%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141219154115+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141219154115+00'00') /Title (Myth and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The Legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5465 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Myth and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Britain: The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth-century English nationalism has been a neglected area of research, as Gerald Newman pointed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in his seminal study,)] TJ ET BT 151.028 337.475 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Rise of English Nationalism: A Cultural History, 1740-1830 )] TJ ET BT 464.384 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1987\). The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarly preoccupations of the last decade have been with )] TJ ET BT 318.944 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British)] TJ ET BT 351.620 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( national identity and its interaction - or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppression - of divergent Celtic nationalisms. The publication of Linda Colley's )] TJ ET BT 424.820 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britons: Forging the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nation, 1707-1837)] TJ ET BT 124.688 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1992\) perhaps rightly focused academic attention on the creation of a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britishness which - in the eighteenth- and early-nineteenth- centuries at least - served to bind the disparate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of the British Isles together. This book explores the relationship between British and English national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities in the nineteenth-century. David Cannadine has suggested that Colley's sense of Britishness had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dwindled, by the end of Victoria's reign, to an interpretation of Britain as England alone, so that British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history was essentially English history writ large.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.004 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.004 222.033 m 284.996 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 284.996 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Barczewksi's study of nineteenth-century perceptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and representations of the legends of King Arthur and Robin Hood offers a case study of the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this Anglicization of the British identity. By the end of Victoria's reign, she argues, Britishness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusive variety Colley pictured was under challenge: a more dominant and racialist form of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity was emerging. This was a definition of Britain as England which left no room for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inclusion of Celtic national identities. You could not longer be British )] TJ ET BT 372.680 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and)] TJ ET BT 390.680 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Scottish, Welsh, or Irish; you )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were British )] TJ ET BT 96.008 137.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and not)] TJ ET BT 132.344 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Scottish, Welsh or Irish.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Barczewki is careful to ensure that her conceptual model of this transition does not blind her to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other aspects of British nationalism. She rightly recognises that national identities of every kind are under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiation in nineteenth-century Britain. National identity is protean, she suggests, adapting itself to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demands of many different audiences. In addition to her argument concerning the gradual transformation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity in the course of the nineteenth-century, she uses the two )] TJ ET BT 387.632 54.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(foci )] TJ ET BT 408.632 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of her research to illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(197)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 June, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephanie L. Barczewski)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rosemary Mitchell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.0037 222.3475 284.9957 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8396 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adaptability of Britishness. While King Arthur and his knights are the natural resource of conservatives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites, and nostalgic romantics, Robin Hood and his Merry Men appeal to working-class audiences and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialists. She pursues this opposition between the chivalrous king and the people's outlaw through chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the development of English studies, ideas about women, and the growth of imperialism. The fact that two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such dissimilar heroes could be simultaneously national icons reflects the ways in which national identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serves and can be made to serve a range of different constituencies. As Barczewski puts it, 'British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalism did not represent a single set of values and ideals, but rather a variety of competing points of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 62.504 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 62.504 695.283 m 76.496 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is the contrasts presented between the two legendary heroes which gives this book its value for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic reader - as well as much of its appeal. As Barczewski herself recognises, Victorian representations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Arthurian legends are hardly an original subject for the historian, the art historian, or the literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar. However, most studies of Robin Hood's legend have had little to say about its nineteenth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manifestations. She draws on a wide range of sources, including accounts of tours, guidebooks, historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(novels, children's story books, poetry, antiquarian journals, and newspaper articles, mixing analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar and well-known texts - such as Walter Scott's )] TJ ET BT 296.468 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ivanhoe)] TJ ET BT 335.120 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Tennyson's )] TJ ET BT 415.604 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Idylls of the King)] TJ ET BT 498.608 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obscure and even the apparently tangential.