%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 25 0 R 30 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140923234553+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140923234553+01'00') /Title (Helmuth von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5111 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Helmuth von Moltke and the Origins of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Research into the origins of the First World War, like the work undertaken on most controversial historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topics, is subject, at least to some extent, to the dictates of scholarly fashion. Thus, it was that, not so long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago, much of the writing on this issue focused on the cultural factors that, it is said, predisposed the people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Europe to rush headfirst towards the precipice. The role of such amorphous ideas as personal or national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honour, male desire, or even the enthusiasm for sacrifice implicit in the discordant music and jarring ballet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Stravinsky's prophetic )] TJ ET BT 156.500 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Frhlingsopfer)] TJ ET BT 229.172 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Rite of Spring\) all attracted their share of historical attention, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to the profit of our overall understanding of the roots of this conflict.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.308 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.308 257.673 m 407.300 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.300 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In recent years, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention has shifted away from such areas and there has emerged, instead, a considerable reawakening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in the possibility that it was military and strategic factors that precipitated the outbreak of war in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914. Examples of major scholarly works in this field abound. Thus, for instance, David Herrmann and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Stevenson have both evaluated the impact that competition in armaments had on great power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations. Niall Ferguson has scrutinised the economic and fiscal bases of national armed rivalry. Jack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Snyder and Stig Frster have examined the destabilising role of those military doctrines that emphasised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offensive battle tactics and short wars. John Maurer has explored the place of deterrence and deterrence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure in the international system. And, in Holger Afflerbach's study of Erich von Falkenhayn, we have seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a major re-evaluation of the part played in promoting conflict by one of the key military figures of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 67.676 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 67.676 115.113 m 81.668 115.113 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 81.668 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is this historiographical context - viz. a growing and vibrant revitalisation of military history - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which provides the backdrop to Annika Mombauer's new monograph on Helmuth von Moltke, the younger. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is against this rich literature that her work on Imperial Germany's last peacetime Chief of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Staff and first military leader of the Great War must be located and evaluated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(199)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Annika Mombauer)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(521791014X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Seligmann)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.3077 257.9875 407.2997 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 67.6757 115.4275 81.6677 127.3075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7833 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should be clearly stated at the very outset that, while the field of military history in which Dr Mombauer's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study is situated is a growing one - possibly even becoming a crowded one - this in no way detracts from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that hers is a book of the utmost importance. To some extent, this reflects the nature of her topic. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(younger Moltke is a figure just crying out for systematic study and careful re-evaluation. For, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding the importance of his position as the strategic head of Europe's most influential military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, his career has not been subject to the detailed investigations that have been made of his more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colourful or illustrious contemporaries. Indeed, he has generally been marginalised by historians, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom have all too readily accepted the negative portrait of Moltke painted after his death by those of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow generals looking to find a scapegoat for Germany's failure to win a quick victory in the First World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War. Accordingly, in much of the literature Moltke is depicted as an unremarkable man and as a weak and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ineffectual leader, whose main contribution to German national life was to undermine his country's chances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of military success in 1914. So pervasive has been this trend that, in recent years, only Arden Bucholz has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered any new insights into Moltke's performance as a military commander. However, as this was done as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of a broader study of the Prussian Great General Staff and its work across several decades, Bucholz's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book could not - and, indeed, did not - single out Moltke for special examination.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 424.316 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 424.316 583.491 m 438.308 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.308 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Thus, in producing this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new monograph - a study that focuses solely and exclusively on Moltke and his role - Dr Mombauer has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remedied this glaring deficiency in the historical literature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, the fact that she has produced a forensic study of a neglected figure, would not, in itself, make her book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so remarkable, were it not for the fact that her research relentlessly undermines most of the existing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preconceptions that surround her principal subject. If historians have generally ignored the younger Moltke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the past on the grounds of his lack of influence, Dr Mombauer's findings will certainly ensure that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receives a good deal more attention in the future. For, she proves quite conclusively that Moltke was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsequential figure that we have generally been led to believe. On the contrary, the Chief of the Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General Staff possessed considerable influence over Kaiser Wilhelm II and was also able to impress his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views strongly upon several leading civilian politicians in Germany's so-called 'responsible government', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Imperial Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg and State Secretary at the Foreign Office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gottlieb von Jagow.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, that he had access to such people and was able to exercise his powers of persuasion upon them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was no trivial matter because, as Dr Mombauer conclusively shows, Moltke was an ardent warmonger )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined to ensure that Germany resorted to the )] TJ ET BT 277.964 347.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ultima ratio regis)] TJ ET BT 361.976 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( at the very earliest suitable occasion. