%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 24 0 R 41 0 R 61 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140918033622+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140918033622+01'00') /Title (Splendid Isolation? Britain, the Balance of Power and the Origins of the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4421 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation? Britain, the Balance of Power and the Origins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Charmley is, of course, no stranger to controversy.... How tempting it would be to begin a review of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latest book in this vein. Indeed, one suspects that Professor Charmley must be only too aware that his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation as a trenchant Conservative \(with a very capital C\) controversialist all too often overshadows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substance of his arguments. Unsurprisingly, then, most reviewers have focused on the final third of )] TJ ET BT 512.612 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Isolation)] TJ ET BT 76.688 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(?, in which Charmley deals with the fateful decision of the Asquith Cabinet to join the ensuing war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the continent in August 1914. Certainly to this reviewer's mind, this is the most problematical aspect of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. Nevertheless, this foreshortening of the perspective is somewhat unfortunate, for )] TJ ET BT 472.268 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(? is a book of some considerable scholarly erudition and merit, and has more to offer than a revisionist take )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on '1914'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having said that, this is not an easy book to review. First of all, its title is slightly misleading. This is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily a history of British foreign policy from Disraeli's second administration to the outbreak of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War. Charmley's chief interest is rather in what he calls a Conservative, or 'Country Party', foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy tradition. Secondly, especially in the first part of the book, he deals less with the actual course of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British diplomacy than with the politics of British foreign policy, that is the influence of diverse groups and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals within the Cabinet on policy-making. It is here, in its 'high politics' approach, that the book's real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strength lies. Broadly speaking, the book falls into three parts, the first of which deals with the problems of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British foreign policy under the auspices of the awkward Disraeli-Derby tandem. This is followed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(198)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Charmley)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(340657901X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(525pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hodder and Stoughton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas Otte)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7963 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survey of Lord Salisbury's long and unruffled ascendancy over Britain's foreign relations, and its sequel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under Lord Lansdowne. As almost a kind of anti-dote, the final part of the book is devoted to what Charmley )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sees as Edward Grey's gratuitous over-committing of this country to France and Russia, and his subsequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blundering into war.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first glance, )] TJ ET BT 108.668 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation?)] TJ ET BT 202.340 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may strike the reader as curiously old-fashioned. In parts, it is almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macaulay-esque in its partisanship \(- though, of course, Professor Charmley sends his shock troops into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle under the banner of a quite different political colour\). John Charmley has his heroes and villains, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he presents his tale with great verve and punch. And yet, it is not quite as old-fashioned as it might appear. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of Britain's foreign relations in )] TJ ET BT 242.492 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation?)] TJ ET BT 336.164 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is not of the 'what-one-clerk-said-to-another' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(variety, and this is not just because clerks do not feature very prominently in this book - in sharp contrast to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Tapers and Tadpoles of the Tory party. In its first part, John Charmley offers a shrewd analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing dynamics within the Disraeli Cabinet, especially the Earl of Derby's attempts to rein in Disraeli's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forays into foreign policy, though he perhaps underestimates the importance of the 'secret committee' formed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Disraeli, Salisbury and Cairns, the Lord Chancellor, in late 1877 to by-pass Derby. Sadly, however, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shall probably have to bid farewell to the myth of Lady Derby's romantic attachment to Russia's ambassador )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Count Pyotr Shuvalov as the main source through which St. Petersburg learnt about policy debates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Downing Street. Sir Stafford Northcote, whose historical reputation never really recovered from his mauling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Randolph Churchill and other Tory back-benchers in the 1880's, emerges as the crucial ball-bearing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kept together the disparate groups in the Cabinet; and Lord Salisbury appears a little bit more scheming and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambitious than his biographers have been prepared to concede. Moreover, by emphasizing the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy traditions, Charmley has identified an important, though perhaps somewhat unduly neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspect of international history. To some extent, indeed, he seeks to do for 'authentic' conservatism what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A.J.P. Taylor did for the dissenting tradition in his )] TJ ET BT 278.684 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Trouble Makers)] TJ ET BT 355.676 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Following in the footsteps of John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vincent, Charmley particularly seeks to vindicate Derby's policy. He argues convincingly that Derby's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passive attitude during the Great Eastern Crisis of 1875-8 was not so much a reflection of his flabby