%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721224945+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721224945+01'00') /Title (The New Crusaders Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5020 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The New Crusaders Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Twentieth Centuries)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How should we read the Crusades? The question begs a host of others, not least how )] TJ ET BT 442.952 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(do)] TJ ET BT 454.952 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( we read them, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(light of how we )] TJ ET BT 112.676 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(have)] TJ ET BT 135.332 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( read them in the past. Beginning as a historian of how the Crusades were regarded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own high mediaeval time, Elizabeth Siberry has more recently constituted herself the historian of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they have since been regarded in our own. In )] TJ ET BT 252.620 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Crusaders)] TJ ET BT 347.960 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a title adapted from Disraeli's )] TJ ET BT 498.428 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tancred)] TJ ET BT 538.424 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she sets out to follow the British reading of the Crusades during the long nineteenth century, from the wars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the French Revolution to the end of the First World War. On the one hand, the period stretches from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extinction of the last of the Crusader states by Napoleon, passing through Malta on his way to recommence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the European invasion of the Middle East in Egypt in 1798; it ends with the culmination of that invasion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the next great European conflict, 1914-18. On the other, it runs from the start of the modern popularity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusades as a historical subject, to their employment as an ambivalent and perilous metaphor of present-day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conflict. In describing their fortunes in the interval, the author, as she explains, is engaged in developing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account which she gave in her 'Images of the Crusades in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries' in )] TJ ET BT 511.244 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Illustrated History of the Crusades)] TJ ET BT 238.352 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in 1995. The timescale is somewhat shorter, since she does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursue the subject beyond the First World War, and the focus on Britain somewhat narrower. Meanwhile the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangement of the material is different. Where the approach in the )] TJ ET BT 357.920 95.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Oxford History)] TJ ET BT 430.916 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological, here it is not so much thematic, as she claims, but taxonomic, presumably to accommodate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the much greater wealth of detail. Thus in the range of chapters, from 'Crusade historiography' at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning to 'Music and the crusades' at the end, the First World War is the middle, followed by a discussion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(193)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Siberry)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1859283330)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Brett)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7954 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the way in which the term 'crusade' passed into general use for any kind of cause. The broad distinction is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between representation of the Crusades in life, and their representation in art.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The byways as well as the highways of history and literature are always fascinating; and in enthusiastic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuit of her subject, Elizabeth Siberry has turned up and classified a particularly wide range of references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Crusades in all kinds of contexts, from church windows to the House of Lords; from pride in one's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ancestors to visits to the Holy Land; and from children's literature to reenactments, not only on the stage but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in real life, as military men fancied themselves, and their campaigns, in the role of holy warriors, holy wars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All British readers will recognise themselves to a greater or lesser degree in her work, whether in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples she herself provides, or in those she might have introduced. Since she mentions the War Memorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Sledmere, for example, it's a pity she doesn't describe the Waggoners' Monument just along the road - a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorial to a transport company raised by the Sykes from the estate. It takes the form of a sculptured strip )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cartoon, a sort of Bayeux tapestry of the company's expedition to Flanders, culminating in the siege and rout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of grotesquely diabolical Germans: it might well have been the First Crusade, and certainly joins the number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Siberry's instances of the concept of holy war upon the infidel, with or without specific reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediaeval prototype. Nevertheless, her sampling of the mass of material is surely sufficiently wide to notice, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and document, the entire phenomenon of the Crusades in Great Britain in her period, with appropriate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the Continent, especially France, where the same factors were at work in the creation of similar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images. )] TJ ET BT 74.012 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Crusaders)] TJ ET BT 169.352 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( will not only be a work of reference. As a taxonomy of the subject, it will at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same time provide a framework for the incorporation of additional material until such time as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accumulation requires a fresh work - perhaps a new edition on which the author, to judge by her occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarks, may already be engaged. Meanwhile, are we, the readers of the twenty-first century who see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ourselves in her mirror, any the wiser after the shock of recognition, or simply better informed?