%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728203147+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728203147+01'00') /Title (Irish Foreign Policy 1919-1966: From Independence to Internationalism) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4968 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Irish Foreign Policy 1919-1966: From Independence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Internationalism)] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The reviewer's first duty is easily accomplished. This is a feast of entertainment and instruction to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomatic historian \(and even more to the undiplomatic historian\) of Ireland, Britain, Europe, Israel, India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burma, the British Commonwealth in general, South America, the U.S.A., and the United Nations. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heavily based on multi-archival evidence, has many enlightening extracts wrested from outer darkness, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(largely)] TJ ET BT 70.340 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(if at times suspiciously\) judicious in tone, and its errors are minor enough to retain the confidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reader without entirely vegetarianising the reviewer. The essays illuminate specific topics without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhausting either subject or onlooker - a few of them may have exhausted their authors, and one or two coast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(easily downhill - and there are several clusters of related research-products which supplement without over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endorsing one another.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Publishers do not much care for )] TJ ET BT 189.992 197.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Festschriften)] TJ ET BT 252.656 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( these days, and if our authors speak of their contributions as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('chapters', vaguely suggesting a relay-race according to Actonian principles of indistinguishable objectivity, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their magnetic poles vary: Skelly's publications do include editing an actual )] TJ ET BT 399.812 168.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Festschrift)] TJ ET BT 451.148 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for Conor Cruise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Brien; Deirdre MacMahon dedicates the longest, possibly the most valuable, and least Irish-centred, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('chapter' to one of its participants and a primary as well as secondary source, the great Commonwealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian Nicholas Mansergh; and Ronan Fanning's 'Raison d'Etat and the Evolution of Irish Foreign Policy' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began life as the 1995 Memorial Lecture to Ireland's pioneer diplomatic historian T. Desmond Williams )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(pioneer,)] TJ ET BT 77.000 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( inter alia)] TJ ET BT 124.340 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, of A. J. P. Taylor's subsequent thesis on the origins of World War II\). The political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scientist Patrick Keatinge contributes a thin, pretentious, derivative and inaccurate Foreword, but he seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less obviously here as an )] TJ ET BT 156.332 68.867 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(imprimatur)] TJ ET BT 211.004 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(-wielding bishop than as captive dragged at the historians' chariot-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wheels. Since all Irish metaphors need mixing, the collection may also appear a lying-in hospital awaiting its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(204)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 31 May, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Kennedy)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joseph Morrison Skelly)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Four Courts Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Owen Dudley Edwards)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7905 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(James Joyce: several items will win a fuller epiphany about ten times their present length, and Dr Troy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Davis seems to imply that his essay, the weakest 'chapter', is a condensation of a section of his 1998 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publication on Irish-American relations in the Truman era.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This should prove a first-class teaching volume, since its documentary quotations are numerous enough to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(give shrewd students the means of taking issue with the conclusions of some of the essayists. They will want )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to make good use of bibliographical information in the footnotes, which is far fuller than that supplied in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography; the latter attempts to offset its )] TJ ET BT 247.676 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lacunae)] TJ ET BT 285.668 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by including separate entries under author for every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(single essay in the preceding pages, and an additional entry for the book itself. \(Irish diplomatic historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(live in Chinese boxes or Russian dolls.\) The sharp-eyed student will also notice that Dr Gerard Keown and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mr. Robert Patterson begin with identical footnotes stressing that the views expressed are those of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors alone, writing in personal capacities. The student should then whip to the helpful curricula vitae: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two authors are in the Irish Department of Foreign Affairs, known as the Department of External Affairs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until 1971. Neither Keown \(on the Irish Free State's creation of its foreign policy in the 1920s\) nor Patterson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(on Irish relations with Vichy France\) can be accused of softening their conclusions where historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reappraisal is appropriate, and if their choice of extracts hit harder than their judgments, that fortifies them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians no less than as diplomats. We are treated without comment to the pro-Axis head of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign service, Joe Walshe, complaining in June 1945 that liberated France's envoy entertained 'the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anti-Irish and the most collaborationist elements in the Ascendancy class'. It may indicate Walshe's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenal capacity for survival that he would purloin his invectives from his victorious adversaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without a tremor.