and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phlegmatic personality, as has often been argued \(- and which he undoubtedly had\); but that he was shaped )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the core beliefs of the insular 'Country Party' tradition in which he was so firmly rooted. According to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charmley this tradition 'had been ill-disposed towards too great an intervention in European affairs and had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tried to avoid expensive commitments abroad' \(p.23\). This was not merely a question of values but also of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-interest, as Charmley rightly points out, for the expenses of war would have to be borne by the squires )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the large landowners \(of whom, it ought to be noted, the Lancashire magnate Derby was one, and by no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(means the least significant\) \(p.114\). All of this makes good sense, and it opens up avenues for further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. Yet, it is unfortunate that Charmley confines himself to a few en passant remarks on this subject. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is perhaps a slightly unfair criticism because it is essentially a request for more, in what is already a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weighty tome of some 400-odd pages of text and another 100 pages of footnotes. Nevertheless, the roots and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principal tenets of this Conservative tradition are not as clearly worked out as one would have wished. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reference is made to the Tories' seventeenth century 'Country Party' roots, though the real influences are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably to be found in Canning or Aberdeen \(p.23\). Indeed, one is left wondering whether this 'tradition' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not perhaps more a reaction against the huge financial burden imposed on the country by the Great War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against revolutionary and Napoleonic France. Also, given the interaction between economic self-interests of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the land-owning aristocracy and its foreign policy preferences one would have wished for Professor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charmley to pursue this topic a little further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Derby is the unlikely hero, then Disraeli is clearly the villain of the piece. Although he pays respect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Disraeli's political courage, the latter emerges as the sort of exotic adventurer his contemporary critics held )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to be. For Charmley, Disraeli was a Palmerstonian without Pam's moral concerns. Indeed, he contends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the combination of Disraeli's populist instincts, geopolitical awareness, and his cynical irresponsibility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drove the country to the brink of war with Russia. It may have become unfashionable to defend Disraeli, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one wonders whether his many detractors on the Conservative right have not perhaps been taken in by his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theatrical bombast and seemingly blas cynicism. If he played to the gallery at home, he did so because he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had understood better than Derby that public opinion could no longer be ignored in the conduct of foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affairs. As his successor as Conservative leader, Lord Salisbury, noted many years later, success in foreign )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8338 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy depended on 'the swing of the pendulum at home.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 307.640 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 307.640 795.075 m 321.632 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.632 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was perhaps the most important lesson he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learnt from Disraeli. Moreover, the risks Disraeli was prepared to take were calculated ones. Russia, still not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recovered from the Crimean War over twenty years previously, was in no state to wage war; her alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the two other Eastern monarchies, Germany and Austria-Hungary, was built on flimsy foundations; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that Disraeli kept open the diplomatic channels to the other great powers ensured that the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government could exert pressure by playing on the differences between the other powers, without having to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resort to military force. It was a conjuring trick, but it was effective. John Charmley rightly points out that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in terms of Britain's international standing, the achievements of the Disraeli-Salisbury duo at the Berlin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Congress in July 1878 did not last long. But then it is, perhaps, illusory to assume that any kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permanence can be achieved in international politics. Indeed, thoughtful, intelligent and convincing as his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of the high politics dimension of foreign policy is, Charmley's book is hampered by what strike me )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as two blindspots. First, the exclusive focus on political actors comes at the price of neglecting the role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played by the Foreign Office and Britain's diplomats abroad. This is not to advocate old-fashioned 'what-one-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clerk-said-to-another'-ism. But leaving the clerks out altogether means that the reader does not get a sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derby or any of his successors as operators within the Whitehall machinery. It also means that the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains unaware of the extent to which, for example, Disraeli relied on Lord Tenterden, the permanent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under-secretary of the FO, for advice, or later Salisbury let himself be guided by the ambassador at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople, Sir William White, during the Bulgarian crisis of 1885 \(when Salisbury performed what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared to be a volte face\). A notable exception, though, is John Charmley's accurate emphasis on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influence Sir Thomas Sanderson exercised as PUS between 1894 and 1906. Secondly, by relying on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thumbnail sketches of foreign leaders such as Bismarck, Andrssy or Gorchakov, deftly executed and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peppered with witty aperus though they are, John Charmley does not convey fully the dynamics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international diplomacy, the background influences shaping the policies of the other great powers, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's interactions with them. Now, )] TJ ET BT 219.836 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation?)] TJ ET BT 313.508 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, of course, a book about British foreign policy. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But Charmley's approach has the unfortunate consequence of making international politics appear as some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort of unwelcome intrusion of foreign problems into the orderly course of British affairs. Thus, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bismarck's approach to Britain in 1879 remains mysterious because Austria's desire for close cooperation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Britain in addition to the contemplated dual alliance with Germany is not explained properly.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.640 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.640 410.163 m 519.632 410.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the long and detailed examination of the Disraeli period, the Gladstone-Granville stewardship of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's external relations between 1880 and 1885 is dealt with in one-and-a-half chapters \(- the Rosebery-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kimberley interlude of 1892-5 fares even worse, crammed into two brief paragraphs\). This underlines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charmley's overall concern with the Conservative tradition in foreign policy, but it does less than justice to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Liberals' two spells in government. Charmley is undoubtedly right to be critical of Gladstone's idealistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notions about a renewed Concert of Europe and of his 'invertebrate dithering' during the Egyptian crisis in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1882 \(p.185\). But at no stage does his analysis here reach the level of sophistication and insight displayed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier part of the book. By contrast, he is on much firmer ground with Lord Salisbury who virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated British foreign policy from 1885 to 1902. Charmley very neatly and persuasively outlines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury's approach to foreign policy. His Salisbury is very much a recognizable historical figure, flexible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patient and eschewing as much as possible European entanglements and commitments; someone who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more in common with Derby than is often thought, but who adapted Conservative foreign policy to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed international circumstances, not least because he accepted the burdens of Empire. Charmley very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rightly stresses the fact that the term 'isolationism' does not satisfactorily capture the nuances and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtlety of Salisbury's diplomacy. It would be difficult to fault John Charmley's scholarship and his grasp of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Salisbury period, though occasionally it seems that he overestimates the strength of Salisbury's position )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in international diplomacy. The crucial difference between him and Derby was that Salisbury accepted that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British interests could only be secured on the marketplace of European politics, and that meant treating with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the continental powers. True, Bismarck met his diplomatic match in Salisbury, as Charmley demonstrates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very well in the context of events in 1886-7 \(p.219\). But this should not be construed into an assumption of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury's strength. Salisbury needed Bismarck, and indeed was forced into making barely palatable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concessions in Zanzibar in return. Similarly, Charmley's account of the genesis of the Mediterranean )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreements with Italy and Austria-Hungary in 1887 is very thorough and persuasive. But he never comes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grips with the background to the agreements, the ongoing 'duel' for control over each other between )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 307.6397 795.3895 321.6317 807.2695 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.6397 410.4775 519.6317 422.3575 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R 30 0 R 33 0 R 36 0 R 39 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 8444 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bismarck and Salisbury, two players whose respective international position was weakening. It is, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regrettable that Charmley does not properly explore Bismarck's 1889 alliance offer or the Anglo-German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial agreement respecting Zanzibar of the following year. On the whole, Charmley seems less sure-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footed when dealing with the Unionist Cabinet of 1895-1902. It is rather doubtful that Chamberlain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury's main antagonist already at the formation of the new government in 1895 when most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary sources still indicate the reverse.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.964 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.964 723.795 m 273.956 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.956 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Whereas Charmley displays considerable forensic skill in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disentangling the skeins that constituted the politics of foreign policy in the late 1870's, he does not really )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fully grasp the extent to which Lord Salisbury's last Cabinet grew increasingly impatient with his conduct of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy, and the extent to which Chamberlain was later able to manipulate this growing sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration. A case in point is Charmley's reconstruction of the Cabinet discussions at the height of the Far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastern crisis in February and March 1898, which he rightly identifies as crucial. His contention that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury was opposed to Britain following the Russia and Germany by acquiring territory in China; that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chamberlain was in favour; and that Curzon, Salisbury's parliamentary under-secretary, opposed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(premier, is not borne out by the extant archival evidence. Ironically the reverse was the case: Chamberlain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opposed the lease of the Wei-hai-Wei naval base, whereas Salisbury and Curzon favoured it.