%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140826202754+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140826202754+01'00') /Title (Growth in a Traditional Society: The French Countryside, 1450-1815) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4339 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Growth in a Traditional Society: The French Countryside, 1450-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1815)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As even the most casual observer of the British historical scene must know, the 'agricultural revolution' has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved both elusive and highly contentious. French 'immobilism', on the other hand, has become something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a commonplace, although explanations for this supposed failure are less consensual. Philip Hoffman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very welcome new book has two overriding merits. Firstly, it challenges just about every facile assumption )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the structure and performance of the agricultural sector under the French )] TJ ET BT 415.244 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien rgime)] TJ ET BT 483.560 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Secondly, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(re-examination is based on a large body of data, much of it new, handled with great technical skill. At the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of the book lies a painstaking analysis of the leases issued by the Cathedral of Ntre-Dame, from 1450 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the Revolution; these are naturally concentrated around the capital. Hoffman has also made a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of eleven villages scattered across France, while employing printed literature on agriculture, )] TJ ET BT 508.256 123.635 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(livres de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(raison)] TJ ET BT 64.688 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and an extensive range of price and wage series. This ingenious mix of sources allows him to tackle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems from several different angles, often combining quantitative and qualitative approaches. In addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he makes a praiseworthy attempt to allow for regional variations, which indeed take on an important role in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his broader discussion. It is also pleasant to record that amidst his repeated tilts at conventional wisdom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoffman maintains an urbane and courteous tone; when he criticizes other historians, there is no sense that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 January, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip T. Hoffman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691070087)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(26.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(362pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://press.princeton.edu/titles/5829.html)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, New Jersey)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Briggs)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7548 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he hopes to make a reputation across their dead bodies. Indeed, he is often at pains to show how his findings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be made to concur with those of others, some of whose claims or methods he disputes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the author's first concerns is to dispose of the old misconception that France was a country of small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peasant proprietors, who practised subsistence agriculture outside the market system. I suspect he is quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right to think that this is one of those errors which obstinately refuse to die, despite enduring repeated and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently mortal blows. As he says, by the late sixteenth century hardly any peasants owned enough land to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support a family, nor did they rent on anything like the necessary scale. Most of the population can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(properly described as an agricultural proletariat, dependant on a mixture of day labour, various by-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employments, and rural industry. Their market relations with neighbours were commonly expressed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monetary terms, even if a shortage of coin meant that the local economy functioned quite extensively on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(credit. The idea of harmonious villages relying on a co- operative and consensual set of economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships is a myth; the evidence suggests that these were divided and quarrelsome communities. Market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values had already penetrated so deeply into village society that one must reject the stark contrast between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional and market economies often found in broad-brush treatments. This is important for Hoffman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because he needs to establish that within any reasonably coherent area \(although not the country as a whole\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the rural economy essentially moved in concert, with rents, wages and prices following similar trends at all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(levels. However inward- looking villages may have been, they were integrated into much broader systems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On balance I am persuaded by the general argument, which is supported throughout the text by instances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where different indices converge as the theory requires. At the same time I think Hoffman may have pushed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his claims a little too far, and that some more archaic or customary features of rural society do need to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken into account; some of the possible difficulties will emerge later.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The greatest problem in establishing a statistical model for pre-revolutionary agriculture is the lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliable figures for either production per hectare or labour inputs. Since these are the biggest variables )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved, historians have naturally treated all estimates with extreme scepticism, whether they have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronted with the optimistic claims of Jean-Claude Toutain or the deeply pessimistic critiques of Michel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morineau. Hoffman seeks a way round these insuperable difficulties, by concentrating on total factor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity; essentially he seeks to establish the overall figure first, rather than trying to aggregate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unknowable. The crucial operation relies on taking long series of leases \(the great majority being on rack )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rents for nine-year periods\), then deflating the annual rents against suitable price series to produce an index )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of productivity. On the face of things this sounds a fairly straightforward, if very laborious, technique. To be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure, the results are less revealing than if we could reconstruct inputs and outputs more precisely. To give a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude example, a 5% increase in total factor productivity might represent two very different scenarios. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first a 10% increase in labour inputs would raise yields per hectare by 10%, which would eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translate into a 5% increase in rent. In the second yields would remain unchanged, but a 20% drop in labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inputs would boost profits and rents by the same 5%. The figures given here are of course quite arbitrary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not necessarily consistent. The first pattern would presumably boost the local economy somewhat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas the other might drive some inhabitants into temporary or permanent exile.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How far can we assume that rents are a fair reflection of productivity? Perhaps the most extensive previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of agricultural production in early modern France, that by Hugues Neveux for the Cambrsis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggested that they could not really serve in this capacity. This was because the north- eastern border region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was dominated by the custom of mauvais gr, essentially a 'market ring' system under which the large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants refused to bid against one another when tenancies were renewed. Hoffman goes to great lengths to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(check for signs of similar patterns in the Paris basin, concluding that while landlords were cautious about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(replacing satisfactory tenants, there is no evidence for overtly restrictive practices of this type. He contends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that over the long run the canons of Ntre- Dame, like most other landlords, pushed up their rents to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maximum the market could stand. At the same time he recognizes that there were important shorter-term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuations. Broadly speaking, for several decades after the Hundred Years War farmers enjoyed highly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favourable terms, as they brought land back under the plough; this was the crucial period for the formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the great dynasties of laboureurs who came to dominate the rural scene. The sixteenth century was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period of rising rents, until the Wars of Religion brought a sharp check, and the subsequent recovery was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7599 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(snuffed out by Richelieu's war taxation. The later seventeenth century saw rents held at unwisely high levels, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provoking a rash of bankruptcies. The landlords reacted by giving preference to creditworthy tenants, thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enabling richer laboureurs to consolidate their position while paying rather lower rents. A final swing from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle of the eighteenth century involved a new series of rent rises, recouping previous gains by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants. These shifts were all quite modest in statistical terms; while they could make a big difference to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viability of a tenant, they do not alter TFP very far.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A vital step in the argument is therefore that while rents were not absolutely tied to productivity, they only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oscillated within quite small margins, because landlords kept a beady eye on the situation. They were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(determined to extract the highest rents they reasonably could, yet generally moderated their demands to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid the very costly process of replacing tenants who abandoned their leases before term. The evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marshalled here certainly suggests that this is much the most plausible view. One may also agree that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(landlords had perfectly rational motives for accepting rather lower rents from large tenants, rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking their properties up into small units whose rent per hectare would have been higher. Here Hoffman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does slip into an uncharacteristically simplistic argument, however, couched in terms of a risk premium. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this is surely an element in the situation, it may be more a description than a true explanation. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differential between rents on small and large holdings is such a striking and widespread feature of the French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agrarian world that it is disappointing to find it treated in so cursory a manner. Hoffman only gives serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration to two alternative explanations, both of which he dismisses on what appear to be very sound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grounds. The first is combinations by large tenants to hold rents down, the second land hunger on the part of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small peasants. The former has already been discussed; the latter is ruled out because land prices do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show the same gap, nor do rents on small plots correlate at all with population density.