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But the presence of the diplomats historicizing in their 'personal capacity' typifies something not discussed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here: the personnel profile of the Irish diplomatic corps. The elegant professionalism of Keown's and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patterson's essays is characteristic of the most charming, most cultured, and most unscrupulous foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service in Europe, perhaps in the world. Multi-archival history is all very well, but it needs fleshing out with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the identities of its civil servants where possible: readers will need to examine Conor Cruise O'Brien's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Memoir)] TJ ET BT 72.008 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\) to get some substance to the crucial figures who from time to time formulated Irish policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a ruthlessness to their elected nominal superiors which would stagger )] TJ ET BT 394.304 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Yes, )] TJ ET BT 416.972 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Minister')] TJ ET BT 460.208 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(s Sir Humphrey. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And O'Brien himself, while atypical in his exceptional intellect and morality, is characteristic of the corps to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which he belonged in the nature if not in the vast extent of his cultural range. His colleagues included the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poets Val Iremonger and Denis Devlin, the razor-sharp )] TJ ET BT 300.944 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish Times )] TJ ET BT 358.280 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewer and columnist Tommy Woods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the celebrant of Lafcadio Hearn San Ronan, the foremost Irish-Gaelic poet of her time Mire Mhac a' tSaoi, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historian of Irish 1848 revolutionaries in Australia T. J. Kiernan \(whose wife, Delia Murphy, was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most famous Irish folk-singer of the mid-century\), the archaeologist Eoin MacWhite, the leading Irish lay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theologian San M Ramoinn, few of them receiving index-able mention here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The results may be seen in the Irish diplomatic performance in the EC, or in the transformation of Margaret )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thatcher within a year from the screeching chauvinist 'OUT ... OUT ... OUT' to the signatory of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Agreement. Her fate was that of so many arrogant establishmentarians whether in British or other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(governments: the more vehement, the more vulnerable. The Anglo-Irish Agreement may have been a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad thing: in the opinion of the present writer, it was. But it is impossible to withhold admiration for the skill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which the Mephistophelean Irish coldly marked and profited by every hostage to fortune their chosen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faustina delivered. And the making of that crack corps is the largely hidden music to which this book forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a libretto. The editors should really have chosen an epigraph from the passage in A. G. Macdonnell's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England, Their England)] TJ ET BT 150.356 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1933\) in which the proceedings of the League of Nations are interrupted by a burst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of laughter from the New Zealand delegate, the Australian delegate, and the South African delegate to whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Foreign Minister of the Irish Free State had just whispered a vulgar story. Thus we win our Irish victories.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet it was not a united corps. Ronan Fanning seeks to lend coherence to the history covered by the volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as does the sub-title, in arguing that the period covers transfer from idealism to realism. The difficulty is that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians' packaging inevitably bruises the messy past, which sooner or later starts to seep through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parcel. Kennedy and Skelly open their introductory essay with a brilliant paradox: Irish diplomatic history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its \(precocious\) infancy, but 'the history of Ireland since 1916 is, in many respects, the history of Irish )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7790 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreign policy'. \(p. 13\) And Irish consensus remained in)] TJ ET BT 305.132 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many respects a veneer, to intimidate the forces that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had practically destroyed any form of rule, British or Irish.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish diplomatic mandarins were playing for much bigger stakes, relatively speaking, than their foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts. The Department of External Affairs was presided over by a series of civil servants in the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under review, and of these, Joe Walshe \(1923-46\), was a right-wing clericalist \(hence more pro-Mussolini )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than pro-Hitler and more attuned to Pope Pius XII than either\); and Freddie Boland \(1946-50\) was so pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English that his accent seemed to make Whitehall, by comparison, sound Cockney; and Con Cremin \(1958-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(64\) was almost unquestioningly pro-American. Fanning derisively quotes the Anglophobe San MacBride )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entering office as Minister for External Affairs in 1948: "Mr. Boland, give me a list of all the British agents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in your department". \(p. 320\) But MacBride, for all of his exaggerated French accent, was no fool, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and this sounds like an opening salvo against Boland himself, who was indeed secretly volunteering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information