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 478.904 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 478.904 595.491 m 492.896 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But this is very much a momentary lapse. Charmley very briskly and accurately summarizes Chamberlain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in the abortive Anglo-German alliance talks in 1898 and again in 1901. The other great merit of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, in addition to his re-examination of Derby's diplomacy, is his treatment of Landsdowne's unduly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neglected foreign-secretaryship. Charmley rightly stresses the continuity between Salisbury and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successor at the FO \(- though he does perhaps underestimate the extent to which Lansdowne was 'his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man'\). Lansdowne's foreign policy was not about alliances per se, but about reducing the burden of Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial commitments. Ironically, as Charmley points out, the Anglo-Japanese alliance of 1902 provided 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisburian ... answer to the problem of how best to safeguard British interests in the Far East', even though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salisbury himself opposed this combination \(p.295\). Similarly, he rightly stresses the nature of the entente )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with France as limiting imperial over-stretch, as well as the link between this agreement and a possible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement with Russia which Lansdowne, Balfour or Cromer had hoped for. His treatment of Lansdowne's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deft diplomacy during the first Moroccan crisis of 1905, giving only vague assurances to France whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensuring that France and Germany would not come to a deal at the expense of British interests, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly convincing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the third and final part of )] TJ ET BT 170.324 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation?)] TJ ET BT 263.996 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Charmley turns to Sir Edward Grey's diplomacy which, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues, committed Britain ever more closely to France and Russia against Germany as a power with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Napoleonic' aspirations. The Grey who emerges from these pages was inflexibly wedded to the idea of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintaining in the long term what had originally been conceived of as a temporary diplomatic instrument, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entente with France \(p.339\). In Charmley's reading, Grey was also inflexible in his dealings with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and plainly wrong-headed in his regarding the Austro-German Dual Alliance as quasi-monolithic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.354\). He rashly committed this country to intervening on the side of France in the event of a continental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. Grey thus occupies a place in Charmley's rogues' gallery alongside Disraeli and Winston Churchill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pp.400-1\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.004 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.004 243.603 m 101.996 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.996 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( All three burdened Britain with continental commitments in Europe, and made her, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words of a more recent Foreign Secretary, 'punch above her weight'. In doing so, Charmley argues, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helped to bring about the decline of this country in the twentieth century. The decision for war in 1914 was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then, the most fatal one in a series of political blunders from the late 1870s to 1939.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These are bold claims. They echo some of the arguments advanced recently by Niall Ferguson, though )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thankfully in this thoroughly researched and intelligently argued book the reader is spared the inanities to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which Ferguson treated his readers.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 204.308 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 204.308 146.067 m 218.300 146.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 218.300 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless there are a number of problems, partly conceptual and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partly interpretative. The underlying thesis of Charmley's book queries the appropriateness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('continental commitment' as Britain's true strategy \(p.2\). In so doing, Charmley takes on a whole phalanx of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, among them Michael Howard and Paul Kennedy, who argued that the best means of protecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's imperial interests was to prevent any one power from dominating the continent of Europe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 509.780 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 509.780 89.043 m 523.772 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 523.772 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some extent Charmley is, of course, quite right: the principal concern with European diplomacy, and Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German relations more especially, has led to the neglect by historians of the geostrategic periphery in great )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.9637 724.1095 273.9557 735.9895 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9037 595.8055 492.8957 607.6855 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.0037 243.9175 101.9957 255.7975 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 35 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 204.3077 146.3815 218.2997 158.2615 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 509.7797 89.3575 523.7717 101.2375 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 44 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R 57 0 R 59 0 R ] /Contents 42 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Length 9038 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power politics. Given that Britain's imperial interests lay in the periphery, this neglect is deplorable. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, Charmley himself focuses almost entirely on Britain's European involvement, without elucidating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the interaction between developments in the periphery and the \(European\) centre of international politics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, to my mind, )] TJ ET BT 125.360 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation?)] TJ ET BT 219.032 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fails to make sufficiently clear how and why successive Foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secretaries, including Salisbury and Lansdowne, thought it imperative to safeguard Britain's imperial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interests through limited engagements with other great powers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This leads me to his treatment of Grey. John Charmley charges him with rashly tying Britain to France and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though to a lesser extent, Russia. He praises Lansdowne for refusing to support France in during the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages of the Moroccan crisis in 1905, and blames Grey for indulging in casuistry in his dealings with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French during the final phase of the crisis \(pp.322 and 336\). Essentially, though, both men were pursuing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same objective, viz. to prevent the French from caving in to German pressure and come to a separate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement with Berlin, possibly at the expense of Britain. Did Grey, then, pay more attention to the spirit of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entente than its details, as Lansdowne did \(p.332\)? Perhaps, so. More significantly, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international scene had changed fundamentally. Russia's defeat in the Far East in 1905 had also, at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(temporarily, shifted the European balance of power in Germany's favour. More was therefore required to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage France to remain firm, though the assurances given to Cambon were still too vague for the Quai )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(d'Orsay's liking. One would have liked to read more about John Charmley's assessment of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomacy during the crisis, including also the discussions about the possibility of a preventive war against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France. This touches upon a more fundamental problem concerning Professor Charmley's reading of German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy and strategy. He is right to point that 'the skies had not fallen in and civilization had not ended' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(following France's defeat in the war of 1870 in which Britain remained neutral \(p.2\). Perhaps the skies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would not have fallen in 1914 either, had Britain remained aloof from the war on the continent. But the skies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been dark with thunder-clouds. The Kaiser's Germany of 1914 was not the same any more as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(altogether more moderately ambitious Prussia of Bismarck in the late 1860's. Germany had a large navy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was clearly poised against Britain; she had colonial aspirations; government-orchestrated nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was rife in Germany; she was increasingly unpredictable, and to no small degree the cause of the pre-1914 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('l'inquitude de l'Europe'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.976 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.976 412.419 m 168.968 412.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 168.968 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On the whole, Charmley tends to underestimate the aggressive nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German policy in the years before 1914, which even the critics of Fritz Fischer now concede.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.580 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.580 398.163 m 495.572 398.163 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Splendid Isolation?)] TJ ET BT 127.688 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a thoroughly researched, intelligently argued and very well written book, that is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure to read. In it John Charmley has offered a series of thought-provoking and useful re-interpretations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially of the Derby and Lansdowne periods; and it is to be hoped that this book will contribute to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revival of interest in nineteenth century international history. But his critique of the fateful decision for war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1914 seems overdrawn, and is ultimately focusing on the wrong question. It was not the decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervene in the war that caused Britain's problems in the later twentieth century, but the inept and wasteful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military leadership during the Great War. His scolding of Liberal statesmen is good knock-about stuff, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately detracts from the substance of his argument. Too often one wonders whether John Charmley is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not too much influenced by current debates about the future direction of this country vis--vis EU-rope, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about current woes of contemporary conservatism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E de Groot, 'Great Britain and Germany in Zanzibar: Consul Holmwood's Papers, 1885-7', in )] TJ ET BT 513.440 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(of Modern History)] TJ ET BT 153.344 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol.xxv, no.2 \(1953\), pp.135-6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 309.668 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 309.668 163.827 m 363.656 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. Kluke, 'Bismarck and Salisbury: Ein diplomatisches Duell', in )] TJ ET BT 377.000 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historische Zeitschrift)] TJ ET BT 484.676 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vol.clxxv, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no.2 \(1953\), pp.285-306.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 184.004 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 184.004 135.315 m 237.992 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. Lady F. Balfour, )] TJ ET BT 165.008 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ne Obliviscaris: Dinna Forget)] TJ ET BT 312.668 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(2 vols., London: Hodder and Stoughton, s.a.\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vol.ii, pp.270-1.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.020 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.020 106.803 m 195.008 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(T.G. Otte, 'Great Britain, Germany and the Far-Eastern Crisis of 1897-8' in )] TJ ET BT 426.944 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review,)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vol.cx, no.439 \(1995\), pp. 1157-79.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 234.668 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 234.668 78.291 m 288.656 78.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 65.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cf. J. Charmley, )] TJ ET BT 146.012 65.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Churchill: The End of Glory)] TJ ET BT 282.680 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 471.008 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 471.008 64.035 m 524.996 64.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 51.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. 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