%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140721221759+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140721221759+01'00') /Title (Totalitarianism and the Modern Conception of Politics) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4590 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Totalitarianism and the Modern Conception of Politics)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Totalitarianism as a concept has made something of a comeback in recent years. During the Cold War, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dominated political analysis, particularly in the United States.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.332 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.332 300.441 m 344.324 300.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 344.324 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( By the 1960s, the Right had largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commandeered the term to refer to the Soviet Union and its satellites, while the American Left sometimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted it to characterise everything from the architecture of the Pentagon \(according to Norman Mailer\) to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political conformity in general. After the 1960s, the occurrence of 'totalitarianism' waned in frequency, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without totally disappearing. Perhaps it was the collapse of the Soviet Union, hastened along by figures such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Vaclav Havel, who sought to revive genuine political thinking, which contributed to a certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehabilitation of the term and its variants after 1989.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though totalitarianism is a highly elastic term, it has been the concern most often to the political theorists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to historians. In his stimulating )] TJ ET BT 206.360 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Totalitarianism and the Modern Conception of Politics)] TJ ET BT 471.044 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halberstam approaches totalitarianism through political thought as it arises from the German tradition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy from Kant to Heidegger. Though there are many things to be said about Halberstam's excellent, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if difficult, book, I want to focus here on the gains and losses incurred by approaching the topic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophically rather than historically. Such an approach to Halberstam's book is apposite, since it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Arendt, herself possessing an ultra-sensitive historical awareness yet trained as a philosopher, whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work stands at the centre of his concern.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halberstam's central thesis involves several related claims. At its core stands the assertion that both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism and totalitarianism are 'outgrowth[s] of modernity' \(p. 6\). Specifically, both had to come to terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(200)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 June, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Halberstam)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(300071809X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(287pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yale University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Haven, CT)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard King)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 330.3317 300.7555 344.3237 312.6355 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 4776 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically and morally with the 'loss of world' experienced by the modern subject and that in turn involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figuring out how 'to restore meaning to the world artificially' \(pp. 6-7\). A new order of meaning-a rough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of the term 'world'-- was not to be found in the past. but rather to be constructed in the future. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus, society and polity were 'artefacts' \(p. 16\). More pointedly, for Halberstam, totalitarianism was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(response to the failure of political modernity, especially of the Enlightenment project of emancipation. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other words, it was not just the outgrowth of conservatism grown murderous or an aberrant creation of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(couple of charismatic leaders who appealed to the irrationalities of race, nation, ethnicity or class. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting implication of these claims by Halberstam is that modern politics has attempted to resolve what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was essentially a )] TJ ET BT 117.668 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(religious)] TJ ET BT 160.340 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( problem, i.e. the problem of meaning, by )] TJ ET BT 362.984 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aesthetic)] TJ ET BT 405.644 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( means. State-making as work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a work of art and the leader as artist were-and are-full of totalitarian potential.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Liberalism diverges from totalitarianism in its solution to this problem of the loss of community and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authoritative traditions. As the 'heir of the Enlightenment,' liberalism 'privileges the freedom of individuals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pursue their own conception of the good' \(p. 36\), while the totalitarian solution 'denies its subjects their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(right to self-determination' \(p. 39\). Where liberalism depends upon civil society, i.e. the private and non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political sphere of life including its religious institutions, to supply its citizens with meaning, totalitarianism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effaces the distinction between public-private, state-civil society, and uses the state to impose meaning by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any means necessary. In all this, Halberstam sees Kant's fundamental assumption that the individual can and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should act with 'rational autonomy' as central to the liberal doctrine of the self. Totalitarianism, on the other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hand, assumes that appeals to irrational or non-rational foundations \(race or class most notoriously, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Arendt\) will supply the moral glue to hold polity and society together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arendt is so important for Halberstam because, trained as she was in the tradition of Kant to Heidegger, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only saw the horrors of totalitarianism but also was fully aware of liberalism's inadequacies. In contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the 'claim that liberal political self-understanding can largely do without a shared culture' \(p. 60\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arendt understood that we need 'a nonrational intersubjective agreement in a )] TJ ET BT 405.764 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sensus communis)] TJ ET BT 488.756 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gemeinschaftsinn)] TJ ET BT 120.008 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' \(p. 66\). If Arendt drew her concept of 'worldlessness,' from Martin Heidegger, her former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mentor and erstwhile Nazi, she derived the notion of 'common sense' from Kant, one of liberalism's founding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fathers. But though Kant established liberalism's central focus on the rational autonomy of the individual, his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought also provided the basis for Arendt's notion of judgement, that necessary political faculty which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presupposes and also helps preserve a 'world,' without which experience itself is hardly possible.