%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140828181053+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140828181053+01'00') /Title (Royalty and Diplomacy in Europe, 1890-1914) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4480 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Royalty and Diplomacy in Europe, 1890-1914)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The aim of Roderick McLean's book is to assert the continuing importance of monarchs in European politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the decades immediately before 1914. His choice of diplomacy as the sphere in which to test this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition is of course "unfair", since of all areas of governmental activity foreign policy was the one in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the monarchs played the most active role. On the other hand, in these pre-war years foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was immensely important, so if monarchs played a major role in its making then their overall political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance cannot be denied. McLean chooses Britain, Germany and Russia as his case studies on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle that all three were monarchies and great powers. In addition, since these three countries span the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole range of European monarchy from the most constitutional \(Britain\) to the most absolutist \(Russia\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they provide a balanced view of royalty's overall significance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is written against historians who deny the importance of personalities and politics in history, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who stress instead the significance of long-term structural factors. A more specific target are historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern Europe dismissive of the continuing importance of pre-modern elements in politics down to 1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and even beyond. This is to support the argument first put forward twenty years ago by Arno Meyer in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persistence of the Old Regime)] TJ ET BT 179.324 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. An additional target are those historians who more or less deny the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of foreign policy or diplomacy, seeing them as merely the domestic class war waged by other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLean's book is divided into four chapters. The last covers royal visits in Anglo-German relations between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1906 and 1914. The chapter's title, "the limits of dynastic diplomacy", accurately conveys the author's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensible view that these visits had little impact on the relations between the two countries. The surface )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amiability of these visits, and the pomp and circumstance that surrounded them did, however, give a false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(194)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roderick McLean)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(251pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dominic Lieven)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6929 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression to the politically nave \(in other words most of the British population\) that Anglo-German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations were not too dangerously strained and that the concert of royal cousins remained a bulwark of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European peace. In that sense these visits were quite useful to the key ministers in the Liberal government as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they strove to build an anti-German coalition while assuaging their back-benchers' dislike of Realpolitik \(e.g. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the alliance with tsarism\) and fear of war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another conclusion of this chapter is that whatever historians may have felt on the subject, William II had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no doubts about the overwhelming importance of monarchs in the making of foreign policy. His wild and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes hysterical over-estimate of the role played by Edward VII meant, for example, that the failure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckingham Palace to send birthday greetings to the German Empress could spark off panic in William's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind about an impending British attack on his beloved fleet. A foreign policy influenced by someone with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so very skewed an understanding of political realities was bound to be dangerous. Nicholas II overestimated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the power and misjudged the views of some of his fellow monarchs but never to William's grossly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exaggerated degree.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLean points out in his chapter on Anglo-German dynastic antagonism that at the beginning of his reign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward VII was actually less anti-German than British public opinion, just as William was far less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglophobe than most of his subjects. Though Edward's views changed, above all during and after the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moroccan crisis, he usually tried to ensure that his poor personal relations with William did not further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complicate the already dangerously strained relationship between the two countries. The King mattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because of his role in top diplomatic appointments and because he alone had automatic access to his fellow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarchs, and above all Tsar Nicholas. His tact and diplomatic skill helped to reassure both the French and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Russians of Britain's commitment to the entente.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to his relatively modest and surely realistic view on Edward's role, McLean asserts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overwhelming importance of Emperor William in the decline of Anglo-German relations. In his view, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of a formidable navy was the key to this antagonism and the Emperor was both the fleet's main )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backer and the greatest obstacle to any agreement with Britain on the limitation of naval armaments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here one comes to the core of the debate about monarchical power before 1914. Most historians see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany as the greatest threat to European stability in these years and as the country most responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning the July 1914 crisis into a European war. If, as is surely right, the navy was the key issue in Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German antagonism, to what extent was the navy the outgrowth of the Kaiser's personal policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceptions rather than of deeper structural factors? To come to a conclusion on this issue, however, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needs a broader