%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R ] /Count 2 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140902231128+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140902231128+01'00') /Title (World Order in History: Russia and the West) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3953 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(World Order in History: Russia and the West)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very puzzling book. To judge by its title and some of its contents, its subject is the attempt to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a world order on the basis of two competing principles, adumbrated respectively in the West and in Russia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those two principles are summed up in the figures of Montesquieu and Marx, whose ideas on social order )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are briefly set out in the first two chapters. Then we jump, with minimal explanation, to an examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the views of certain 20th-century historians on their own craft and in particular, on the possibility of writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a universal history. The book then ends with a plea for a pure history, comparative and open-minded in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, to avoid the rude xenophobia which has plagued the 20th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction and the conclusion are both rambling and inconsequential - indeed the conclusion on its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own occupies a fifth of the book's entire length - and do not help the reader to pin down just what the theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book is supposed to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allowing for this impenetrability, let me just point up one problem which seems to knock the book off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course. Montesquieu and Marx cannot be presented as equivalents in the search for principles of world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(order. Montesquieu had a theory of social order - one resting on the division of powers and the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of strong intermediary institutions - which was to prove extremely influential in the American and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 31 May, 1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Dukes)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415129367)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1995)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(65.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(208pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/World-Order-in-History-isbn9780415129367)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 4300 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutions, and which inspired Catherine II in her programme of establishing a framework of law for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Marx one can find nothing equivalent. His work consists of a detailed description of the workings of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capitalist system, followed by an apocalyptic vision of the socialist revolution which will sweep it aside. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nowhere did Marx set forth the structural principles of a socialist society. The nearest approach which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dukes an cite is the familiar passage about)] TJ ET BT 64.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('... society regulating the general production, making it possible for me to do one thing today )] TJ ET BT 64.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and another tomorrow, to hunt in the morning, fish in the afternoon, breed cattle in the evening, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticise after dinner, just as I like without ever becoming a hunter, a fisher, a herdsman or a )] TJ ET BT 64.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critic'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As a prescription for a world order this is rather thin, and anyway does not differ from that of Montesquieu. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 579.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Dukes remarks in his footnote, 'Communist society here seems bourgeois or even feudal'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 553.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In view of the vapidity of Marx on the subject, it is scarcely surprising that by the second half of the 20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, as Dukes notes 'The USA had ... established hegemony in the world system; in other words it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become the 'universal indicator' to which Europe and the USSR would react.' The Soviet union, at least from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 510.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its Marxist heritage, had nothing equivalent to offer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Comparing Montesquieu with Marx, in short, turns out to be an unprofitable activity. This is a pity, as I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think I see a potentially fruitful theme lurking behind the book. The Soviet Union took as its social model, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the theories of Marx or even of Lenin, but the practice of Asiatic societies, deployed by the Tsars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 441.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revived by Stalin, which combined authoritarian state direction with social units or cells based on mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility and mutual surveillance. These social cells are remarkably resilient and over the centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have enabled human beings to survive long periods of extreme adversity. At the moment state socialism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems discredited, above all as an economic system, but the cells on which it rests can be detached from it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 384.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and steered in a different direction. Given a non-Marxist framework, the Asiatic model seems to be proving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly successful in generating economic growth and social cohesion in the Pacific Rim countries. What this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development bodes for the world's future, I do not know, but in considering it, as Huntington, Fukuyama and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 341.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others have done, one would at least be dealing genuine alternatives for a future world order.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 315.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 298.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 281.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 281.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/2)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 279.657 m 310.316 279.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 254.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 240.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/113)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 279.9715 310.3157 291.8515 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/2) >> endobj xref 0 18 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000328 00000 n 0000000365 00000 n 0000000532 00000 n 0000000614 00000 n 0000004619 00000 n 0000004728 00000 n 0000004838 00000 n 0000004947 00000 n 0000008508 00000 n 0000008636 00000 n 0000008720 00000 n 0000008804 00000 n 0000013157 00000 n 0000013285 00000 n trailer << /Size 18 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 13378 %%EOF