%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818125131+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818125131+01'00') /Title (Musical Women in England, 1870-1914. 'Encroaching on all Man's Privileges') >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4946 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Musical Women in England, 1870-1914. 'Encroaching on all Man's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Privileges')] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The period from the late 1980s has seen a belated but growing interest in the social and cultural history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women's music life and Paula Gillett's elegantly written, widely researched and thought-provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph is a welcome addition to the literature. Gillett's study seeks 'to extend and enrich current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding both of women's participation in late-nineteenth and early-twentieth century English musical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture and perceptions of the female musician that were heatedly discussed and challenged during that era' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. vii\). Although, as will be argued later, 'musical culture' is interpreted in rather specific ways, within her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chosen territories the author succeeds admirably in meeting her task.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As might be suggested by a book that has fifty-eight pages of footnotes \(and )] TJ ET BT 403.304 239.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(real )] TJ ET BT 425.636 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pre-publisher minimalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(footnotes at that, full of extra information, quotation and acknowledgements\) as well as eighteen pages of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography, the book is rooted in impressively extensive secondary reading and in numerous and wide-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ranging primary sources. She has made particularly good use of the music press and of more general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periodical literature, with )] TJ ET BT 158.660 182.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Lady)] TJ ET BT 203.660 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and the )] TJ ET BT 244.652 182.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Girls Own Paper)] TJ ET BT 327.320 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( proving especially fertile, and has consulted an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(array of novels, poems and, to a lesser extent, popular art works. The sources both testify to the importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the topic in the contemporary imagination and provide rich material for her to explore. If critical notes are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be sounded here, there is rather less use of the general literature on women's history, especially working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class women's history, than might have been expected and statistical data is in short supply. At the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, census returns would have provided a useful starting point in establishing approximate orders of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnitude in some chapters. Gillett compensates to a large extent, however, through her skilful and subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of literary sources, interpreting them in fruitful ways without recourse to unnecessary layers of theory. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although always aware of nuances of meaning, she generally appears to see clear authorial intent within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and reasonably defined audience responses deriving from them. As might be expected from an author )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(205)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 1 April, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paula Gillett)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dave Russell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7559 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who has written a well-received book on Victorian painters, her use of art, although limited by publishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constraints, is also engaging. An apparently slight piece such as George du Maurier's 1875 )] TJ ET BT 471.440 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Punch)] TJ ET BT 502.100 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cartoon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Fair Sex-tett' \(p. 110\), for example, receives sustained and informative analysis and emerges as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially important source for considering the nature of the male 'gaze' in the 1870s. The pictures that are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used are reasonably well reproduced and are accompanied by brief summaries of the more detailed comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the main text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book's thoughtful introduction identifies the 1870s as a key decade for women's social and political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancement in general terms before sketching out the major ways in which 'music practice, both amateur )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and professional, was sharply divided by gender' in the later Victorian and Edwardian periods \(p. 3\). It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rehearses both the arguments and the approach - a weaving and balancing of literary, autobiographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journalistic sources - which emerge in the six chapters that comprise the remainder of the work. These fall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially into three pairs, the first of which is concerned with the provision and the receipt of late Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musical philanthropy. Gillett makes a persuasive case for the importance of this much neglected area of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural activity, arguing that while such work fell squarely within women's 'traditional' role, 'the close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association of music with philanthropic activity led women far beyond the private realm in ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously weakened the ideology of separate spheres and the barriers to female participation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional musical world' \(p. 33\). In her study of provision, she focuses largely on three London-based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies founded in the late 1870s, the Kyrle Society, People's Entertainment Society and People's Concert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Society, all dedicated in various ways to bringing music to working-class audiences, and on two popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concert halls, the Royal Victoria Coffee Music Hall \(the 'Old Vic'\) and the People's Palace. Although not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusively women's organisations, women played a major and often the leading role in the concert societies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while the Old Vic was forever associated with its founder Emma Cons and her niece Lillian Baylis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gillett usefully explores the differences between the various bodies. The People's Entertainment Society, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, clearly saw musical philanthropy as part of a wider mechanism of social control, while the People's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Concert Society was far more committed to sowing '"the seeds of art for art's sake"' \(p. 49\). She also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the range of formative experiences on offer. Middle-class women amateur musicians could give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public performances, while working-class audiences might sometimes see leading performers such as singers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charlotte Sainton-Dolby and Antoinette Sterling at prices within the reach of all but the very poorest, as well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as some perfectly competent amateurs and lesser professionals in free or very low cost events held within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local community. \(The P.E.S gave a concert for 700 workers in Doulton's Lambeth potteries in 1880.