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Consequently, he took full advantage of his proximity to both the Kaiser and the Chancellor repeatedly to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proffer military information and specialist advice that was geared to persuading them that the policy of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German Reich should be to engineer a European war as soon as possible. To this end, during his tenure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(office, and particularly in the years from 1912 to 1914, he ceaselessly informed them that the armaments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(programmes of Germany's enemies were such that, while the Reich was in a favourable position to back up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its foreign policy by a resort to arms )] TJ ET BT 211.328 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(at that time)] TJ ET BT 266.000 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, after 1916 this could no longer be done with any guarantee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of success. War, if it were to come, he insisted, had to come immediately, while it was still likely to end in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German victory. Wait too long - even as short a span as two years - and Germany would be vulnerable to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies and unable to enforce its demands. This was a message that, as Dr Mombauer demonstrates, had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(telling effect on German foreign policy, especially in the summer of 1914.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And yet, it was not the mere fact that he was pushing for war that makes Moltke interesting, so much as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact that he advocated a conflict in defiance of his own fears about the likely outcome of such hostilities. For, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Moltke proclaimed the need for an immediate resort to arms loudly and repeatedly to the senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policymakers in the German government, it is, nevertheless, quite clear from Dr Mombauer's work that he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually harboured very considerable doubts about the validity of the advice that he was giving. Despite all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his professions that Germany had to go to war soon because the 'favourable' military circumstances in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Reich then found itself would inevitably fade away, the Chief of the Great General Staff )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nevertheless expected the coming war, even if it were to be launched immediately, to be a long and arduous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one. Indeed, he was painfully conscious that in an age of 'people's wars', conflict between great powers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pitted not only armies, but entire populations and economies against each other, had the potential to lead the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 424.3157 583.8055 438.3077 595.6855 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 28 0 R ] /Contents 26 0 R >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Length 7513 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combatants to financial ruin, and would almost certainly be of prolonged duration. Yet, he never shared this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(knowledge with Germany's civilian politicians, even though he was aware that they expected a future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European war to last months rather than years. Moreover, this decision to keep his fears to himself was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate one, for he knew full well that Germany's political leaders would only accept his logic about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desirability of war if they were unaware of what the reality entailed. Such was the 'criminal irresponsibility' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his actions: he promoted a war that he was far from certain could be won by deliberately creating false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations of the likely outcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a result of all the evidence that she has uncovered - and it must be acknowledged that the archival base of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this study is very impressive - it is none too surprising that Dr Mombauer concludes that the younger Moltke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a significant part in causing the First World War. It was, after all, his misleading expert advice and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constant badgering that created the strong belief among German leaders that war was a viable option that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they had to seize in the here and now or forego forever. As Kurt Riezler, the chancellor's private secretary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded retrospectively in 1915 \(p.212\): 'Bethmann can blame the coming of the war . on the answer that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moltke gave him.. He did say yes! We would succeed.' This is not to absolve the Reich's political leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from their share of responsibility for the war. As Dr Mombauer acknowledges, many of them were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inherently receptive to Moltke's message and took little convincing that war should not be shirked in 1914. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, whether they would have taken this view if Moltke had shared with them his expectations of the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the coming war is another matter. By never making his fears known to them, he ensured that German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy never had to be formulated in the cold light of day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where does this leave the historiography on the origins of the First World War? Dr Mombauer's book offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copious new grounds for believing that the war was started principally by actions taken in Berlin, many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them by a man whose role has previously been rather downplayed. In this light, the marginalization of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moltke is, clearly, no longer tenable. Rather, it must be acknowledged that Moltke was a major figure in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany's decision-making elite, whose influence, unfortunately, was far reaching. In particular, he did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everything that he conceivably could to make war likely and, in the end, sadly for Germany and Europe, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeded. On this point, the evidence that Dr Mombauer has collected is unambiguous and utterly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compelling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her material also suggests a number of refinements need to be made to some existing theories about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(background to the war. Niall Ferguson's recent suggestion, for example, that there was too little militarism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany before 1914 and that larger German army increases would have made the Reich leadership feel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more secure and less inclined to war does not seem likely given Dr Mombauer's profile of Moltke's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Weltanschauung)] TJ ET BT 114.008 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As she says \(p. 180\), it is more plausible that 'increased spending would only have made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them more confident and bellicose, and hence precipitated war even sooner.' In a different vein, her research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(esp. pp. 100-5\) suggests that it might be worth looking again at Adolf Gasser's ideas on the scrapping of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastern deployment plan \()] TJ ET BT 158.324 275.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Grosse Ostaufmarsch)] TJ ET BT 262.652 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), as her material offers some confirmation of his notion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this action shows that a decision against prolonged peace had been taken in 1912/13.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not the only area in which the book makes some interesting contributions to existing debates. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that the title suggests that the scope of the work is confined to the origins of the war, the study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually continues into the early war years. Thus, in addition to assessing Moltke's contribution to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military outcome to the July Crisis, Dr Mombauer also evaluates his part in the failure of the so-called )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Schlieffen plan. This is, of course, an old controversy, but Dr Mombauer is, nevertheless, able to bring a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely fresh eye to it. Starting from the premise that there was a Schlieffen plan, Terrance Zuber's recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims notwithstanding )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.688 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.688 148.323 m 162.680 148.