%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722012430+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722012430+01'00') /Title (Nationality and Citizenship in Revolutionary France. The Treatment of Foreigners 1789-1799) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4513 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nationality and Citizenship in Revolutionary France. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Treatment of Foreigners 1789-1799)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To contemporary observers looking back, official French attitudes towards immigrants and resident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners at times appear more than a little ambiguous. While officially espousing a rhetoric of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('inclusiveness', selection and stereotype have nonetheless been common. Although demographic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic considerations have often resulted in a willingness to benefit from foreigners \(particularly during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interwar period\), at the same time suspicion of difference and a fear of cultural dilution have led to police )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveillance and identity card regimes. However, despite this intriguing tension, studies of French attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards immigrants have been sparse, for all historical periods. Michael Rapport's excellent new book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus doubly welcome. In the first instance, it will undoubtedly be of great interest to scholars of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution. As well as providing useful insights into the treatment of foreigners in France during the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1789-1790, it also sheds light on the evolution and process of policy making during this turbulent period. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the book also contains much of value to those seeking to examine issues of immigration, national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity, naturalisation and citizenship in later periods. While the author does not seek to claim that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution determined subsequent attitudes to foreigners, he does argue \(convincingly\) that it helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begin their construction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The work under review began life as a doctoral thesis, and as such is meticulously researched from a wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of sources. However, unlike many published theses, it is also eminently readable. In a manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reminiscent of Foucault's )] TJ ET BT 157.832 83.123 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Discipline and Punish)] TJ ET BT 264.500 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the book opens dramatically with a description of an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(execution, that of the German Anarcharsis Cloots, in March 1794. Thus did the revolutionary government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kill off that 'motley group of extremists' known as the Hbertists, in a move that typified the accelerating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(196)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Rapport)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(390pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Lawrence)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7500 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusion of foreigners from 'key centres of French social and economic life and, above all, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involvement in every level of French politics' \(p.2\). The author then uses a survey of competing theories to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frame the main issue under consideration, namely, how could a Revolution which had 'opened with such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberating promise' scarcely four years earlier, espousing the virtues of 'cosmopolitanism' and mankind's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common humanity, have become so fixed upon the exclusive primacy of national identity. Among others, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers Hannah Arendt's ideas of an inherent tension between the Revolution's promise of universal rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and its demand for the sovereignty of the nation, and Sophie Wahnich's recent work which argues that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the Terror, the revolutionaries actually explained the exclusion of foreigners with reference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(universality of their principles. The interests of humanity were bound up with the fate of France, and hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anyone who could not be readily identified as French was, by implication, 'suspect'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, this is not, primarily, a theoretical work but an empirical study. Rapport seeks to show not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there were contradictions inherent within revolutionary ideology, but that 'there was also a gap between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the revolutionaries said and what they actually did' \(p.15\). He sets out to consider exactly how new the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political structures and practices of the Revolution were, and also to offer some 'tentative remarks [.] on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution's impact on French identity' \(p.16\). After a brief survey of 'The French Idea of the Nation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eighteenth Century', the book comprises of five main chronological chapters, \(with a much shorter sixth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter dealing with the treatment of foreigners under Napoleon Bonaparte\). As with the introduction, each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter opens with an interesting descriptive vignette \(for example, Chapter Four 'The Terror' opens with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrest of Thomas Paine at 3 o'clock in the morning\). The chapters are then further subdivided into sections, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first dealing with the general treatment of foreigners during the period in question, and the others )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consisting of in-depth surveys of the treatment of \(respectively\) foreigners in the armed forces, foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy, foreign political radicals and exiles, and foreign financiers/merchants. This somewhat rigid structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has the advantage that information relating to particularly topics can be easily identified, but does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasionally trammel the free flow of argument and lead to slight repetition, as each sub-section has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summary, which is then often re-summarised at the end of the chapter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter One provides an assessment of the treatment of foreigners in Ancien Rgime France, contending )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'what mattered was not their nationality, but rather the personal ties of service and loyalty between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch and servant' \(p.33\). While the revolution 'presented an ideological challenge to this corporate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society', the author argues convincingly that 'the fundamental pressures which had faced the Ancien Rgime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained the same' and that, for this reason, 'the Revolution witnessed a good deal of continuity from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absolute