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7758 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Before addressing some of the problems with Halberstam's largely philosophical approach, it is necessary to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify its strengths. First, he rightly identifies the religious dimension of the crisis of modernity that made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the totalitarian solution so appealing. For true believers, totalitarianism created, according to Arendt, a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world driven by an internal logic that had jettisoned the reality testing of a common sense. Enclosed in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological cocoon, totalitarian regimes often formulated policies at odds with normal self-interest. Second, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to Halberstam, 'Empirically oriented social science' and, I would add, professional history, tend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(view society 'from the outside' and 'apart from the self-understanding by which it is constituted.' \(p. 140\). To )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt to remedy this defect was not, as Arendt came to understand, to recommend that the analyst of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarianism )] TJ ET BT 106.352 670.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(empathise)] TJ ET BT 155.012 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with those who commanded, justified or lent support to totalitarian regimes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rather, s/he must comprehend the loss of structures of meaning and significance that created the vacuum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into which totalitarianism rushed. Social psychologists of a psychoanalytic bent \(e.g. Wilhelm Reich, Erich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fromm and Erik Erikson\) might argue that concentrating on concepts \(and experiences\) such as 'loss of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world' neglects the elements of individual and social pathology that fed totalitarian movements. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Halberstam has a point to the extent that the descriptions and explanations offered by historians are usually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('third person' points of view that fail to convey what it was like to experience the loss of world or of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possibility of acting in common with others. Third, by focussing on the conceptual essence of liberalism and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarianism, Halberstam makes a powerful case for the subterranean relationship between the two. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Totalitarianism was liberalism's 'secret sharer' it's 'other.' It takes no great historical, moral or political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagination to condemn totalitarianism, but Halberstam's identification of liberalism's reluctance to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledge the conditions of its own intelligibility or effectiveness-the pre-existence of a moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community in which individual rational choices are even possible-makes a good deal of sense.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are, of course, problems. First, both totalitarianism and liberalism are what philosophers call )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('essentially contested concepts.' This does not mean that Halberstam should have avoided using them; rather, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he should have more fully acknowledged their problematic status and sought to 'thicken' his description of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each. For instance, he follows Arendt in uniting National Socialism and Stalinism under the concept of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarianism and thus scarcely distinguishes between the two. Nor does he really indicate whether Mao's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(China or Pol Pot's Cambodia might qualify as totalitarian regimes, as well. If so, does the Asian version of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarianism arise from the same 'loss of world' that marked German and Soviet totalitarianism? Are mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murder, extermination and genocide necessary or contingent characteristics of totalitarian regimes? In other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words, Halberstam neglects to discuss to what extent totalitarianism was a peculiarly modern, western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon and to what extent it was-and is-a transhistorical and transcultural.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Besides the absence of a comparative historical perspective, Halberstam largely ignores Arendt's own view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that totalitarianism was not a product of the history of ideas and thus neither Plato nor Marx, Aristotle nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Darwin could be blamed for its emergence. Rather, totalitarianism 'crystallised,' as she liked to say, from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convergence of several economic and political trends \(capitalism and imperialism\), the destruction of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European institutions and traditions by World War I, and the growth of racial and ethnic consciousness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the French Revolution and the post-World War I period. There was nothing inevitable about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarianism for Arendt; but it was repeatable. In fairness to Halberstam, he does not use Kant, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, to explain totalitarianism in any strong sense. Rather, what he seems to be saying is that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tradition of philosophy from Kant and Hegel down to Heidegger gives us non-philosophers, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, useful new terms with which to re-think the phenomenon of totalitarianism. And yet, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophical 'working through' of the idea of totalitarianism which Halberstam so impressively offers only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(becomes fully cogent when we understand the specific historical context in which Hitler and Stalin emerged. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all its faults, one of the great strengths of Arendt's )] TJ ET BT 296.144 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of Totalitarianism)] TJ ET BT 422.840 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is its ultra-sensitivity to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of the modern world, not in the sense that professional historians would mean it, but as the lived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience of a radical break with the past history and traditions of the West.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Then there is liberalism. Halberstam belongs to the 'blame it on the Enlightenment' school of analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modernity. The problem is that identifying the core of liberalism with the elevation of the individual over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community and privileging the rational over the traditional self, smoothes over too many differences within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broad church of liberalism. Without argument, John Stuart Mill emphasises the centrality of individual )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8006 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-realisation, but the Madisonian tradition, and the tradition of Christian Realism identified with Reinhold )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Niebuhr in this century, emphasise the imperative of dividing and balancing power as the central core of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberalism. One older brand of nineteenth century did see progress through rationality as the destination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human history; but in the second half of the twentieth century, Isaiah Berlin has famously stressed value )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pluralism and the incompatibility between various goods as central to liberalism's task. Indeed, with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exception of someone like John Rawls, and that is admittedly a big exception, Halberstam's insistence that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the liberal self is ideally a rational, autonomous self seems to me a distinctly minority position within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberal tradition. Rawls does stand in the mainstream, along with most other forms of liberalism, in rejecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state or a unified community as the moral arbiter of our individual or collective lives. I confess I see little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the twentieth century to suggest that was a wrong move.