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Excursions into this last area of the marginal make fascinating reading. The title of J. Lockhart Haigh's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sir Galahad of the Slums)] TJ ET BT 154.688 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1907\), in which a young clergyman embarks on a career in the Liverpool slums, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surely reveals the extent to which Arthur's knights had become household names by the close of the century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barczewski shows how Robin Hood too had become part of the popular consciousness, a key figure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rituals of the most prominent of all friendly societies, the Ancient Order of Foresters. Figures from both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collections of legends were further immortalised, she reflects, in the names of racehorses. The only criticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which can be levelled at the breadth of Barczewski's coverage is her relative neglect of imagery. Although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aware of the work of )] TJ ET BT 136.976 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(inter alia)] TJ ET BT 181.316 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Debra Mancoff and Christine Poulson on paintings of Arthurian subjects, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she rarely considers in any depth representations of the Arthurian legends and still more rarely examines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(images of Robin Hood. Surely greater consideration should have been given to William Dyce's frescoes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects from )] TJ ET BT 102.008 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morte d'Arthur)] TJ ET BT 174.908 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the Houses of Parliament, representations of the legends in a new gothic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(building symbolising the national identity. The implicit promise of the dustcover illustration of Daniel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Maclise's )] TJ ET BT 81.836 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robin Hood)] TJ ET BT 140.168 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1839\) is not fulfilled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barczewski's chapter on the legends of Arthur and Robin Hood and the rise of English studies allows her to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explore the development of an Anglicized sense of Britishness through the creation of a national literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(canon. In this canon - unlike Shakespeare's plays - the ballads of Robin Hood and the Arthurian legends did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not initially command a place. By eighteenth-century standards, the ballads were 'rude' and 'barbarous' - as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too was their hero, whom it was considered wise to present as the disinherited earl of Huntingdon. It took the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early-nineteenth-century development of a picturesque preoccupation with the English landscape and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invention of 'Merrie England' - which has been well analysed recently by Peter Mandler)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.912 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.912 260.115 m 469.904 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.904 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - to convert them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the fabric of national literature. Placing Arthurian legend in a niche within the canon was more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematic - its French and Celtic origins had to be effaced first. But the generation of antiquaries who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could reinvent decorated gothic as an English architectural style were not daunted. The promotion of Sir )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Malory's )] TJ ET BT 120.836 204.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Morte d'Arthur)] TJ ET BT 193.736 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as the foundation text of Arthurian legend gave the myth an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestionably English touchstone. Barczewski's account of the battle between English and Welsh scholars )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for ownership of the Arthurian legend at the end of the nineteenth century sheds light on the breakdown of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the inclusive and reconciliatory sense of Britishness current in the early nineteenth century and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of an increasingly racialist and Anglicized definition of the British national identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barczewski turns next to the unavoidable issue of Teutonism, the development of a commitment to the idea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the English as Anglo-Saxons, part of a wider Germanic racial community destined for supremacy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later-nineteenth-century reinvention of Robin Hood as a Saxon hero, a second Hereward the Wake valiantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resisting the Norman oppressors is effectively contrasted with )] TJ ET BT 333.968 78.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ivanhoe)] TJ ET BT 372.620 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1820\), in which Robin also featured: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Scott's novel, the initial antagonism of Norman and Saxon is diffused by the marriage of the Normanophil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ivanhoe with the doggedly Saxon Rowena. \(Only the Jewish Rebecca remains excluded from this new multi-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 62.5037 695.5975 76.4957 707.4775 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.9117 260.4295 469.9037 272.3095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7856 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial and multi-cultural community and even she is treated with overt sympathy; as Barczewki points out, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this tolerance was replaced by encroaching anti-Semitism by the end of the century\). Once again, Arthur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proves more problematic for the purveyors of national myth. A figure who, if he existed, was a fifth-century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romano-Briton who fought the invading Saxon hordes, and whose legend was associated with the tenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Celtic revival in Wales, was difficult to adopt as a national hero for the descendants of the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxons. Initially reinvented in the early nineteenth century as a symbol of Anglo-Welsh co-operation, by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(end of the century Arthur had been successfully re-interpreted as a Saxon. Such a transformation had been at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a cost: any pretensions to historical accuracy had been jettisoned and Arthurian interpreters such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tennyson had made it clear that they were dealing with the legendary, not the historical, Arthur. Within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context of later-nineteenth-century culture, such a strategy was not unusual: the development of history as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic discipline placed an increasing strain on the creators of popular representations of the past.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barczewski's chapter on women in the Arthurian and Robin Hood legends makes an intriguing addendum to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her portrayal of the class opposition symbolised by Arthur and Robin Hood. She suggests that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrasting treatment of Guinevere, Elaine, and Vivien with that of Maid Marian indicates differing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reactions to Victorian women and their role within the nation. The adulterous Guinevere and the power-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeking Vivien, she suggests, were habitually seen as women who endanger and challenge the nation's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing social and political order, often through the emasculation of its leaders. She perceptively identifies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian portrayals of Vivien with contemporary anxieties concerning prostitution, and in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern over the spread of STDs. Even the relatively innocuous Elaine - the Lady of Shalott - is seen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embody fears about women's interventions in the public sphere. By contrast, Barczewki argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of Maid Marian suggest far more relaxed attitudes to the political, social, and physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation of women. Marian was presented approvingly as a vigorous defender of the nation, alongside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin and the Merry Men. Her independence of mind was seen as the not inappropriate female equivalent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Hood's sturdy defiance of unjust laws. Her physical vigour was linked to the acceptable female sport )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of archery and, Barczewski argues, even the identification of Marian with the end-of-century 'New Woman' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did not really imply criticism of this medieval role model for the active and interventionist woman. Here a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparison between portrayals of Marian and the late-Victorian reputation of that other celebrated medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maid - Joan of Arc - would have strengthened Barczewski's argument. While Joan of Arc became far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively an icon for the suffrage movement - she heads up the list in Millicent Garrett Fawcett's )] TJ ET BT 511.100 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Five )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Famous French Women)] TJ ET BT 149.324 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1905\) and featured in suffrage pageants - Marian's broader popularity may suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes changing in favour \(limited\) emancipation for women among the wider community.