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book appears in a series entitled )] TJ ET BT 212.312 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 326.972 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, with a Preface by the general editors in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their purpose is declared to be the illumination of the present as well as the past through works which cut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across the conventional boundaries of the disciplines and divisions of the subject. )] TJ ET BT 427.640 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Crusaders)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly cuts across the boundaries of both; as the author recognises, however, the importance of its own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject must not be overstated. The Crusades and their heroes were 'but one of a menu of options available )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to nineteenth and early twentieth century image makers'. They were, as Siberry's title indicates, largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newcomers to the repertoire, despite their previous celebration in Torquato Tasso's )] TJ ET BT 434.096 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gerusalemme Liberata)] TJ ET BT 545.084 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after an eighteenth century in which they had been systematically disparaged by the likes of Gibbon. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such, their popularity, and whatever formative influence they may have exercised over the mind of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, depended upon their invention, in both senses of the word, discovery and creation, in accordance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the cultural and political criteria of the age: Mediaevalism; Romanticism; Orientalism; Nationalism; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Imperialism; etc. How the Crusades may have served to tie all these together in accordance with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desiderata of the series is a problem. Of this problem Siberry is well aware, but as a self-confessed historian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Middle Ages, refrains from trespassing too far into the realm of scholarship of the period. To this, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader is referred in her Introduction and her bibliography. In her Conclusion, she confines herself to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observation that the imagery remained constant; that opinion on the merits of the Crusades remained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided; and that in Britain at least, there was no obvious correlation between the use of Crusade imagery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and events in the Middle East before the First World War. 'Each use of the crusade image', she concludes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('therefore deserves to be treated in its own right.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That, for her, is what makes the subject so diverse and so interesting. The present reviewer, like Siberry a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian of the Middle Ages rather than modernity, can only concur - up to a point. Historians of the \(long\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century, or students of its literature, or its arts, might look for more. Siberry's approach is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely the opposite, for example, of Edward Said's; but one does not have to be an out-and-out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postmodernist, or take to the moral high ground of cultural pluralism, to think that on the evidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material assembled here, a different, if somewhat longer book might have been written in explanation of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. Her title announces, and her material documents, a new phenomenon: a turnover in attitudes from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century disapproval to widespread identification with the Crusades; with the Crusaders; and with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusading itself as a reenactment of the past and a metaphor of the future. Tyerman, in his pithy little book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 47.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of the Crusades)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8571 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is more forthright on the subject of this 'prolonged orgy of self-)] TJ ET BT 343.808 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(congratulation' on the part of Europeans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(riding the crest of a political, economic and scientific wave of success; Siberry counters by emphasizing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuing streak of disapproval; but neither gives a satisfactory answer to the question of why, in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context, the )] TJ ET BT 93.008 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Crusades)] TJ ET BT 138.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The question is all the more relevant since, when we turn to the historiography described in Siberry's first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter, it is apparent that this is the question which the new crusaders were always asking themselves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Theirs is a notably apologetic literature, forever putting the best construction on what the authors invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard as deluded, uncivilised, or downright wicked behaviour. The panoply of excuses begins with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gibbon's opinion \(mentioned by Tyerman but not Siberry\) that the Crusades helped break down the feudal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system, while opening up the economic and intellectual horizon of trade, manufacture and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention. This Whig interpretation of history can be seen endlessly repeated and elaborated in Siberry and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tyerman's authors, where it is extended to cover the preservation of Europe from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim/Turkish/barbarian menace, and hence the march of human progress. Somewhat inconsistently, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also embraces the access supposedly gained by the Crusades to the sciences of the East as a factor in the rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of modern, sc. Western civilisation \(though I rather like the contrary idea that the Fourth Crusade was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required in order to destroy Byzantine art, thus freeing the genius of the West to launch the Renaissance\). On )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a different tack, history as philosophy teaching by example is turned on its head, so that Gibbon's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(condemnation of human folly becomes admiration for the idealism and self-sacrifice of the Crusaders, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(redeeming their many faults. When this notion of idealism is associated with that of 'the people', it returns to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the level of historical explanation, and eventually of historical progress. Thus Cox, writing in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopaedia Britannica)] TJ ET BT 159.668 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, regarded the First Crusade as a combination of popular feeling and religion; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither, said he, in the manner of Ibn Khaldun, could have succeeded without the other. In Wells' )] TJ ET BT 503.084 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Outline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(not considered by Siberry, though surely, in 1920, just within her remit\), this popular demand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents a major step forward for humanity: the Crusades were the first great instance of the common man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moved by common interest for a common cause. Lest any doubt the validity of such justifications, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors' own righteous abhorrence of the Crusaders' misdeeds, these are meanwhile vilified with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable gusto; the heroic Coeur de Lion in particular is as likely to be damned as praised.