monarchy in dealing with foreigners' \(p.82\). Chapter Two shows how, even under the optimistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constituent Assembly, the cosmopolitan implications of the Rights of Man were often tempered by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic and military considerations. The revolutionaries were not insincere about cosmopolitanism, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were also patriots. Chapter Three details the way in which the threat, and then reality, of war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributed to changing attitudes. Rapport notes that 'Revolutionary cosmopolitanism became more militant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between October 1791 and March 1793, because of the war' but further claims that 'the period also saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emergence of the more exclusive implications of patriotism \(p.186\) and describes how it was during this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period that 'the structures of surveillance and control associated with the Terror were [.] beginning to take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape' \(p.144\). Chapter Four deals with the Terror itself, and notes that the way in which the 'unprecedented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensity and adversity of the war, combined with internal political and civil strife' \(p.207\) led to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressive exclusion and persecution of foreigners, with some important exceptions \(particularly in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic sphere\). Chapter Five asserts that, although the period following the Terror has been described as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one in which restrictions on foreigners eased, in fact, Thermidorians 'proved more willing to speak )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitan language than to act on it' \(p.260\). The author claims that 'the driving force between this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practical approach, in which inclusion and encouragement was interspersed with surveillance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution, was the ebb and flow of political instability and war' p.314\). He concludes that 'For as long as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France was at war and was dogged by domestic instability, the Revolution would not - and could not - return )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to its earlier, universal promise' \(p.315\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the book, the author thus stresses the way in which the ideology of the Revolution was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually tempered by practical considerations. In the conclusion he notes that 'the revolutionaries were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5002 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic, restraining, even denying, the implications of their principles as circumstances dictated' \(p.336\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While at times this approach leaves little room for the role of genuinely held ideological beliefs, such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic approach to the evolution of policy certainly offers extremely useful insights for historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studying issues of immigration in all eras. Another theme which resonates strongly throughout this work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and which will also be of great interest to historians of later periods, is that of the gradual development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state surveillance and control of foreigners. Rapport notes that 'while the Napoleonic regime retreated from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of the original revolutionary deeds regarding foreigners, it retained and developed the apparatus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveillance and control' \(p.320/1\), although he makes the point elsewhere that, even during the Terror, 'the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities responsible for executing the law were not always as efficient or as sweeping as the decrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves demanded' \(p.255\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the depth of scholarship of this engaging work, any criticism advanced can only be minor. However, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couple of issues can, perhaps, be raised. In the first instance, readers should note that the book only really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deals with what might be termed 'high society'. The groups of foreigners surveyed, and the attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysed, primarily relate to the upper echelons of politics, religious life and the economic sphere. Of course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this, in itself, is not necessarily a problem. However, in the early stages of the book, the author does, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promisingly, extend some analysis to the migrant/labouring poor \(e.g.: p.79, p.88\). This type of analysis is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then notably absent from the later stages of the book. It may well be, as the author notes, that 'For the poorest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners, the Revolution meant little more than business as usual' \(p.130\), but might be argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight of the conclusion, which attempts to make general arguments about national identity - e.g. 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolution of French national identity was [.] as much the result of long-term political, social and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conditioning as it was of the ideology and experience of the Revolution' \(p.330\) - is slightly lessened by this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbalance. In addition to this \(and perhaps as concomitant factor\), it might be noted that while the author has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessed an impressive array of primary sources, these are almost all Parisian. While events outside of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital are occasionally mentioned, they are investigated via the prism of Parisian archives. Again, this focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may perhaps lessen the force of the more general conclusions the author seeks to make.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These minor points aside, Michael Rapport has produced an interesting, concise and nuanced work which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be of interest to a wide range of historians. While there is much research still to be done before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex evolution of French attitudes towards immigrants and foreigners is fully appreciated, this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should prove a major stepping-stone along the way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 328.063 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 310.283 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 310.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/196)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 308.889 m 322.316 308.889 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 283.912 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 269.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1193)] TJ ET BT 34.016 255.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 309.2035 322.3157 321.0835 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/196) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000005233 00000 n 0000005342 00000 n 0000005452 00000 n 0000005561 00000 n 0000009122 00000 n 0000009250 00000 n 0000009334 00000 n 0000009399 00000 n 0000016952 00000 n 0000017036 00000 n 0000022091 00000 n 0000022219 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 22314 %%EOF