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here I would argue for an alternative possibility, which only receives a glancing mention in the book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although other aspects of it are very well discussed. The situation identified here is one which raises some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very acute questions about how the enormous rural population of France actually managed to exist through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the year. Hoffman convincingly lays heavy emphasis on the difficulties farmers experienced in getting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactory performance from their workforce, and on their preference for employing a minimum number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trusted servants. He also points to the huge difference between the British and French situations by the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth century, with only 40% of the population apparently employed in the agricultural sector in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first, as against 60% in the second. What he does not consider is a widely-recognised consequence of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts, which was the prevalence of underemployment, particularly on a seasonal basis. As a result market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculations must be modified in one very important respect, for when peasants worked on plots they owned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or rented they were not usually foregoing paid employment elsewhere. So long as labour inputs came from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family itself they were effectively free over most of the year. This fits very well with the observed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture in which relatively high rents were paid for small parcels; big tenants who wanted such pieces of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land, presumably for reasons of convenience such as linking other holdings, had to accept the market rates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictated by the mass of small peasants. On the other hand few peasants had much capital, so sale prices for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such land were not inflated in the same way.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If this analysis is anywhere near the truth then it raises some other questions. It become important to know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what proportion of the land was worked in large farms and in small units because we may actually be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looking at two subtly differentiated agricultural systems, even where land had not been enclosed or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrated in blocks, so that )] TJ ET BT 182.660 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(laboureurs)] TJ ET BT 235.328 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and poor peasants held and worked adjoining strips. The large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants would have had better access to manure, plough teams, storage facilities, and perhaps other facilities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They were however economical with labour, except at harvest time, whereas their poor neighbours usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had a surplus of family labour power. The latter therefore had a very powerful incentive to practice labour-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensive agriculture, even if only in the minimum form of frequent weeding. It remains perfectly plausible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to suppose that yields would have been fairly similar under both systems; given the precondition of a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rural population, small plots may actually be the optimum solution in many circumstances, capable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarkably high yields per hectare. The downside to peasant production of this type is that it is inefficient in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour usage, and therefore produces only a small surplus for the market. The weakness of TFP based on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rent levels as a way of evaluating the performance of such peasants is, I think, that it is so hard to assign a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7696 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(value to labour inputs when for most of the year there was such a wide gap between supply and demand on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the labour market. Rural industry - particularly textile manufacture - does of course complicate the picture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it is notoriously hard to measure its economic impact with any great accuracy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My own suspicion - and it can hardly be more - is that the productivity of small peasant holdings was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already high in the sixteenth century, but that in areas of cereal monoculture like the Ile-de-France it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only have grown very slowly after then, or perhaps stagnated. If this were the case, then Hoffman's claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a 40% growth in TFP over his period might need to be scaled down somewhat, over the agrarian region )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Paris as a whole, despite the advances made on large farms. In other parts of the country, where he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(posits a static performance, the balance might actually be the other way. Areas of polyculture, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharecropping was the normal practice on larger units, may well have been more favourable to small peasant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producers, who could readily exploit a range of labour-intensive crops. Again this would not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed the picture, so there is little reason to doubt Hoffman's pessimistic view of TFP trends in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regions, but total yields per hectare may have been a little more mobile. Sharecropping is another interesting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem in itself. The author offers us a very plausible account of why this practice could make economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, even if it was generally a second- best to proper leasehold tenures. He is surely correct to argue that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sharecropping was a consequence of existing economic backwardness rather than its cause. Yet here too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there may be more to be said. For all the ingenuity with which modern development economists have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrated its viability in some conditions, sharecropping as actually practised in much of ancien rgime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(France looks like a dismally regressive system, far too harsh on the wretched tenants to encourage better )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming practices. Moreover a phenomenon generated by backwardness may also form a new barrier to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(improvement, helping to perpetuate the conditions from which it arose.