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two remarks by the author of )] TJ ET BT 179.984 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Crusaders)] TJ ET BT 275.324 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( help to contextualise all this pleading in extenuation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what, to the historians of the nineteenth century, was fundamentally alien and unacceptable behaviour. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siberry's initial caution about the danger of overstating the importance of the Crusades in her period is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matched by her concluding observation that 'it is humbling to a historian to realise the relatively minor part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played \(in the image of the Crusades\) by scholarly analysis based on primary sources'. This was not simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because the British public preferred an image based on Tasso and Scott to a different impression given by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional historians. So far as British historical scholarship was concerned, the Crusades seem to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been of only marginal concern, and little scholarly interest. Tyerman rather more than Siberry makes it clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the primary sources themselves were mainly published in France, while the analysis was largely done in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany. And where on the subject of work published in Britain, Siberry simply quotes an adverse review )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Archer and Kingsford's )] TJ ET BT 162.140 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crusades)] TJ ET BT 228.476 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, he is scathing on the subject of their scholarship at the end of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century. The explanation for such negligence may be glimpsed in )] TJ ET BT 403.952 230.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historians' History of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(World)] TJ ET BT 64.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, edited in twenty-five volumes by Henry Smith Williams and published in London by The Times in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1907. In Volume VIII the unattributed 'History of the Crusades ' cites no authorities later than Mills and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michaud in the first half of the nineteenth century; the text, together with the prefatory essay by the Rev. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William Denton on 'The value of the Crusades in the light of modern history', falls into line with all the rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what Siberry charmingly says 'might be described as serious or semi-serious histories of the crusades', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pointing morals and adorning tales. Among the contributors to the series, if not to this particular volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, was the great T.F. Tout. In his )] TJ ET BT 229.316 130.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Advanced History of Great Britain)] TJ ET BT 395.972 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, first published in 1902, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of the First Crusade is in line with the version of Cox in the ninth edition of the )] TJ ET BT 457.664 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopaedia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britannica)] TJ ET BT 85.352 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; and it is simply, and inexcusably, wrong. Tout's concern, of course, was with the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain; but the passage is symptomatic of his, and others', indifference to the subject of the Crusades. Even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as distractions, they do not figure at all in J.R. Green's Short )] TJ ET BT 325.820 73.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of the English People)] TJ ET BT 467.816 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1874. Green, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admittedly, was concerned with the making of a nation; but so, for that matter, was Walter Scott in )] TJ ET BT 510.956 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ivanhoe)] TJ ET BT 549.608 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7974 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where the Crusades exist not for themselves but almost for the sake of Magna Carta. Throughout Siberry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, their history, in Britain, was left to her apologetic storytellers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Volume VIII of )] TJ ET BT 112.328 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Historians' History)] TJ ET BT 225.572 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is meanwhile remarkable for its juxtapositions. The history of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusades is followed by that of the Papacy, making in milder form the invidious connection between the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Tyerman notes as a feature of Protestant historiography in the seventeenth century. It is preceded by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of the Parthians, Sassanids and Arabs, for which the great German heavyweights of Islamic scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been enlisted: Noldeke, Wellhausen and Goldziher. In the body of the unattributed text, Islam itself is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparaged as derivative, dull, and out of date; but holy war is reserved for defence against attack, not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fanatical aggression, and the account in general is not only very well informed, but notably sympathetic to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arab civilisation. Noldeke himself had previously made a major contribution to the article on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Mohammedanism' in the ninth edition of the )] TJ ET BT 252.668 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopaedia Britannica)] TJ ET BT 378.320 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, where he was joined by the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar Stanislas Guyard; the latter's historical narrative of the Caliphate was extended in the article on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Seljuks' by another major Orientalist, Houtsma. Houtsma's verdict, that the Seljuks not only saved Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from its internal divisions, but promoted its civilisation through 'the intimate union of Persian and Arabic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elements', was notably favourable, and in complete contrast to that of Cox on Islam and the Turks in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion to his article on the Crusades: 'a tyranny that has blasted the fairest regions of the earth'. Between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cox and Houtsma in the )] TJ ET BT 153.680 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopaedia)] TJ ET BT 224.996 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( comes the Rev. Henry F. Tozer on the Greek, sc. Byzantine empire: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Turks may have been destructive, barbarian nomads, but at least from the Eastern point of view, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusaders were an unmitigated evil. On a point of fact, Tozer points out what Cox \(and Tout\) ignore, namely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the role of the Byzantines, and specifically Alexius Comnenus in soliciting, and prompting, the intervention )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Pope.