefs were plainly intolerable. Support for toleration could be based on a negative position; freedom of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conscience was necessary now in order that eventually truth might manifest itself. Toleration thus became an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expedient rather than a positive statement of belief in the virtues of religious diversity. Before Roger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams is confirmed in his place in the liberal pantheon it needs t o recognised that the welfare and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fortunes of the godly elect, the 'wheat' or true believers in the parable of the tares, were his primary concern. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 'tares' or non-believers had a terrible fate awaiting them for 'when the world is ripe in sin, in the sins of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antichristianism ... then those holy and mighty officers and executioners, the angels, with their sharp and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cutting sickles of eternal vengeance, shall down with them, and bundle them up for the everlasting burnings'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There might be toleration in this world but certainly not in the next and ultimately Williams's God is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrathful deity. Yet this important aspect of Williams, a prime example of a very different kind of mentality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from that current in most modern debate about toleration, is missing from the discussion in Colley's book. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests a history of ideas bias in which historical context is insufficiently appreciated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Atheism, blasphemy, idolatry and adultery were all to be condemned and excluded from toleration, even by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most tolerationists, because they were regarded as contrary to natural reason and public order. Catholics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posed a particularly difficult problem because they could be excluded from toleration both as idolaters and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as disloyal citizens owing allegiance to a hostile foreign prince. Williams was remarkable in the toleration he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was prepared to concede to Catholics who should be 'suffered to breathe and walk upon the decks, in the air )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of civil liberty and conversation in the ship of commonwealth' yet this was to be 'upon good assurance given )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of civil obedience to the civil state'. Cromwell, Milton and Locke were among those not prepared to grant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics toleration upon one or both of the grounds for exclusion. Coffey also cites Sir Henry Vane, junior, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as arguing 'at length' that freedom should be extended to Catholics \(p. 140\) in his anonymous 1652 work)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zeal Examined)] TJ ET BT 106.340 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. However, while denying the magistrate the power to restrain or punish idolaters, Vane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes it clear that 'by excusing idolaters, I do not intend a necessary toleration of Papists, much less of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests and Jesuits, for though they may not come within the magistrate's cognizance by their worshipping of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images or the host in the sacrament, yet they may as they maintain the jurisdiction of a foreign power over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their consciences, if that foreign power [i.e. the Pope] do maintain principles that are inconsistent with all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magistrates and people that are not of his religion'. Vane is prepared to concede that 'in regard there is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of them in this nation, and those that are have already suffered much', that there might be 'more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenderness' used when dealing with lay Catholics but, establishing no rules in this case, he leaves it 'to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prudence of the magistrate'. Apparently in the debate over whether to extend toleration to Catholics Vane )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was closer in opinion to his friend Milton than Coffey and other writers have suggested.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disappointingly, given the centrality of religious toleration to the movement, the Levellers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctive contributions to the debate are given a relatively low profile in this book. It is to the Levellers that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are indebted for the notion of constructing a constitution that gave the state no religious role, even if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances and events later obliged them to accept modifications to that basic principle. They were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great popularisers of the idea of religious toleration and figures like William Walwyn and Richard Overton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(as Coffey acknowledges\) had radical and highly persuasive contributions to make. In this context, Coffey's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the Levellers and Diggers as though they were religious sects \(pp. 211, 144\) are distinctly odd.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Coffey describes the ferocity of the persecution of Protestant by Protestant after the Restoration as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unparalleled in seventeenth century Europe. Backed up by parliamentary legislation, there were clerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ejections on a large scale, prisons crammed full of religious dissidents, religious tests placed on the holding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of public office and a theoretically restored Anglican monopoly of political and social life. On a pragmatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level, the tolerationist lessons of the 1640s and 1650s had sunk very shallow roots. Yet, as at other stages in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the religious history of England, there was often a gap between the letter of the law and its implementation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and there was an influential Anglican minority who sought to avoid schism and were prepared to concede a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of ecclesiastical toleration. There was much later a championing of toleration from some unexpected )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2643 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarters including James II whom Coffey is prepared to speculate may have been sincere. William III, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant hero of Orange mythology, we are reminded tried to extend legal toleration of religious worship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Catholics. Although excluded from benefit of the 1689 toleration act, Catholics were able to benefit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the simple fact that, in practical terms, church attendance could no longer be made compulsory and they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to establish discreet places of worship. In the early eighteenth century, practical toleration of most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious dissident was well advanced even if principled tolerationists were still a very small minority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To end on a justifiably positive note, this will prove to be a most useful text for undergraduate teaching with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its admirable clarity, its extensive coverage of primary and secondary material and its construction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremely useful tables. The placing of the debate in a wider European and New World perspective is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very valuable. Coffey is to be congratulated for re-igniting discussion of toleration at a time when examples )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of intolerance in our own world are only too self-evident.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 585.747 m 271.328 585.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.328 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 582.415 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 564.635 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 564.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/192)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 563.241 m 322.316 563.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 538.264 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 523.864 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1184)] TJ ET BT 34.016 509.464 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.php?id=5025)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 586.0615 271.3277 597.9415 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www2.h-net.msu.edu/reviews/showrev.php?id=5025) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 563.5555 322.3157 575.4355 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/192) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000568 00000 n 0000000650 00000 n 0000005013 00000 n 0000005122 00000 n 0000005232 00000 n 0000005341 00000 n 0000008902 00000 n 0000009030 00000 n 0000009114 00000 n 0000009179 00000 n 0000017199 00000 n 0000017264 00000 n 0000025103 00000 n 0000025168 00000 n 0000032907 00000 n 0000032998 00000 n 0000035694 00000 n 0000035821 00000 n 0000035926 00000 n 0000036054 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36149 %%EOF