%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722211808+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722211808+01'00') /Title (Ornamentalism: How the British Saw their Empire) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4279 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ornamentalism: How the British Saw their Empire)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is committed to two main propositions, one general and one more particular. The general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition is one with which it is hard to envisage serious disagreement, but for which David Cannadine is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind enough to invoke my imprimatur \(among other much more weighty ones\): the history of the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire and the history of Britain itself are inseparable and must be studied as a seamless whole. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular proposition is that in the high days of British imperialism, that is from about 1850 to about 1950, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of the empire and that of Britain were brought together by a British commitment to reproduce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overseas the kind of hierarchical society that, Cannadine believes, existed in Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his )] TJ ET BT 64.016 175.787 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Class in Britain)] TJ ET BT 140.036 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of 1998, Cannadine argued the case for analysing modern British society in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex, 'layered, interlocking' hierarchies rather than by using a simple division between rich and poor or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three-tier class structure. In extending that argument to the empire, he is particularly concerned to reduce the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significance of another great binary divide that has, he believes, exercised an undue influence on historians. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the division between 'us' and 'them'. Cannadine argues that in trying to relate their non-European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects to themselves, imperially minded British people were not much inclined to indulge in sweeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generalisations about difference. They did not construct generic 'others' by which they defined themselves. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In particular, they did not use denigration of 'enervated, hierarchical, corporatist, backward' Africans or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Asians to highlight a 'dynamic, individualistic, egalitarian, modernizing' Britain \(p. 4\). They did not do such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(202)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Cannadine)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713995088)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(288pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Marshall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7461 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a thing principally because they did not conceive Britain in those terms. They saw it as traditional and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hierarchical in its own way. Although he concedes that generalisations based on assumptions of racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(superiority and inferiority were widely and stridently used in the late nineteenth century, Cannadine insists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that such generalisations did not displace ways of looking at non-European societies that stressed similarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than immutable differences. Hierarchies could be detected that seemed to be similar to the structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British society. The king of Hawaii ranked above the crown prince of imperial Germany. Aristocracies in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Africa or Asia should be accorded some of the respect due to the British aristocracy. The great mass of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populations was regarded with disdain, but then so were the urban and rural poor in Britain itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the full statement of his theme in the chapter called 'Perspectives', Cannadine, for all his unfailing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courtesy to individual named scholars, fires off a canister of grape shot into the serried ranks of anonymous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and others who seek to 'approach and recover' the past 'through the stereotypical and unequal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collectivities' of race, class or gender \(pp. 125-6\). He urges those who see race as determining all to reflect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'past societies and empires, predicated on individual inequality, had ways of dealing with race that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary societies, dedicated to collective equality, do not' \(p. 126\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Ornamentalism' is the term that Cannadine has coined to describe the outward and visible effects of attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to order the empire by binding its hierarchies together. '[O]rnamentalism was hierarchy made visible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immanent and actual. . [C]hivalry and ceremony, monarchy and majesty, were the means by which this vast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world was brought together, interconnected, unified and sacralized' \(p. 122\). Monarchy was elevated into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great unifying force of empire. All the hierarchies of the empire were to find their culmination in direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance to the monarch. The person of the monarch was made accessible to them through his or her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional presence among them - George V's appearance at the Coronation Durbar in India, was followed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the more extensive travels of George VI and the present Queen - or, much more frequently, by tours by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal princes representing the monarch. An increasing degree of pomp was accorded to the office of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monarch's permanently resident representative, be it a viceroy, a governor general or a governor, holding his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court in a palatial government house. Where they could be identified, existing indigenous aristocracies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian princes, Malay sultans, Fijian or African chiefs, were incorporated into the imperial system. The new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mandated territories in the Middle East were treated as client kingdoms. Elsewhere, colonial peerages were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemplated from time to time. Patronage was extended to colonial gentlemen in Australia, New Zealand or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Canada, who were listed in )] TJ ET BT 167.324 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Burke's Colonial Gentry)] TJ ET BT 284.552 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Elaborate systems of honours were devised to cement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the system. The 'most successful British proconsuls and imperial soldiers' became 'veritable walking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christmas trees of stars and collars, medals and sashes, ermine robes and coronets' \(p. 95\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this is described in scintillating prose with a fine eye for telling detail. Well- chosen illustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embellish the text. Cannadine's approach seems to be entirely appropriate. His sense of the ridiculous is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never far from the surface, but he never degenerates into condescension. The book will give enormous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasure.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a chapter called 'Limitations', Cannadine disarms ill-natured critics by conceding in advance most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points that they could reasonably make. He admits that he is painting a 'partial \(and partisan\) picture'. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always was 'a significant gap between theory and practice, intention and accomplishment' \(p. 136\). In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last resort, whatever was intended, 'the reality of empire was that improvement was inevitable, reform was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavoidable, modernization was inexorable, and progress was irreversible' \(pp. 148-9\). Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ornamentalism)] TJ ET BT 108.680 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has a challenging thesis to propound and it deserves to have serious questions asked of it. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There can be no doubt that the beliefs Cannadine expounds were widely held, but how widely? Were they a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for systematic policy-making? If so, to what extent could such policies be implemented? Are we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealing with fantasy or with purposeful social engineering that had significant consequences?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cannadine states at the outset that he is concerned with 'the world-view and social presuppositions of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who dominated and ruled the empire' \(p. xx\); that is with men in power, 'the official mind'. He believes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the period with which he is concerned 'British officialdom generally' was committed to conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals of cherishing tradition and hierarchy throughout the empire \(p. 148\). Allowing for a great deal of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity among governors, members of the Indian Civil Service and of the colonial civil services that were )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R 22 0 R 25 0 R 28 0 R 31 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8293 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merging into a single Colonial Service, in a general sense this is probably true. Thanks in particular to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indefatigable labours of Anthony Kirk-Greene on the Colonial Service and to numerous studies of the ICS, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems clear that overseas administrators were overwhelmingly drawn from genteel rural or semi-rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(backgrounds, if not usually from directly agrarian ones, that their views about society were likely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative with a small 'c' and that they tended to vote Conservative. Such generalisations have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(substantiated by sophisticated studies of the intellectual assumptions of Indian civil servants, such as those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Clive Dewey. He charts the decline by the 1870s of the utilitarian individualism and free market )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasms of the earlier nineteenth century and the rise in their place of an increasing commitment to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian 'collectivities', such as village communities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 277.988 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 277.988 681.027 m 291.980 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.980 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Punjab Land Alienation Act of 1900, intended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protect such communities from the consequences of a free market in land, was a striking example of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such beliefs could be embodied in policy-making. African administrators were also generally committed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserving rural social structures, not only through the mechanisms of indirect rule. Many African officials )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tended to be suspicious of trade and urbanisation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.316 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.316 624.003 m 285.308 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 285.308 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Enthusiasts for an 'imperial mission' that included being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('a global advertisement for liberal capitalism' may not have been very numerous in either the Indian or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial civil services.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 141.668 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 141.668 595.491 m 155.660 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Practical necessity reinforced an inclination to conserve. The great waves of expansion in the late nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century in Africa, Southeast Asia and the Pacific left the British with many new territories to administer and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with only limited resources with which to construct an administration. It was therefore natural and inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they should have co-opted such indigenous hierarchies as seemed to be to hand. In the bleak times of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1920s or the 1930s there seemed to be little alternative to continuing these policies. The same principle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied in the mandated territories of the Middle East, where local partners in rule had urgently to be found )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to sustain a limited British presence intended merely to maintain certain strategic interests. In India the Raj )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was on the defensive after 1857, seeking to rebuild bridges with the elites that had apparently turned against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it and later trying to enlist their support against nationalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet conservatism was becoming outmoded rather more quickly than Cannadine perhaps recognises. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Contemporaries who could only envisage the late nineteenth-century Raj as 'glittering, ceremonial, layered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and traditional, princely and rural, Gothic and Indo-Saracenic' \(p. 51\) were being myopic in the extreme. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India was predominantly rural, but a great human tragedy of the century, not unreasonably called 'a late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian holocaust' in a recent book,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.476 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.476 371.907 m 227.468 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.468 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was being played out in its countryside in the 1890s, with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality from famine and disease that ran to millions. Men like Curzon, for all their obsessions with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trivia of ritual, were in no doubt of what was at stake. They were authoritarians, not out of sentiment, but out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a belief that this was the only way to get things done. Late nineteenth-India was ground on which the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrigation engineers, the Indian Medical Service, the sanitation authorities and the conservators of forests did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battle with dearth, disease and drought, and were not winning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Most colonial territories lacked the resources to attempt major 'development' projects. Yet even when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indirect rule was fully in vogue, it was never intended to be a device for maintaining an unchanging stability. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Through indirect rule Africans would progress towards objectives appropriate to them at a speed that would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid social disruption. Change began after the Second World War. By then the numbers of 'specialists' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recruited into the Colonial Service, such as medics, agricultural officers, vets or educationalists, greatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outnumbered the administrators.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.668 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.668 203.091 m 203.660 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his 'Dissolution' chapter, Cannadine appears to be arguing that hierarchy and empire left the stage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together. Yet the British had surely abandoned hierarchy long before they had abandoned empire. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing commitment to 'development' is one clear sign of this. Shifting political ideals are another. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commonwealth was not an inadequate substitute for empire once it had gone \(p. 167\), but was an alternative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial strategy that was being deployed long before the end of empire. The commitment to equality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status and free association, admittedly then limited to already self-governing white communities, goes back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1926. It seemed expedient to successive British governments to extend the scope of the Commonwealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further and further. The monarchy adjusted with remarkable skill to a changing role. Although old elements )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hierarchy clearly remained, the sovereign as head of the Commonwealth was a very different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon to the Victoria who had received the homage of her subjects from across the world in London )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 277.9877 681.3415 291.9797 693.2215 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 271.3157 624.3175 285.3077 636.1975 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 141.6677 595.8055 155.6597 607.6855 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 27 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.4757 372.2215 227.4677 384.1015 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 189.6677 203.4055 203.6597 215.2855 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 34 0 R >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Length 7384 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1897. At the level of high strategy, the Commonwealth could be regarded either as a tiresome sham, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which seems to have been the view of Winston Churchill and may be the view of David Cannadine, or as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ploy for prolonging influence, which was probably the view of most ministers in Britain in the 1950s or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960s. For Queen Elizabeth, however, equality and free association, seem to be ideals to be cherished. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is now a very outmoded view, no doubt appropriate for a lady of 75, but not for many others. Yet it may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that many British people even invested empire with these ideals, caring little for hierarchy and never being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seduced by Ornamentalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These last reflections are in part prompted by the interesting Appendix, 'An Imperial Childhood', in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cannadine looks back on the impact that empire may have made on him as a young person in Birmingham. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He is particularly interesting about his father, who had served in the Royal Engineers in India during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Second World War. David's father regretted the passing of empire, but believed that 'Indians owed their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom to the British'. He disliked 'the petty regimentation of army life', so presumably was not much taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Ornamentalism; he admired the supremely un-ornamental Wavell and disliked Mountbatten who may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been too ornamental for his own good \(pp. 184-5\). These apparently mixed responses are surely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characteristic of huge numbers of people of the recent and probably of the more remote past; they certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resonate with my sense of how a great range of my family responded to service in India. Empire was a fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of life. You either went there in search of a job like any other or because military obligation \(as in my case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Mr Cannadine's\) compelled you to go there. You accepted its existence and may have invested it with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(benevolent purposes \(if that is not reading too much into Mr Cannadine's belief in 1945 that the empire was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(giving Indians their freedom\). This may have been a triumph of hope over experience. Exposure to empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was an immense widening of horizons, but did not necessarily turn people so exposed into imperial partisans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for life. Manifestations of Ornamentalism may have been repugnant to many who had witnessed them, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though the spectacles could be terribly seductive. A police askari band reduced me to tears aged 20 on my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(last day in Kenya. But in my firmer moments I knew that such things were extraneous to the main business )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of colonial life of which I had seen a fair amount.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If there is anything to be drawn from this piece of self-indulgence on my part, it may be the conclusion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians should try to recognise that reactions to empire were extremely diverse across British society and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that individuals could have contradictory feelings about it. Cannadine has some wise words on this in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Appendix. He is sceptical whether the British people as a whole were ever in thrall to an 'imperial project' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and is sure that no such thing existed in his own lifetime \(pp. 197-8\). There are, however, some suggestions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implying the existence of the kind of binary divide that in other contexts Cannadine properly seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discredit. Whether someone accepted Ornamentalism or rejected it seems to be made into a test as to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether they accepted empire or rejected it as 'a Tory racket'. Those who 'governed [empire], collaborated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it and went along with it' are presumed to have wanted a 'fully hierarchical[,] . convincingly homogenised' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire \(p. 136\). One can beg to differ and to suggest that there were many who 'went along' with empire but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may have regarded Ornamentalism as a lot of mumbo-jumbo. Historians have written a great deal about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperial enthusiasts \(Cannadine's Ornamentalists are clearly another species of enthusiasts\), and a fair )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amount about the opponents of empire. They rarely write about the great mass who were neither enthusiasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor critics, but 'went along'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The subtitle of the book is 'How the British saw their Empire'. Cannadine is therefore overwhelmingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned with perceptions and not with the extent to which social hierarchies could be effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolidated or even constructed within imperial territories. In his chapter on Limitations he is very willing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to concede that human material throughout the imperial world was often extremely resistant to being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moulded into hierarchical shapes in the approved British model. Some existing hierarchies, such as caste in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(India, seemed to common British understanding to put the wrong people on top. Imperial intervention, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least in not preventing the racially determined apportionment of land, could underpin for a time settler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentries in Southern Rhodesia or Kenya. Elsewhere outside South Africa, white farming communities tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to displace indigenous inhabitants rather than to conscript their labour, and then to create generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(egalitarian communities based on extensive rather than intensive cultivation of land. In fertile and heavily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(populated parts of India, Southeast Asia or West Africa, elites who were in control of the land before )] TJ ET endstream endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 5475 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial rule could maintain their hold on it and on the output of those who cultivated it. Paradoxically, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British, even in late nineteenth-century India, were more inclined to intervene on the side the peasant than of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the landlord.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is no part of David Cannadine's brief to prove that the world was remodelled according to British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proscriptions of hierarchy. All that he has to prove is that there was a strong aspiration to do that. This he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proves convincingly for most, if not perhaps for all, of his hundred years. In the process he has written a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most engaging and informative book. It is not a total explanation of how the British saw their empire, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not claim to be. Thanks to this book, the cult of hierarchy will hereafter be given a prominent place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among the perspectives devised by British people to try to make sense of their vast empire.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.523 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 604.906 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clive Dewey, )] TJ ET BT 133.004 604.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Indian Attitudes: The Mind of the Indian Civil Service)] TJ ET BT 424.988 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1993\); see also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his articles, 'The Making of an English Ruling Caste in the Era of Competitive Examination', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review)] TJ ET BT 190.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, lxxxvii \(1973\); 'Images of the Village Community: A Study in Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indian Ideology' )] TJ ET BT 145.496 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Modern Asian Studies)] TJ ET BT 251.492 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, vi, 1972.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.828 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.828 560.739 m 353.816 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 547.882 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cyril Ehrlich, 'Building and Caretaking: Economic Policy in British Tropical Africa', )] TJ ET BT 475.316 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Review)] TJ ET BT 137.672 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd ser., xxvi \(1973\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 246.992 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 246.992 532.227 m 300.980 532.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 519.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(P. J. Cain and A. G. Hopkins, )] TJ ET BT 209.348 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Imperialism: Crisis and Deconstruction, 1914-1990)] TJ ET BT 494.684 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\), p. 178.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.012 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.012 503.715 m 185.000 503.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 490.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mike Davis, )] TJ ET BT 126.344 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Late Victorian Holocausts: El Nino Famines and the Making of the Third World)] TJ ET BT 512.348 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 142.340 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 142.340 475.203 m 196.328 475.203 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 462.346 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anthony Kirk-Greene, )] TJ ET BT 175.652 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(On Crown Service: A History of H. M. Colonial and Overseas Civil Services, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1837-1997)] TJ ET BT 116.012 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London, 1999, pp. 51-2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.340 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.340 446.691 m 292.328 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 421.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 395.573 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 381.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/may/05/historybooks.socialsciences)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 365.667 m 398.000 365.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.000 367.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 362.335 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 344.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 344.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/202)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 343.161 m 322.316 343.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 318.184 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 303.784 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1207)] TJ ET BT 34.016 289.384 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/may/05/historybooks.socialsciences)] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 299.8277 561.0535 353.8157 572.9335 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 246.9917 532.5415 300.9797 544.4215 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 131.0117 504.0295 184.9997 515.9095 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 24 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 142.3397 475.5175 196.3277 487.3975 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 27 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.3397 447.0055 292.3277 458.8855 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 365.9815 397.9997 377.8615 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.guardian.co.uk/books/2001/may/05/historybooks.socialsciences) >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 343.4755 322.3157 355.3555 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/202) >> endobj xref 0 51 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000004970 00000 n 0000005079 00000 n 0000005189 00000 n 0000005298 00000 n 0000008859 00000 n 0000008987 00000 n 0000009071 00000 n 0000009136 00000 n 0000016650 00000 n 0000016762 00000 n 0000025108 00000 n 0000025138 00000 n 0000025266 00000 n 0000025302 00000 n 0000025332 00000 n 0000025460 00000 n 0000025496 00000 n 0000025526 00000 n 0000025654 00000 n 0000025690 00000 n 0000025720 00000 n 0000025848 00000 n 0000025884 00000 n 0000025914 00000 n 0000026042 00000 n 0000026078 00000 n 0000026143 00000 n 0000033580 00000 n 0000033706 00000 n 0000039234 00000 n 0000039362 00000 n 0000039417 00000 n 0000039545 00000 n 0000039600 00000 n 0000039728 00000 n 0000039783 00000 n 0000039911 00000 n 0000039966 00000 n 0000040094 00000 n 0000040149 00000 n 0000040276 00000 n 0000040399 00000 n 0000040527 00000 n trailer << /Size 51 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 40622 %%EOF