on potential left-wing subversives to Whitehall at this time - as has been shown by British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival evidence in recent years. Macbride's question and Boland's intrigues are akin to the anti-Communist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witch-hunt then under way in the U.S.A., much of it orchestrated by Irish-Americans. Troy Davis here tells )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(us that "Whereas Irish Americans of the earlier ere had so sympathised with the republican movement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland that they had vigorously opposed what they interpreted as President Wilson's pro-British foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, their post-war counterparts in the Irish American Community tended to base their foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(views more exclusively on their perceptions of American interest." \(p. 201\) But this is a meaningless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction: anti-Wilson Irish-Americans wanted to show they had clout and insisted that American National )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest was best served by deferring to them - as did their successors thirty years after. The best means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(showing the wallop of their clout from 1945-55, was by denouncing Red revolutionaries \(especially with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspiciously English accents\) rather than Orange reactionaries. Dr. Davis shows that in a )] TJ ET BT 462.932 485.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(volte-face)] TJ ET BT 510.248 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier British policy, Northern Ireland premier Sir Basil Brooke was brought to the U.S.A. in 1950 with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much success; in fact his domestic discriminatory rhetoric, warning Northern Ireland Protestants against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment of inevitably subversive Catholics, harmonised in nature, if not in victims, with Joe McCarthy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agitation against jobs for the Reds.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brooke's American success had at least one antecedent from his Anglo-Irish squire-archical origins whom he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was unlikely to cite: Charles Stewart Parnell, the great Home Rule leader whose tour of the United States )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from January to March 1880 enlisted so much financial and moral support from Americans, many of whom )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had little Irish blood. Parnell used American restlessness against isolation to bring pressure to bear on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain, and his own status as grandson and namesake of the American Naval War Hero of 1812 Admiral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Stewart, helped him to exploit an Irish dimension in British-American diplomacy. However Brooke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might deplore that history, it gave enormous confidence to twentieth-century Irish nationalists. The Kennedy-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skelly thesis on Irish history as the history of Irish foreign policy is at times as true before 1916 as after it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially if we accept Emmet Larkin's notion of a kind of Irish state taking shape from the mid-1880s under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(U.K. rule. And Irish nationalist conditioning by history would dominate the thought of many founders of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(post-Treaty Irish Free State as well as of their opponents and heirs such as amon de Valera. Thus our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome for Michael Kennedy's fascinating discussion of Dil ireann's Latin American diplomacy would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be the greater had its Chilean discussion been augmented by the dramatic role of an Irish nationalist in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chilean history - Parnell's one-time close confederate Patrick Egan. Only seven years after emigration, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became the U.S. Minister to Chile under the Harrison administration in 1889, and carried matters with so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high a hand that Irish envoys, thirty years later, would have found Chileans affected by his memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adversely or amicably. Kennedy makes the excellent point that Dublin's thinking about Irish emigrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities and loyalties, was frequently self-deceptively solipsistic. But his readers would be the wiser for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more data on the Irish-Argentine and Irish-Chilean peoples to whose factions his allusions are at times )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tantalisingly vague. Irish writers on the host countries of their fellow-countrymen overseas should adopt a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little of the voracious enthusiasm with which they seem invariably ready to discuss English data. No English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian can fail to benefit from Eunan O'Halpin on the poverty of British intelligence 1932-33 or \(above )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all\) from Deirdre McMahon on the limits of British governmental intellect in citing Irish precedents of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possible relevance to India and Burma. Whitehall may be less than grateful, but if it cannot learn from its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own past, what good is it to the future? The same is true of the frankness with which Irish official blunders )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7208 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and btises are treated here. In fact, the British official mind in these pages seems at its sharpest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commentary on constitutional questions, and at its flabbiest in assessing public opinion. Irish historians in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performance here occasionally, neo-colonially, show similar imbalance. Bernadette Whelan's sparkling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(multilateral discussion of Ireland and the invitation to join the Marshall Plan cites an American poll of 1944 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favouring a US declaration of War on ire. It is well for complacent Irish chauvinists to remember that fact, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but we all must remember that an American poll - indeed all American polls - four years later were to assert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that at the ensuing Presidential election Governor Thomas E. Dewey would defeat President Harry S. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Truman.