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barczewski finishes her study with a consideration of the relationship between British imperialism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representations of Arthur and Robin Hood. In view of the already substantial research undertaken on the uses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Arthurian legend to educate and motivate the servants of empire, she chooses to concentrate on one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme, the pursuit of the Holy Grail. This allows her to suggest that tales of the Round Table did not simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforce the rampant popular imperialism which is so often the subject of studies of the culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism. Treatments of Galahad, Perceval and the ultimate quest by J.H. Shorthouse and S.K. Levett-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yeats reveal, she suggests, 'a pervasive cynicism which reveals the anxieties which plagued British imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavour in the final decades of the nineteenth century' \(p. 223\). While versions of the quest for the Holy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grail reveal dis-ease with the imperial project, Barczewski argues, portrayals of the legend of Robin Hood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were often the vehicles for more direct criticism. Linking Arthurian legends to the sea and British naval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, she argues that the association of Robin Hood with Sherwood Forest makes the legend a platform for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an anti-imperialist, 'Little Englander' agenda. After all - and Victorian audiences did not miss this point - the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parlous condition of Robin's England resulted from Richard I's commitment to the Crusades and Continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars. Moreover, Robin's resistance to tyranny at home often seemed very similar to the activities of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence activists \(both fictional and actual\) who had fallen foul of the British imperial authorities. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the close of the century, Robin's function as )] TJ ET BT 247.148 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vox)] TJ ET BT 266.804 116.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(populi)] TJ ET BT 297.476 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( made him a standing argument for late-nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century opponents of imperialism in the socialist and radical camps.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contribution which Myth)] TJ ET BT 175.676 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( and National Identity)] TJ ET BT 281.348 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( makes to debates about British and English national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities in the nineteenth-century is a substantial one: Barczewski rightly draws attention to the importance )] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 28 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Length 3121 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a wide range of cultural productions in the formation of Victorian national identities - and also to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal tensions between varying interpretations of both national identity and the mythical figures seen to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embody it. Well-presented, well-argued, and very readable, this is an important book for scholars of both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century culture and nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cannadine, 'British History as a 'new subject': Politics, perspectives and prospects', in A. Grant and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(K.J. Stringer, eds., Uniting the Kingdom? The Making of British History \(London, 1995\), p. 16.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 524.996 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 524.996 672.531 m 552.656 672.531 l S BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 658.275 m 90.344 658.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 645.418 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(S. Barczewki, )] TJ ET BT 134.000 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Myth and National Identity in Nineteenth-Century Britain: the Legends of King Arthur )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(and Robin Hood)] TJ ET BT 143.348 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 2000\), p. 9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 245.996 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.996 629.763 m 299.984 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 616.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Mandler, 'In the Olden Time': Romantic History and the English National Identity', in L. Brockliss )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and D. Eastwood, eds., )] TJ ET BT 177.332 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Union of Multiple Identities: The British Isles, c. 1750-c. 1850)] TJ ET BT 487.652 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Manchester, 1996\), pp. 78-92.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.316 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.316 586.995 m 283.304 586.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 562.133 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 543.151 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 525.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 525.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/197)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 523.977 m 322.316 523.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 499.000 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.600 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1195)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.200 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 524.9957 672.8455 552.6557 684.7255 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 658.5895 90.3437 670.4695 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 245.9957 630.0775 299.9837 641.9575 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.3157 587.3095 283.3037 599.1895 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 524.2915 322.3157 536.1715 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/197) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000602 00000 n 0000000691 00000 n 0000006208 00000 n 0000006317 00000 n 0000006427 00000 n 0000006536 00000 n 0000010097 00000 n 0000010225 00000 n 0000010309 00000 n 0000010338 00000 n 0000010466 00000 n 0000010502 00000 n 0000010593 00000 n 0000019042 00000 n 0000019072 00000 n 0000019198 00000 n 0000019234 00000 n 0000019264 00000 n 0000019392 00000 n 0000019428 00000 n 0000019493 00000 n 0000027402 00000 n 0000027514 00000 n 0000030688 00000 n 0000030816 00000 n 0000030871 00000 n 0000030997 00000 n 0000031052 00000 n 0000031180 00000 n 0000031235 00000 n 0000031363 00000 n 0000031418 00000 n 0000031546 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 31641 %%EOF