perspective than that of purely diplomatic history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems to me that the enormous growth of German overseas trade in itself made some degree of naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expansion likely. A very important element in German wealth was now vulnerable to interdiction by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Royal Navy in any crisis when London wished to bring pressure on Berlin. Belief in the overwhelming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance of colonies for a great power's survival was very widespread in Europe and the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before 1914. From Herzen and de Tocqueville in the first half of the century to Leroy-Beaulieu and Seeley at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its close, it was very generally believed that only states of continental scale had any chance of holding their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own as great powers in the twentieth century. Mahan put a fashionable naval twist on this common view but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it was in any case clear from the history of the last two centuries that it was far easier to build empire outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe than within it. That was why the great empires had been created by Europe's peripheral powers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spain, Britain and Russia.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the turn of the century, as the Americans grabbed the remnants of the Spanish empire, Britain seized the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geopolitical and economic core of southern Africa and Russia moved forward seemingly inexorably in east )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asia, the Germans had good reason to feel hard-done-by. The calm cheek with which the British and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then proceeded to carve up North Africa, throwing tasty morsels to Spain and eventually Italy while largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ignoring Germany, could justifiably be seen as an affront. Germany's peers seemed to have no inhibitions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about using naked force and aggression to grab control of key areas of the globe. Why should she act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently and how could she assert her right to a place in the carve-up of the world unless she had a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6728 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formidable fleet?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In my view these arguments were at least as important as domestic politics in explaining the building of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German fleet. Nevertheless, it is clear that the navy did play a very useful domestic role from the perspective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Germany's rulers. Since the ruling classes were \(by Russian, Spanish or Italian standards quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unnecessarily\) unprepared to come to terms with Social Democracy and Germany itself was also fractured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along confessional and regional lines, the navy was a very handy means to gain legitimacy for the regime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and create a powerful coalition in support of conservative and liberal-conservative governments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As regards the fleet, it therefore seems to me that there were powerful structural reasons to build it, though I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would place rather more weight on international factors than has generally been done by historians in the last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(four decades. Nevertheless, the unrealistic assumptions about British reactions and German financial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibilities which lay behind the fleet's creation have in part to be blamed on William. Both he and Bulow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply ruled out the possibility of an Anglo-Russian rapprochement because both men were seemingly blind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to how Germany's actions might appear to others. Moreover, once the Triple Entente had become a reality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William did remain a key obstacle to coming to terms with Britain on naval expansion, despite the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly obvious fact that Germany could not afford to match the British construction programme.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly German public opinion was often xenophobic and hysterical, and society was harder to manipulate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lead than had been the case under Bismarck. German society too must take responsibility for the Reich's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing isolation in Europe. This does not mean, however, that the Kaiser had no room for manoeuvre or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he can be absolved of responsibility for the disaster that he brought on his own people and Europe in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914. McLean's basic point, namely that William's personality and role deserve careful study, therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to me correct.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same is true as regards Nicholas II. The obvious example of the tsar's importance as regards foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy is the Tsar's personal role in the outbreak of the Russo-Japanese War. As McLean rightly points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by 1902-3 the ministers of foreign affairs, war and finance would all have settled for a deal with Tokyo that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced concessions over Korea for pre-eminence in Manchuria. It was Nicholas who overruled them, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly because he underestimated the strength and determination of Japan. In addition, although the Emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denied his ministers the possibility to run policy towards Japan, he did not fill the resulting gap himself. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result was delayed and incoherent policy-making which persuaded the Japanese that the Russians were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely playing for time. Since Japan's programme of naval construction was complete by January 1904 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Russia's required another year, this suspicion was natural and was an additional spur to action for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Japanese government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The hole in the centre of government in Nicholas's reign applied to much more than the run-up to the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Japan. Throughout his reign the Emperor remained unable to play the coordinating and policy-initiating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roles of chief executive officer while refusing to allow anyone else to do the job for long. In this he was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscent of Louis XVI. The situation in Germany was not as serious because the chancellor was in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position to coordinate all branches of the civilian government. Even in Germany, however, the emperor's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position as supreme warlord, together with William II's inability to play this role responsibly, did mean that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military and civilian policy was not properly coordinated. This was very important in July 1914 and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more so in the winter of 1916-17.