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The need for Irish diplomatic history to root itself in the study of Irish social history and popular attitudes is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nowhere more evident than in the otherwise admirable four essays on Ireland's diplomatic origins of present-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day involvement in the EC. The archival work shown here is fascinating, and carries us a long way from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tourist vanities. Yet however absurd the Irish self-congratulation on Irish European consciousness going all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way back through the past millennium and a half to the days of St Columbanus and St. Killian \(duly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commemorated on the bows of present-day Irish aircraft\), it is a key heritage and unlocks many gates other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than Heaven's. Ireland's success, and the UK's failure, in Europe has everything to do with the Irish sounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as if they wanted to be thought European and the English \(not the British\) sounding as if they didn't. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Ireland, time and again, saw its salvation coming )] TJ ET BT 315.656 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from)] TJ ET BT 338.324 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Europe, even if it was only the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salvation obtained by eighteenth-century smuggling; England saved the world in Summer 1940 by resisting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destruction coming )] TJ ET BT 129.344 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from)] TJ ET BT 152.012 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Europe. Irish Catholicism might be famous for banning )] TJ ET BT 423.992 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1984)] TJ ET BT 447.992 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Graham Greene's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heart of the Matter)] TJ ET BT 127.676 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; but Irish Catholicism in the library knew its France from Franois Mauriac and Georges )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernanos, its Italy from Ignazio Silone and Giovanni \('Don Camillo'\) Guareschi. The politically acute )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insistence that Irish diplomats cheer as enthusiastically as Xenophon's ten thousand whenever Irish foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy caught sight of the Holy See, may seem ludicrous today \(consider the IRA in 1929: 'prostrate at your )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feet, Most Holy Father' - while otherwise defying all the world\). Ludicrous or not, it meant that the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were thinking European, irrespective of the century they might imaginatively inhabit while thinking it. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Europe, peripheral Ireland became cosmopolitan; metropolitan Whitehall became parochial. Amid a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percussion of their pratfalls, Irish diplomats acquired a European sense if only by originating in a people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which at least thought it had one. Ireland therefore made its mileage at the League of Nations, at the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nations, and in the European Community, at the expense of British isolationism \(while, as Ronan Fanning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incisively notes, secure under the British imperial umbrella unless the umbrella decided to spike Ireland in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some wild moment\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish independence within interdependence had its counterpart among the big powers in de Gaulle; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(here even the giants of twentieth-century Irish historiography, Dermot Keogh and Ronan Fanning, become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trapped in the Whiggish from-independence-to-internationalism formula. \(Progress was always an Irish dirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(word.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Up to 1961, Ireland relied on partition to keep it out of war, out of NATO, and out of anything else )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically, economically or theologically inconvenient. Fanning does good work in showing how far this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thinking was first established by de Valera himself when a Dil ireann envoy seeking recognition and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funds from the United States 1919-20. But Lemass as 'a foreign policy realist' writes Keogh 'went very far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards dismantling the country's traditional opposition to membership of military alliances'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fanning concludes the book with the words:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What, then, is the significance of the events of 1961-2? Simply this: that although Ireland did not finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accede to the EEC until 1 January 1973, the evidence now available reveals that, notwithstanding the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Euroscepticism of amon de Valera and Frank Aiken, the debate within the Irish foreign policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment about the tension between the independence enshrined in neutrality and the interdependence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enshrined in the EEC had by then been effectively resolved. Irish foreign policy has since remained wedded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the realism of interdependence. \(p. 285\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here Fanning, and, more cautiously, Keogh, ignore what actually happened; de Gaulle vetoed Britain's entry )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7352 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Irish revolution in foreign policy went abegging. De Gaulle vetoed on the unquestionable grounds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the UK sought entry under US urging, and would be an American stooge in Europe. Lemass had thrown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away the obvious advantage of holding de Gaulle's respect as an independent, nationally-conscious, Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minor power, and had hitch-hiked a lift on British subservience to the U.S.A. Modern jargon like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Euroscepticism' is perilously imposed on the past: de Valera could justly claim that his policy at the League, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for instance, had been far less Eurosceptic than Britain's had. Whatever else he was, he