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 162.680 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that it was Moltke's job to update this plan on a regular basis, that his revisions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made sense in the light of the changing circumstances of the European military scene, and that Moltke's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actions reflected the fact that he was not a victim of the 'short war illusion', she is able to provide a more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balanced perspective to the German reverse at the Marne. This result, which played a major part in ensuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the First World War would be a prolonged 'total war', was in many respects the culmination of all of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moltke's fears. Once again, however, this fact merely serves to place his actions in pushing so strenuously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for war into the sharpest relief.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 27 0 obj [25 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6877 148.6375 162.6797 160.5175 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 31 0 R >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Length 5538 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In conclusion, this study makes a very significant contribution to the scholarship on both Wilhelmine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and the military pre-history of the Great War. In the current state of research, it is clearly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive statement on the role and career of the younger Moltke as Chief of the Great General Staff. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspect that it will remain as such for a long time to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 706.803 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 676.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avner Offer, 'Going to War in 1914: A Matter of Honour?',)] TJ ET BT 349.604 676.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Politics and Society)] TJ ET BT 447.932 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 23 \(1995\); Michael )] TJ ET BT 64.016 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C.C. Adams, )] TJ ET BT 129.020 661.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Adventure: Male Desire and the Coming of World War I)] TJ ET BT 452.648 661.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Bloomington, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990\); Modris Eksteins, )] TJ ET BT 182.684 647.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rites of Spring: The Great War and the Birth of the Modern Age)] TJ ET BT 492.668 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 632.019 m 149.000 632.019 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 619.162 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David G. Herrmann, )] TJ ET BT 165.656 619.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Arming of Europe and the Making of the First World War)] TJ ET BT 464.648 619.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton, 1996\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Stevenson,)] TJ ET BT 148.676 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Armaments and the Coming of War: Europe 1904-1914)] TJ ET BT 419.324 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1996\); Niall )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ferguson,)] TJ ET BT 111.680 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Pity of War)] TJ ET BT 191.012 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1998\); Jack Snyder, )] TJ ET BT 339.992 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Ideology of the Offensive: Military )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Decision Making and the Disasters of 1914)] TJ ET BT 272.672 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Ithaca & London, 1984\); Stig Frster, 'Der deutsche )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generalstab und die Illusion des kurzen Krieges, 1871-1914. Metakritik eines Mythos', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Militrgeschichtliche Mitteilungen)] TJ ET BT 231.008 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 54 \(1995\); John H. Maurer, )] TJ ET BT 371.984 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Outbreak of the First World War: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strategic Planning, Crisis Decision Making, and Deterrence Failure)] TJ ET BT 394.328 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Westport, CT, 1995\); Holger )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Afflerbach, )] TJ ET BT 121.988 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Falkenhayn. Politisches Denken und Handeln im Kaiserreich)] TJ ET BT 416.948 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Munich, 1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.272 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.272 517.971 m 552.260 517.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 505.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arden Bucholz, )] TJ ET BT 143.000 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Moltke, Schlieffen and Prussian War Planning)] TJ ET BT 366.992 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Providence & Oxford, 1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 514.964 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 514.964 503.715 m 554.960 503.715 l S BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 489.459 m 78.008 489.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 476.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terrence Zuber, 'The Schlieffen Plan Reconsidered', )] TJ ET BT 318.260 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(War in History)] TJ ET BT 390.260 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 6 \(1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.252 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.252 475.203 m 494.240 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 450.341 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 436.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Hindes)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://danielhindes.com/blog/2007/10/21/helmuth-von-moltke-and-the-origins-of-the-first-world-war/)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 420.435 m 522.308 420.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 525.308 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 417.103 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 399.323 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 399.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/199)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 397.929 m 322.316 397.929 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 372.952 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.552 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1200)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.152 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://danielhindes.com/blog/2007/10/21/helmuth-von-moltke-and-the-origins-of-the-first-world-war/)] TJ ET endstream endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 632.3335 148.9997 644.2135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.2717 518.2855 552.2597 530.1655 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 514.9637 504.0295 554.9597 515.9095 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 489.7735 78.0077 501.6535 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.2517 475.5175 494.2397 487.3975 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 420.7495 522.3077 432.6295 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://danielhindes.com/blog/2007/10/21/helmuth-von-moltke-and-the-origins-of-the-first-world-war/) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 398.2435 322.3157 410.1235 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/199) >> endobj xref 0 46 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000560 00000 n 0000000656 00000 n 0000005819 00000 n 0000005928 00000 n 0000006038 00000 n 0000006147 00000 n 0000009708 00000 n 0000009836 00000 n 0000009920 00000 n 0000009949 00000 n 0000010077 00000 n 0000010113 00000 n 0000010142 00000 n 0000010268 00000 n 0000010304 00000 n 0000010388 00000 n 0000018274 00000 n 0000018304 00000 n 0000018432 00000 n 0000018468 00000 n 0000018552 00000 n 0000026118 00000 n 0000026148 00000 n 0000026276 00000 n 0000026312 00000 n 0000026438 00000 n 0000032029 00000 n 0000032156 00000 n 0000032211 00000 n 0000032339 00000 n 0000032394 00000 n 0000032522 00000 n 0000032577 00000 n 0000032703 00000 n 0000032758 00000 n 0000032886 00000 n 0000032941 00000 n 0000033068 00000 n 0000033218 00000 n 0000033346 00000 n trailer << /Size 46 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33441 %%EOF