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of this is to deny Halberstam's tightly argued claims about liberalism's inadequacies, for liberalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does depend upon the existence of some sort of moral community, whose conditions of existence or survival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it cannot directly encourage. But the liberal tradition is much more historically self-conscious, more savvy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the uses and abuses of power, and has a much more complex view of the self than Halberstam's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kantian emphasis upon rational autonomy would allow. Put in disciplinary terms: Halberstam needed more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual history and less history of philosophy in his discussion. As a type of thinker who used history to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminate politics and vice versa, Arendt sits more comfortably in the company of Tocqueville, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Montesquieu, Burke and Machiavelli than she does alongside Kant or Heidegger. And her thought is all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more compelling for it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, there are problems with Halberstam's approach to Arendt's work itself. Though Arendt's first work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins of Totalitarianism)] TJ ET BT 160.712 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, was 'about' what its title indicates, Halberstam tends to repair to )] TJ ET BT 475.664 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Condition)] TJ ET BT 82.028 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1958\) or even )] TJ ET BT 158.672 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Life of the Mind)] TJ ET BT 256.676 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1971\) for concepts relevant to his analysis of totalitarianism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically her ideas of 'world' and 'judgement. But much changes in Arendt's thought between 1951 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1958 or between 1951 and 1971. In short, it does matter from which Arendt text one is quoting.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, by relatively ignoring )] TJ ET BT 194.324 418.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Origins)] TJ ET BT 230.996 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a work saturated by history, Halberstam never has to deal with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues that get washed out when he focuses on Arendt the philosopher. Halberstam scarcely mentions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arendt's analysis of the rise of anti-Semitism or racism. Yet it was just the point of Arendt's political-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical analysis that, first, modern racism and anti-Semitism were different and more virulent than their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precursors; and, second, that the ethnic and racial state was profoundly destructive of the Enlightenment-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based republic of citizens. Arendt could certainly be critical of the Enlightenment tradition, but her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulation of a new political ideal -a political community in which everyone had 'the right to have rights'-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retained Enlightenment terminology and goals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 259.664 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 259.664 317.139 m 273.656 317.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 273.656 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Halberstam also fails to analyse fully the central role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terror in totalitarianism. He does discuss it in terms of Hegel's thought and raises, quite interestingly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept of the 'sublime' as relevant to the topic at hand. But the specific historical role of the 'camp system' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the maintenance of totalitarianism hardly gets a mention. Something deeply philosophical and religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was at stake there-the nature of human nature. It was in the camps, Arendt claimed, that the conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personhood itself was specifically undermined and all but destroyed. The camp system was a giant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiment in attempting, as she put it,' the transformation of human nature.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.964 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.964 231.603 m 414.956 231.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 414.956 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In creating, not just in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exterminating, millions of superfluous human beings, totalitarianism manifested what she saw as radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evil. Indeed, the problem of evil itself would seem worth discussion in this context, but Halberstam stays )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from it, except for some comments on Eichmann.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor does Arendt buy the notion, as Halberstam seems to imply \(pp. 192-93\), that the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totalitarianism is the problem of absolute state power. What the history of Nazism revealed to Arendt was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that race not the state was the highest good of National Socialism. The power of the state was ultimately less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important than the creation of a purified Aryan race. The state was a means rather than an end in itself. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again, it is impossible to discuss Nazi totalitarianism without saying something fundamental about race \(or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to discuss Soviet totalitarianism without saying something about class and Party\). By not confronting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concepts of 'race' and 'class' philosophically, Halberstam's Totalitarianism and the Modern Conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Politics, for all of its real strengths, helps perpetuate the isolation of political philosophy from the concepts )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 259.6637 317.4535 273.6557 329.3335 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 400.9637 231.9175 414.9557 243.7975 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 2152 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that were so central to modernity and continue to shape our lives.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abbott Gleason, )] TJ ET BT 145.676 730.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Totalitarianism: The Inner History of the Cold War )] TJ ET BT 396.356 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York: Oxford University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 715.299 m 180.332 715.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannah Arendt, )] TJ ET BT 143.660 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of Totalitarianism)] TJ ET BT 291.356 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 2nd ed. \(Cleveland, OH. Meridian Books, 1958\), pp. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(296-97.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 101.012 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 101.012 686.787 m 155.000 686.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 673.930 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid. p. 458.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.348 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.348 672.531 m 176.336 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 647.669 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 633.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 628.687 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 610.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 610.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/200)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 609.513 m 322.316 609.513 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 584.536 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1203)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.736 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 715.6135 180.3317 727.4935 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 101.0117 687.1015 154.9997 698.9815 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 122.3477 672.8455 176.3357 684.7255 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 609.8275 322.3157 621.7075 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/200) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000563 00000 n 0000000652 00000 n 0000005294 00000 n 0000005403 00000 n 0000005513 00000 n 0000005622 00000 n 0000009183 00000 n 0000009311 00000 n 0000009395 00000 n 0000009424 00000 n 0000009552 00000 n 0000009588 00000 n 0000009653 00000 n 0000014482 00000 n 0000014547 00000 n 0000022358 00000 n 0000022449 00000 n 0000030508 00000 n 0000030538 00000 n 0000030666 00000 n 0000030702 00000 n 0000030732 00000 n 0000030860 00000 n 0000030896 00000 n 0000031001 00000 n 0000033206 00000 n 0000033334 00000 n 0000033389 00000 n 0000033517 00000 n 0000033572 00000 n 0000033700 00000 n 0000033755 00000 n 0000033883 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33978 %%EOF