%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141002050513+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141002050513+01'00') /Title (Men and the Emergence of Polite Society, Britain, 1660-1800) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4111 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Men and the Emergence of Polite Society, Britain, 1660-1800)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even the most self-pitying modern man, besieged on all sides by the forces emasculation and objectification )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(at least if he believes our Sunday newspapers\), must think themselves lucky not to be forced to practise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult art of eighteenth-century manliness. While a six-pack, a sensitive way with children and the ability )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 'communicate', when combined with a six figure salary and a side line in laddish bonhomie will satisfy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most stringent of modern critics, their eighteenth-century counterpart had to navigate the treacherous waters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'politeness'. When to cry in public, how many flourishes to add to every bow, how to be well dressed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without being a fop, and most difficult of all, how to be sure that you felt 'politeness', felt the sentiments it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was meant to encompass to your very soul, were just a few of the conundrums which exercised eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century men. And while modern men have recourse to the well stocked shelves of their local newsagent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groaning with glossy magazines which recycle month by month the same old articles on exercise, skin care )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sexual technique, eighteenth-century men had to be satisfied with the writings of John Locke, Addison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Steele, Hume, Samuel Johnson and Adam Smith. Fortunately, we are now possessed of a growing and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly sophisticated literature on eighteenth-century manliness which has begun to make sense of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex landscape of gender definition. Philip Carter's contribution to this literature is both timely and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carter charts the content of a new genre of advice literature and cultural guides from its origins in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(195)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 30 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Carter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(582319870X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Hitchcock)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7568 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings of Locke and pre-eminently in )] TJ ET BT 225.320 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Spectator)] TJ ET BT 292.316 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; describing the attempt to refashion Englishmen \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its early incarnations at least, politeness is a resolutely English rather than British phenomenon\), into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new hybrid beast. This new zebra of a man was to be of easy conversation, and of polished \(but not affected\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manners. He was to be able to interact comfortably with both men and women, with both the high and low )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born. He was to be learned, without being pedantic, and able to discuss a wide range of topics, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committing the cardinal sin of expressing a strongly held opinion. He was Mr Spectator.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carter dissects this new breed, describing its urban haunts, and the internal contradictions that plagued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normal men's attempts to acclimatise to its habitats. In the process he gives us perhaps our clearest statement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what it was to be 'polite' in the early eighteenth century. Extending the work of historians such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Klein and Michle Cohen, Carter explores the role of women in the construction of politeness, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which the category of the polite gentleman was at odds with the older construction of the Court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the tradition of courtly manners, and the increasingly demanding character of the 'Citt'. In the process, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carter draws our attention to a range of issues which are of wider interest to historians of the period. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practise of politeness, for instance, particularly in the coffeehouse, is central to the creation of Jrgen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Habermas' 'public sphere'. Carter's exploration of the problems associated with expressing political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious views in a 'polite' manner sheds new light on the tensions that accompanied political discourse in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this formative period. More than this, his explanation of the role of manners helps to re-insert a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class and social division into a historical discussion which has too often been characterised by an apparent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blindness to the boundaries which defined the 'public sphere'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Carter's exploration of the character of the 'fop' addresses directly a large literature on the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of homosexuality which has taken contemporary complaints about fops and foppery as evidence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centrality of effeminate homosexuality to the construction of a new sexual regime. Historians such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Randolph Trumbach have placed concerns around effeminacy at the centre of a meta-narrative in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexual self-identity and homophobia drive the creation of 'modern' sexual categories. By explaining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex inter-relationship between the all-important role of women in the creation of politeness \(a theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most fully explored by Michle Cohen\), and the dangers of effeminacy that this role presented to men, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carter blows apart the easy conflation of foppery and molly house culture. In the process the eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century fop is exposed as a primarily literary concoction, emerging from the Restoration stage, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristics included a perhaps surprising heterosexual adventurism, in combination with the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar characteristics of vanity and behavioural precision. Carter's reassessment is both welcome and long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overdue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But, perhaps the most significant histioriographical contribution made by this book, lies in its discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of 'sentiment' as a central facet of politeness. In a comprehensive and illuminating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the debate surrounding the fourth earl of Chesterfield's, )] TJ ET BT 368.456 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Letters to His Son)] TJ ET BT 454.796 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1774\), and a further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct analysis of the evolution of the notion of the 'sentimental', Carter charts the gradual development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the requirement that, not only should men behave politely, but that they should do so at the behest of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tender inner feeling. In the process, the apparently absurd debates that pre-occupy so many eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century writers about when to cry in public and how to appear at the opera and at a funeral are made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intelligible. And a central link between early forms of politeness and the later extremes of Romanticism is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made manifest.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This discussion is particularly important as it provides a bridge between a narrative that has been explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely in relation to literary criticism, and the development of a parallel set of ideas in an historical context. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The notion of the internalisation of the self, and the rise of the autobiographical subject are core themes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the novel. What Carter provides is a means of linking that development to the actual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, beliefs and writings of individual men. The demands which sentimental politeness made on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual men was that they should become 'men of feeling', should interrogate their motivations, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treasure the nub of emotion which lay inside them. While the fourth earl of Chesterfield might be satisfied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a concept of politeness that was restricted to the self-serving enactment of a dumb show of manners, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vast majority of commentators from the mid-century onwards were certain that the only forms of behaviour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could be truly trusted were those which sprang from an internally consistent, vigilantly examined and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obsessively practised self-hood. In other words, politeness came to place new demands on the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psyche, and provided a template within which men struggled to articulate an emotional, as well as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behavioural landscape. Carter's examination of politeness and its emotional dynamic could well stand for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically consistent psychology of the eighteenth-century, middling sort, male mind. In the process, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helps explain why literary critics find in this period a new kind of individual, newly engaged in the project of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular naval gazing. It helps explain in relatively concrete historical terms, how an 'internalised self' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('autobiographical subject' might be created, and why they should appear when they did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Three quarters of the book is taken up with an examination of the literature produced to guide men through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the troubled journey to polite manliness. In this project Carter is extremely successful, but perhaps the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enjoyable section of the volume comes in the final quarter in which the lives and personal writings of Dudly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ryder, John Penrose and James Boswell are painstakingly dissected. Ryder and Boswell are, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar figures in the pantheon of the polite, but the addition of a study of the less well known John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penrose, along with an approach which highlights the sense of self-construction and anxiety suffered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these men, helps to shed new light on the process of growing up male in the period. And as Penrose is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mature and gouty fifty when he commits his thoughts to paper, these studies also begin to give us access to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very different meanings of politeness for the young and the middle aged.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What emerges is the extent to which individual eighteenth-century men really did worry about their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour. They interrogated their emotions in a way reminiscent of the religious self-obsession of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous century. Now, however, the focus of their anxieties was how to dress and how to cry, how to chat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amiably, and how to interpret affect and eschew affectation. If they appear occasionally absurd and pathetic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this can not take away the real and visceral fear that emerges so strongly from these studies - the fear of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appearing, or rather of )] TJ ET BT 144.308 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(being)] TJ ET BT 170.972 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( a booby and a fop.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In its own terms, therefore, this is a tremendously successful study, which provides a newly consistent story )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for male manners in this period. It unpicks a difficult literature, and gives it a new consistency, packaged for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a broader historical audience. But for this reader it did something more, something that was perhaps not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended by the author, or at least is not treated directly by him. Much of the discussion is couched in general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms, avoiding specificities of class and locale \(although the author is well aware of the limited audience for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the literature he uses\). At the same time 'politeness' as described here must be seen as a part of the creation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a new class identity that was directly driven by the specific economic and social imperatives of eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century urban life. The values which underpin politeness are as much about power as they are about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personality. The ability to appear comfortable in all types of company can be read as a facet of command as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as sociability; while the profound desire to avoid foppery reflects the need to display wealth to one's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social inferiors \(and hence claim authority\) without becoming an object of their derision. In other words, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story of polite male manners is not simply one concerned with a self-serving gentry, but illuminates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharp boundaries of power and authority which were being reconstructed in this period. As much as being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the self, the topic of this volume is the creation of a group of people who could be comfortable ruling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their wives, their estates, their country, the Empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the same time, this material also seems to have specific implications for a more defined political history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The linking of a code of manners, and later a 'code of being', to the coffeehouse and drawing room at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implies an important role for these forms of behaviour in the creation of a new kind of political nation. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a nation in which the 'public sphere' is influential in government decision making, and in which a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchy of politeness \(and hence authority\) can be mapped onto the patchwork quilt boundaries which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make up the eighteenth-century British state. The growing authority of Scotland in the later eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, for example, must in part be seen as a reflection of the success of Scotland's writers in defining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manliness and behaving accordingly. While the relative insignificance of Wales in this same period can in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part be ascribed to the extent to which it was impossible to be both polite and Welsh.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is implied by the history of politeness is a larger narrative of historical development in which the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and class \(defined in both cultural and economic terms\) are in the throws of profound change. If historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have yet to fully contain the subtle inter-relationships that characterise the developments of culture, class and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 1141 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in this period, Philip Carter's work helps provide an important strand in the story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 740.307 m 240.992 740.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 736.975 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 719.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 719.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/195)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 717.801 m 322.316 717.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 692.824 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 678.424 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1191)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.024 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5227)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 740.6215 240.9917 752.5015 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5227) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 718.1155 322.3157 729.9955 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/195) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000004807 00000 n 0000004916 00000 n 0000005026 00000 n 0000005135 00000 n 0000008696 00000 n 0000008824 00000 n 0000008908 00000 n 0000008973 00000 n 0000016594 00000 n 0000016659 00000 n 0000024148 00000 n 0000024239 00000 n 0000025433 00000 n 0000025560 00000 n 0000025660 00000 n 0000025788 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25883 %%EOF