was no mid-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth-century Teresa Gorman or Hague \(or even, however ethnically linked, no Portillo\), as elsewhere )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Messrs Keogh and Fanning would agree. On the strength of Keogh's evidence it is even doubtful if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans were that anxious to win Irish membership in NATO . Keogh thinks they were, but he simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shows that one hard-bitten career diplomat, in Washington D.C., Joseph Sweeney, may have hoodwinked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the usual hoodwinkers, into believing that Under-Secretary George Ball, and behind him President John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kennedy, demanded Irish presence in NATO. But, as with Irish presence in the EEC in the 1960s, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian, to be realistic, must look at the thing that really happens. After Lemass had plumped against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neutrality, and de Gaulle vetoed British Entry into the EEC, Ireland did not pursue entry into NATO. Keogh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes a meeting between Ball and Aiken in November 1961, but makes little of it. The most obvious \(if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unrecorded\) point of mutual interest at that stage would have been the Congo crisis and Conor Cruise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(O'Brien's recall from Katanga, unmentioned by Keogh but the key question in Irish-US-UK-French affairs at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that moment. It is difficult to believe that Aiken and Ball would not have talked about that; it is equally clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that they would not want to tell the UK or France - or some of their own subordinates - that they had. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Boland was currently intriguing with Britain to have O'Brien removed.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If Kennedy had wanted Ireland to join NATO his most obvious ploy would have been to have said so during )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his visit there in Summer 1963: at that point, the Irish people would have carried him shoulder-high through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the portals of NATO, Inferno, Purgatorio or Paradiso. He did nothing of the kind. He was apparently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerned about rights for American planes to land at Shannon, i.e. with commercial, not military, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questions. Within three years Irish public opinion was becoming very uneasy about US military alliances, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and External Affairs was once again courageously announcing itself in full agreement with the Pope. As for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdependence, the flea is interdependent on its large prey but its well-being requires agility more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subservience. The archival historian must always remember the world is not covered in available archives: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Skelly on Ireland's UN manoeuvres in 1960-61, anent the South Tirol, attempts less and thus achieves more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on surer feet covering wider terrain. But to say all this is to reassert the great value of this collection: Keogh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Skelly's discovery of the Sweeneyad, whether or not Sweeney spoke only in his personal capacity, helps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to show how much de Gaulle's veto was justified by New Frontier treatment of the British and Irish EEC )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(candidatures as though they were U.S. stooges.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To turn to another group of essays, Katrina Goldstone's discussion of Ireland's failure to help save Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees from Hitler's Europe is a welcome if grim reminder that a small power could prove as contemptible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as big ones, and that critics of Israel should remember how universal is the western guilt which made )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionism the only alternative to the Final Solution. Equally, Irish equivocation on the recognition of Israel is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all too well charted by Dermot Keogh's graduate student Paula Wylie \(and what a pleasure to salute a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume mingling scholars of such eminence as Keogh with inspired 'prentice hands deserving recognition\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joe Walshe may be very funny in retrospect with his advice to Boland on 5th February 1949, that "the Arabs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have always believed and advocated [sic!] the Immaculate Conception of our Lady [i.e. the mother of Jesus], )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas the Jews [who include Jesus and His mother] have always adopted the most insulting attitude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards this doctrine. That is one of the strongest reasons why the Holy See hates to have any truck with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews." But if this was the impression that Pius XII's Vatican left on one of its most devout diplomatic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(votaries, its successor governments must consider the depths and extent of spiritual responsibility for acts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urgent need of atonement.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And perhaps we had better stop here before the Irish and all other governments are led to burn all unopened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives at the stake, insofar as they have not already done so.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 73.711 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 55.931 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 55.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/204)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 54.537 m 322.316 54.537 l S endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 54.8515 322.3157 66.7315 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/204) >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 225 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1211)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000586 00000 n 0000000668 00000 n 0000005688 00000 n 0000005797 00000 n 0000005907 00000 n 0000006016 00000 n 0000009577 00000 n 0000009705 00000 n 0000009789 00000 n 0000009854 00000 n 0000017812 00000 n 0000017877 00000 n 0000025720 00000 n 0000025785 00000 n 0000033046 00000 n 0000033130 00000 n 0000040535 00000 n 0000040661 00000 n 0000040756 00000 n 0000040821 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 41098 %%EOF