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Japanese Meiji constitution was modelled on that of imperial Germany and shared its weaknesses. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before 1914 coordination and leadership was exercised informally by an extra-constitutional body, the so-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called Genro, or council of Meiji-era elder statesmen. Once the latter had died out, the army, navy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic and domestic political leaderships went their own ways, with disastrous consequences in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s. Given the political traditions of the Hohenzollern dynasty and the great political acumen of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hohenzollern monarchs, it was not wholly unrealistic to expect the Kaiser to act as chief executive officer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his government. Japanese political culture and the traditions of the Japanese monarchy made it inconceivable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that a Japanese emperor should do so.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7027 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even a Frederick II might have found it hard to serve as lifelong head of state and chief executive officer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government under modern conditions, however. Part of the problem lay in the growth of a large, vocal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impatient public opinion, together with parliaments, newspapers and other aspects of civil society through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which it could express itself. Both Nicholas II and William II fell victim to this aspect of modernity in rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar fashion. Politicians who wished to drive the monarch out of active politics used press and parliament )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to expose scandals at court. The Rasputin and Eulenberg affairs had much in common. If the Rasputin affair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved more fatal, that was above all because in Russia political stability rested more completely than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany on the monarchy alone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the turn of the twentieth century government was far bigger and more complicated than had been the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even half a century before. Even if monarchs had been surrounded by the sort of secretariats which support a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary head of government, they would have found lifelong service in this role to be more than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human frame is designed to bear. Contemporary heads of government are professional politicians who prove )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their capacity to bear the rigours of executive office by years of survival and advancement in public life. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even so, very few serve more than a decade in top office. By contrast, not merely was a monarch chosen by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fate and brought up in the very rarefied world of the imperial palace, by the late nineteenth century rules of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succession were strict and palace coups no longer existed \(save in Serbia\) as a means to correct accidents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heredity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An interesting sidelight on this issue is presented by the history of imperial China. There a mature monarch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be able to choose the most competent of his many sons to succeed him on the throne, as the Emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kangxi chose Yongzheng in the 1720s. As Beatrice Bartlett makes clear in her splendid study of Ching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government \()] TJ ET BT 98.336 475.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Monarchs and Ministers. The Grand Council in Mid Chhing China 1723-1820)] TJ ET BT 476.012 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), few monarchs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have equalled either Yongzheng's competence or his devotion to duty. The Emperor faced many decisions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great technical complexity, such as for example the difficulties of projecting and supplying military power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Central Asia, a thousand miles or more from the empire's core. Not coincidentally, Yongzheng died )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively young, commenting that 'one man's strength is not sufficient to run the Empire'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point about China was that here developed the world's oldest and most complicated system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic government. All the frustrations experienced by the last Romanov tsars as they battled with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing bureaucracy had long since been encountered by their Chinese counterparts. However much they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hated their bureaucracy, no Romanov ever went on strike against it as the Ming Emperor Wanli did for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades in the sixteenth century. So perhaps for Nicholas II and William II the problem in this case was less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity than bureaucracy. In fact, parliaments, public opinion and the rule of law offered a monarch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great political skill and flexibility weapons for managing bureaucracy that a Chinese emperor could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possess. But neither William II nor Nicholas II were men of great political skill or mental agility. Moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do them justice, the sheer volume and complexity of government business, not to mention the strain of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(managing increasingly literate and demanding civil societies, made their task even more difficult than that of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yongzheng.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where foreign policy was concerned, however, a monarch could hope to manage the volume of paper and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the officials, and might well feel himself competent to play a leading role. Is Roderick McClean right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore to assert that Nicholas II was the key figure in the making of Russian foreign policy, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically policy towards Germany?