%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818073834+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818073834+01'00') /Title (Twentieth Century: A History of the World 1901-Present) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4605 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Twentieth Century: A History of the World 1901-Present)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arthur C. Clarke once remarked that the time would come when nothing of the twentieth century would be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remembered except the moon landing in 1969. Clearly that time has not come. Indeed we seem to be in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger of forgetting Neil Armstrong's small step altogether. More than half of the planet's inhabitants today )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been born since a man walked on the moon. It is one of the many pleasures of J.M. Roberts, )] TJ ET BT 503.936 301.835 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the Twentieth Century)] TJ ET BT 140.684 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that he remembers to give this incredible achievement the prominence it probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserves.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the start of the twenty-first century it sometimes appears that the only event of the previous century that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being actively remembered is the Holocaust. It is right that it should be remembered, little short of essential, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in the last ten years it has started to exert the gravitational of a great black hole on our thinking about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, dragging all interpretations into its orbit. It is commonplace to hear the opinion that the century was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one of unparalleled barbarism. This is true in a sense; the barbarism of the century was on a far greater scale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because everything was on a far greater scale. But such a view misses the obvious fact that every past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century can show terrifying examples of human capacity for evil. One of the intriguing things about this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century is that this evil actually gets noticed. Nazi leaders referred continually to past atrocities which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(believed had been forgotten and assumed that in the long view their own crimes would not be remembered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They misjudged the mood of the century and not just because they were defeated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The handling of the Holocaust, like the handling of the space programme, is a reasonable 'Rorschach' test in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a big general history. It gets five pages of Robert's narrative \(out of just over 850 pages\). No functionalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here or reflections on the Holocaust and modernity. The Nazis were evil crackpots from a civilised society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that ought to have known better. This is perhaps a bit simplistic, indeed the idea that Germany ought to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(203)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Morris Roberts)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780713992573)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Penguin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adrian Gregory)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6845 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judged more harshly because of its higher level of civilisation than the reader should judge Russia or Japan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is worryingly reminiscent of the very nationalist assumptions which led to the brutality in the first place. Yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is something in it, the moral shock we still feel is one of recognition. It is difficult to say anything )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly profound about disasters on this scale in five pages. But in a global history of the century that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance is probably about right.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grand historical synthesis is a tough task and those who write it are vulnerable to the carping of specialists. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is, nevertheless, a responsibility of historians to try to respond to the perfectly legitimate curiosity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general public, those who want to be told what happened and what it means. J.M. Roberts is a past master in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this field and his courage in facing the challenge has rightly earned him respect. The book is an effective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of narrative exposition in which the great political set pieces of the century are laid out for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader and, perhaps of more interest to specialists, a series of speculations and discussions on the big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structural changes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If grand synthesis naturally generates criticism, so does contemporary history and finding a viewpoint that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will stand the test of time is notoriously difficult when many of the events described occurred within living )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memory of the reader. Even defining the subject can be controversial. There are at least three competing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth centuries, not just Robert's 1901-2000, the literal century; but also a 'short' twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lasting from 1914 \(or1917\) to 1989 \(or 1991\) and a 'long' twentieth century beginning around 1870.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The short twentieth century, on the face of things, seems to have the strongest claims. But one suspects that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the appeal of the idea will diminish over time. The drama of the 'Age of Extremes' has some serious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems as a unit of analysis, not least in its circularity, the rise and fall of the Soviet Union is defined as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the central story of the century and the chronology is rigged accordingly. Whilst the Soviet Union was never )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite, 'Upper Volta with rockets'; future historians are unlikely to afford it such centrality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea of a 'long' Twentieth century is sure to gain ground. The unification of Germany, the Meiji )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restoration, the dramatic transformation of the USA during reconstruction, the first stirrings of women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emancipation, mass democracy and the beginning of demographic transition. Perhaps above all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acceleration of the commodification of agriculture in the 'Neo-Europes' and the growth of world trade all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point strongly to roughly 1870 as a hinge. Yet that is a history which it might not yet be possible to write. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem with the long century is that the ramifications of these things are far from being played out, we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply don't know where they will end or even if they ever will.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts has chosen the literal century, somewhat apologetically. Apologies are not required, 1901-2000 is in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact are remarkably coherent epoch in almost every respect. The century came in with 'irrational exuberance' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the economy; driven by mergers, speculation and optimistic prognoses of new technologies and went out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exactly the same way. In 1901 CE, the great 'powers' were involved in bullying China into the world system )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in order to exploit the huge potential market. In 2000 CE, essentially the same powers were cordially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inviting China into the World Trade Organisation for essentially the same reasons. Both the changes and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuities give structure to this chronology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the story of the rise of the world's most populous nation from prostration to equality is one of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes, the story of the world's most powerful nation, the first and only historical 'hyper power' is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity. In 1901 the first signs of the economic superiority of the United States were evident. By 1945 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this dominance had been translated into complete strategic and military dominance. This was a dominance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which was never fully lost during the illusory years of cold war 'bipolarity' and in 1991 this dominance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suddenly became manifest again.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic power and military might have been accompanied by growing ideological and cultural hegemony. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Much of what we mistakenly think of as globalisation is really the unprecedented dominance of a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, which become so total that it was hard to see it for what it was. Pokemon and ABBA might reach a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world audience, but only if they speak English and they are transient phenomena compared with Disney and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elvis. Roberts tries manfully to prevent the United States from dominating the narrative and almost )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6769 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(succeeds. One feels sometimes that discussion of the USA is being rationed. Nevertheless it does dominate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the story. That isn't Roberts's fault, that is just the way 'it actually was'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the outset, Roberts has chosen to blend together a strong conventional political narrative with a careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of structural transformation. His starting point is surely the correct one for any truly global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in that he emphasises the 'weight of the past'. Dramatic as the nineteenth century had undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been, there was a good deal of a traditional, almost immemorial, world that still existed in 1900. The village )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was still the place where the overwhelming majority of people on the planet lived and the villages were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular and local. The political )] TJ ET BT 196.652 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ancien regime)] TJ ET BT 264.968 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had adapted surprisingly well. Nine-tenths of humanity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were subject to monarchs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Literacy had reached high levels in Western Europe and North America, but most of the world still lived in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an oral or semi-oral culture. Religious belief was pervasive. The genuinely modern cities were few and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed industrialisation existed mostly in pockets and was much more partial than is often realised. Even in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London or New York in 1900 a great deal of the horsepower was quite literally horsepower.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From the weight of the past Roberts moves on to the anticipations of the future. The development of science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily plays a central role in any good narrative of the century. Again the 'literal' century justifies itself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the nineteenth century was marked by a revolution in biology, then the years either side of 1900 saw the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Curies, Rutherford, Einstein and Planck completely transform the understanding of physics. Roberts is rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less interested in the parallel transformation in the arts. Cubism gets a belated name check much later in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book; Proust, Picasso and Stravinsky lack even that.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps this bias towards science and technology is in itself a fair reflection of the century's biases and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly outside of a very small number of enthusiasts the usual reaction to modern art has been one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rejection. But genuinely popular culture fairs even less well and that is a significant absence. This will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussed below.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts then moves on to discuss structures. At the centre of this book, as it should be, is the growth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global population. The trebling of world population and the shift in its distribution is pre-eminently the 'big )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact' of the century. Equally welcome is the stress on the history of more than half of the human species. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most obvious advance on earlier grand narrative history is that no one would now dream of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing this kind of history without paying attention to women. Roberts handles this well. He keeps his eye )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the subject throughout, which is only appropriate because changes in the lives of women are probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amongst the most profound and revolutionary of the century and the most obvious discontinuity with past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human existence. Some may feel that he doesn't devote enough space to this, still preferring to concentrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on traditional political narratives. This would be a mistake. After all wars, revolutions, depressions, genocide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and famine don't just impact on men. Perhaps some of Roberts's opinions about these developments are a bit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whiggish for some tastes. But the record of the century is, on balance, progressive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The narrative sections are well handled. Specialists are bound to take issue with specifics. I can't honestly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that I would agree with quite a lot of what Roberts writes about the First World War. But even in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section there are some serious insights; for example he rightly stresses that the combat losses were balanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the fact that this was the first war in history where deaths in combat outnumbered deaths from disease. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This fact, of central significance, is all too often overlooked. Inevitably more valuable to many of us will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the attention that Roberts pays to the vast geographical zone that many English historians seem to lump )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together as 'Extra-Europe'. Anyone who needs a quick introduction to Latin America in the twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(which includes most of the historians I know\) could do a lot worse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The strands begin to weave together by the time Roberts gets to the great depression. His description of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the first 'world historical' event is surely right. Nothing illustrates better the emergence of a global trading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy than its collapse.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To review each section would ultimately make this review as long, if not longer, than the book. So, in a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 5576 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single bound, to the conclusion. Roberts notes that one apparently paradoxical feature of the century has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the simultaneous proliferation of sovereign nations and the simultaneous proliferation of trans-national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisations. Of course it is only apparently paradoxical, the former is a direct cause of the latter. Yet the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power of at least some of the latter is something without precedent. There has never before been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution with the global power of the IMF or the World Bank. But this is only part of a bigger story. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roberts sees emerging in the course of the century is the first global civilisation. Literally a civilisation, as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is rooted in cities. It sits on top of other deep-rooted civilisations; Chinese, Islamic, Japanese, but its style )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and assumptions are Western.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The cities of the world in their fundamentals are coming to resemble each other, with universities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(airports, police forces and fire brigades, skyscrapers and restaurants. Certain features might differ, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing world cities cluster their appalling poverty towards the edges; English speaking ones encircle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their slightly less appalling poverty in the centre. But the general urban principles are the same. For Roberts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the century that saw a decline in the formal power of Europe also saw European assumptions conquer the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this I think he is wrong. This global civilisation, if it is at all European, is European at one remove. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Florence and Athens are at best distant grandparents of the global civilisation; the parents are Chicago and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Detroit. Indeed American influence has reshaped European civilisation beyond measure in the course of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, not least by enforcing democracy upon it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other thing missing in the conclusion and indeed in the book, is a real sense of what this civilisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually is. Here the neglect of popular culture is a real problem. This is a history of the twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without Caruso and Chaplin, without Garbo and Sinatra, without Elvis Presley and Mohammed Ali, without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Madonna and Maradona. Roberts highlights the problem of happiness at the end, pondering why the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unquestioned material progress of the century does not seem to have made the third of the global population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has benefited significantly happier \(although they are now unhappy in longer lives and much greater )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfort.\). But he neglects the sphere in which most of the world seeks its fleeting vision of that happiness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst learning its unattainability and frustration. The mystique of celebrity is a contemporary global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, but its prophets disappoint, not least themselves. Each of the above in their pursuit of happiness; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though sex and food; drugs and alcohol; political idealism and even obsessive privacy, says something about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the state of the species in the century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course in the end this may not matter. These icons are already familiar and the joy of a book like this is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the reader to learn what he or she does not already know. But in the end it does leave a sense that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although this is a fine history of the century, it is not quite a complete one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York Times)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/r/roberts-century.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 250.371 m 317.012 250.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 320.012 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 247.039 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 229.259 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 229.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/203)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 227.865 m 322.316 227.865 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 202.888 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 188.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1209)] TJ ET BT 34.016 174.088 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/r/roberts-century.html)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 250.6855 317.0117 262.5655 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/r/roberts-century.html) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 228.1795 322.3157 240.0595 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/203) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000557 00000 n 0000000639 00000 n 0000005296 00000 n 0000005405 00000 n 0000005515 00000 n 0000005624 00000 n 0000009185 00000 n 0000009313 00000 n 0000009397 00000 n 0000009462 00000 n 0000016360 00000 n 0000016425 00000 n 0000023247 00000 n 0000023338 00000 n 0000028967 00000 n 0000029094 00000 n 0000029203 00000 n 0000029331 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29426 %%EOF