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crusading historiography in Britain thus appears not only apologetic but also isolated from, and well behind, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mainstreams of scholarship at home and abroad. In the context of the nineteenth century, it appears as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to, rather than a cause of the interest in the Crusades which it clearly promoted. Quantitatively, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Siberry says, the interest grew with the size of the audience in an age of increasing literacy and increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel, not least to the Holy Land. Qualitatively, we can begin to see how it took hold in Siberry's chapter on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Scott: how an interest in romance and the Romantic; in chivalry; and eventually in historical fiction as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means, )] TJ ET BT 70.676 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 115.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, to 'please the modern world', transformed his own Gibbonesque sense of the folly and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(savagery of the Crusades into a repertoire of motifs to catch the imagination of a public fascinated by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages as the Romans were by the circus, by the spectacle of the savage other. The use that he made of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them in his phenomenally successful novels was clearly a major factor in the subsequent popularity and high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(profile of the Crusades; but as we can see from )] TJ ET BT 262.628 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New Crusaders)] TJ ET BT 357.968 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Scott had far too many contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be held chiefly responsible for the initial enthusiasm. A full explanation of the rise of the Crusades in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(esteem of the nineteenth century would require a different treatment from Siberry's, most obviously a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological history of the whole rather than the parts of the phenomenon which she documents section by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section. Such a history would, one might hope, explain the connection between the two halves of her subject, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the voyeurism of the arts and the posturing on the part of the new crusaders themselves. We sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the movement from literature to life, and to some extent vice versa, although Siberry is no doubt correct to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insist that the correlation between interest in the Crusades and events in the Middle East was occasional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than reciprocal. But her discrete approach means that we are not really prepared for the eventual union )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the two in the catalytic circumstances of the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be a Whig reinterpretation of Siberry's evidence to suggest that all of her individual instances were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so many roads to this same end. But as we see from her record, in 1914 the Crusades sprang to mind in ways )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which reveal the extent to which they had taken hold of the imagination a century or so after they first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became popular. The instances then listed by Siberry are a measure of the distance travelled from their initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exoticism to this ultimate identification of the present with the past. Each, as she says, may deserve to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treated in its own right; but together they conclude an evolution of which, in her book, we only see the parts. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That evolution was bound up not only with literature but with religion; and it is here that the reader may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detect a serious omission: a separate discussion of the way in which the Crusades were taken up by Church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Chapel in this great age of Christian thought and action. Siberry gives plenty of examples; but amid all )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2053 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her references, ranging from church windows to ecclesiastical warmongers, evangelicals and missionaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only make their appearance under the rubric of 'A Crusade miscellany', to illustrate the way in which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term came to be 'widely used, and one might argue abused', for all kinds of cause, all kinds of campaign. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinterpretation of the Christian warfare of one age by the Christian warriors of another, however, ran right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the establishment; the anti-Islamic historian Cox was the Rev. George William, a high churchman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who nearly became Bishop of Bloemfontein in the front line of the faith in Africa. It was, moreover, of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart as well as the mind. I find no reference in Siberry to the battle songs of the Kingdom, to the soldiers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christ and the Christian soldiers. But in 1914 we can see how easy it must have been for the singers to forget )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they were merely marching as to war. Perhaps Gibbon had a point.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 637.183 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 619.403 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 619.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/193)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 618.009 m 322.316 618.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 593.032 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.632 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1186)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.232 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 618.3235 322.3157 630.2035 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/193) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000592 00000 n 0000000674 00000 n 0000005746 00000 n 0000005855 00000 n 0000005965 00000 n 0000006074 00000 n 0000009635 00000 n 0000009763 00000 n 0000009847 00000 n 0000009912 00000 n 0000017919 00000 n 0000017984 00000 n 0000026608 00000 n 0000026673 00000 n 0000034700 00000 n 0000034784 00000 n 0000036890 00000 n 0000037018 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37113 %%EOF