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One way to answer this question is to think counter-factually. Could Nicholas II have got away with shifting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy decisively away from the French alliance and towards agreement with Germany? Such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy would undoubtedly have further isolated the regime from educated society, in which Germany was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disliked and the French alliance was popular. A shift would have been opposed by most diplomatic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military leaders. The diplomats saw the French alliance as an essential source of leverage in a continent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overshadowed by German power. The generals viewed it as the foundation of Russian security in the event )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of war. A pro-slav and pro-entente foreign policy was one plank in Stolypin's effort to build bridges to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(educated society after 1906. But the Russian army was basically loyal and apolitical. The public cared far )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 6588 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more about internal than foreign policy in peacetime. Able diplomats and politicians could have been found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who would have supported a rapprochement with Germany.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Therefore it seems plausible to argue, especially before 1905 but probably even afterwards, that Nicholas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have shifted Russian foreign policy back towards Germany for a time at least and survived. Certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he could have tried to do so. This was after all a man who obstinately refused to grant constitutional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions to public opinion and in the process, by 1916, had isolated himself not just from society but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the majority of his own leading civil and military officials. Convinced that autocracy was the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible system of government capable of avoiding social revolution and the empire's disintegration, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nicholas clung to this belief in the face of enormous pressure to change his mind. A major shift in foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy would certainly not have required more obstinacy or moral courage than this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last tsar's critics would no doubt argue that obstinately clinging to his father's line on autocracy was one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thing, possessing the initiative and intelligence fundamentally to change Russia's foreign policy quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. But one should not over-stress the stupidity of Russia's last monarch. There was a perfectly rational )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(though maybe mistaken\) argument that until the socio-economic foundations of liberalism were stronger the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakening of the autocratic police state was very dangerous. Nor are huge, multi-ethnic empires created by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest easily preserved by the free consent of their many nationalities in the modern age.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Equally rational and comprehensible to Nicholas II were the bases of Russian foreign policy bequeathed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his father, which rested above all on the alliance with France. In fact Nicholas never wavered in his support )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the alliance. In the first years of the twentieth century, when relations with Germany were good and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Russian relations at their nadir, Nicholas dreamed at times of turning the Franco-Russian alliance into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a continental league which would include Germany. Serge Witte among other Russians dreamed the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dream. The abortive Treaty of Bjorkoe was the highpoint of this tendency. But when it was pointed out to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tsar that hopes of a continental league were for the moment a chimera and that the price of alliance with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany would be the collapse of the link with Paris, he gave way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It seems to me therefore that there is much truth in Roderick McLean's view of the crucial importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch to Russian foreign policy in general and Russo-German relations in particular. In negative terms, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia's defeat by Japan, for which Nicholas bore major responsibility, undermined the European balance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power and was responsible for many of the tensions that underlay international relations between 1906 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914: Russia's humiliation allowed the Central Powers the opportunity to throw their weight around for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, and then encouraged an enormous and de-stabilising Russian effort to rebuild its armed forces and re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assert its international position.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In more narrow terms, Nicholas was crucial to maintaining the French alliance and then strengthening the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Triple Entente because he kept in power ministers of foreign affairs who supported this policy. Of course the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Emperor played a smaller day-to-day role in policy-making than his foreign minister. But no major policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was initiated without his consent and a monarch capable of sacking and overruling powerful domestic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers would not for a moment have hesitated to do the same when his own views and those of his foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minister diverged. Where the foundations of foreign policy in Europe were concerned this never happened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between 1894 and 1914. As is usually the case in this very interesting and well-researched book, Roderick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McLean is right to argue that while Nicholas wanted good relations with Germany and put up with the often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insufferable William II in the hope of furthering this goal, his basic conception of Russian interests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed him, and therefore Russia, to the French alliance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 120.991 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 103.211 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 103.211 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/194)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 101.817 m 322.316 101.817 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 76.840 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 62.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1189)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 102.1315 322.3157 114.0115 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/194) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 143 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000559 00000 n 0000000641 00000 n 0000005173 00000 n 0000005282 00000 n 0000005392 00000 n 0000005501 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000009190 00000 n 0000009274 00000 n 0000009339 00000 n 0000016321 00000 n 0000016386 00000 n 0000023167 00000 n 0000023232 00000 n 0000030312 00000 n 0000030396 00000 n 0000037037 00000 n 0000037165 00000 n 0000037260 00000 n 0000037325 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37520 %%EOF