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The nature of the labour market raises questions about another important element in some of Hoffman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments, his claim that rural and urban wage rates were generally similar. This may well be true, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(data adduced to prove the point are far from conclusive, because they relate to the harvest period. Here was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the great exception, the period when virtually everyone could find work, and when large numbers of town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and city dwellers migrated temporarily into the surrounding countryside. In such a situation we would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturally expect wages to reach urban levels; the need to attract labour may also have meant that payments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in kind, through the provision of food and drink, formed a significant addition to costs. What we cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasonably do, without supporting evidence, is conclude that similar levels prevailed through the rest of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year, when market factors should really have made labour cheaper. No doubt lite groups such as threshers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were well paid for their backbreaking toil, but easier tasks may have been another matter, not least when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they could be performed by women. Neither gender nor specialisation within the rural proletariat gets much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a place in Hoffman's picture; although this is perfectly understandable, given the limitations of his chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, there are some serious issues lurking here. Perhaps this links up with an instinctive feeling that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while quantitative investigations of this type are essential, they will only become wholly convincing when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated with a microscopic analysis of agricultural practice. Such a global view might require us to match )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hoffman's fine book not just with the magisterial recent thesis by Jean-Marc Moriceau on)] TJ ET BT 465.104 259.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Les fermiers de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(l'Ile-de-France)] TJ ET BT 106.556 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but also with a study we still do not really possess, which would carry the)] TJ ET BT 466.196 244.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( longue dure)] TJ ET BT 532.184 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the village community and the lives of its humbler members.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have left too little space for a proper discussion of some of the major conclusions, concentrating on what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are arguably lesser matters where I saw problems or the need for more research. What I find wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing is Hoffman's vision of French agriculture as far more varied and potentially successful than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previous orthodoxies have implied. If the regional divergences he identifies create as many problems for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian as they solve, that seems to me one of the merits of a truly important book. As he suggests, if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parisian market could stimulate rates of growth in its hinterland which often matched those in England, then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one cannot readily argue for some inherent features of French rural society which compelled general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic stagnation in France. I think the jury might still be out on another important claim, that if these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('advanced' regions of France took three centuries to match what English agriculture achieved in two, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential cause was disruption by war and royal fiscality. War damage could certainly be severe, but there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an argument that rural societies of this type bounced back remarkably quickly from such disasters. If )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2709 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiscality must be a prime suspect, it is still questionable whether it varied enough over time to explain the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fluctuations in TFP. Nevertheless Hoffman must be right to assert that the agrarian economy can only be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understood as part of a larger whole, and that it was not simply a drag on a more progressive France )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signalling wildly to be let out. One implication might well be that the ancien rgime itself, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governmental and social, was a large part of the problem, which should not be blamed on the rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations that rgime exploited and neglected. There is much more that could be said, and many other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of the book which deserve proper attention. )] TJ ET BT 283.628 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Growth in a Traditional Society)] TJ ET BT 436.976 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a major achievement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a truly original study on a fundamental topic; it deserves both widespread acclaim and that equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant accolade, a vigorous debate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Free Library)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Growth+in+a+Traditional+Society%3a+The+French+Countryside%2c+1450-)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 626.259 m 560.084 626.259 l S BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1815....-a084678626)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 612.003 m 133.340 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 136.340 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 608.671 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 590.891 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 590.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/20)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 589.497 m 316.316 589.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 564.520 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 550.120 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/220)] TJ ET BT 34.016 535.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] )] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Growth+in+a+Traditional+Society%3a+The+French+Countryside%2c+1450-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 507.208 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1815....-a084678626)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 626.5735 560.0837 638.4535 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Growth+in+a+Traditional+Society:+The+French+Countryside,+1450-1815....-a084678626) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 612.3175 133.3397 624.1975 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Growth+in+a+Traditional+Society:+The+French+Countryside,+1450-1815....-a084678626) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 589.8115 316.3157 601.6915 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/20) >> endobj xref 0 28 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000576 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005049 00000 n 0000005158 00000 n 0000005268 00000 n 0000005377 00000 n 0000008938 00000 n 0000009066 00000 n 0000009150 00000 n 0000009215 00000 n 0000016816 00000 n 0000016881 00000 n 0000024533 00000 n 0000024598 00000 n 0000032347 00000 n 0000032445 00000 n 0000035207 00000 n 0000035334 00000 n 0000035497 00000 n 0000035624 00000 n 0000035787 00000 n 0000035915 00000 n trailer << /Size 28 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 36009 %%EOF