\) For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspiring working-class musicians, male and female, there were a variety of classes, bands and choirs, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best of which reached high standards. A handful of talented working-class musicians had their lives literally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transformed by individual acts of philanthropy, and none more so than the violinist Marie Hall, whose rise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from street musician to concert platform with help from Elgar, the music educator Jane Jackson Roeckel and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, is so well told here. The only disappointing feature of these two chapters is their almost exclusively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan focus. Beyond a brief mention of Miss Say Ashworth's Ancoats girls' choir in the Edwardian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period and a few other passing references, the provinces receive the shortest of shrifts as is so often the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in English music history. In fact, some of the most important contributions to musical philanthropy were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made outside of London and its environs, and not least in the work of Mary Wakefield \(1853-1910\), the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kendal-born amateur singer, friend of Ruskin, supporter of women's suffrage and key figure in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(establishment of the competitive choral movement, so important to the stimulation of choral music from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later nineteenth century. Perhaps the author felt Wakefield's career to be too well known, or somehow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginal to her central interests, but it is to be hoped that future writers will embrace rather more fully Miss )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wakefield in Cumberland, the Ford Sisters in Leeds, the provincial branches of the Kyrle Society and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such activity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gillett's second pair of chapters deals with shifting attitudes to the woman violinist, the first tracing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demise of the 'informal ban' on violin playing that so hampered prospective performers in the period before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about 1870, the second dealing with attitudes to woman players from the 1890s. This is the most 'cultural' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section of the book in methodological terms, with the author making particularly acute use of literary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artistic sources. In one of the pithy and striking summations that are such a feature of Gillett's writing, she )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7689 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that opposition to the female violinist was 'the result of satanic and other unsettling supernatural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associations juxtaposed with an almost visceral expectation that this female-gendered instrument [she is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent on this] should have a male master'. \(p. 98\) The instrument's long association with sin, death and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Satan is fascinatingly explored as are the various discourses surrounding the supposedly defeminising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of an instrument, the playing of which cause bodily and facial distortion. As Gillett observes, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the latter prejudices simply reflected a male desire to keep such an important and highly regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instrument in their own hands. The importance of the arrival in Britain in 1869 of Czech violinist Wilma )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman-Neruda in changing this situation \(a review of one of her concerts gave Gillett the book's sub-title\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is well described, although Gillett rightly sees changed context as more significant to historical causation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the impact of great figures, describing her role as 'not that of a female St.George, but rather an active )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and influential participant in a dynamically shifting situation' \(p. 98\). Among the key factors identified here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are the wider advances in women's education in particular and the nascent feminist movement in general, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along with a democraticisation of piano ownership leading to a search for new high-status instruments in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawing rooms of England.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the 1890s, the female violinist had become positively fashionable and the second of the chapters explores )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her status in the period to 1914. As ever, Gillett's judgments are balanced and subtle. She is fully aware that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traces of old mentalities remain and, while finding potentially empowering and challenging views of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violinist in novels such as George Gissing's )] TJ ET BT 245.840 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Whirlpool)] TJ ET BT 315.512 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, she is equally alert to more conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulations in which marriage replaces career and high musical ambition. She also stresses that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avenues, notably those into symphony orchestras, were generally closed. In this context, one far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsympathetic male commentator observed in 1911 that few women possessed the necessary 'force and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensity which belong to the average male performer' \(p. 140\). There is, too, an acceptance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes intense sexual )] TJ ET BT 159.008 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(frisson)] TJ ET BT 191.684 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that surrounded the young woman player whose luxuriant tresses and thin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bare arms were the staples of most fictional accounts. However, she is ultimately more struck by the private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasures and public benefits that the instrument brought and sees the rise in female-violin playing as one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the changes 'associated with the image of the New Woman' \(p.122\) and 'a development that clearly opened )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way to other previously blocked modes of musical expression' \(p. 140\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final two chapters are less an obvious pair than their predecessors, but are both essentially concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with women as performers or providers of skills and services within the public domain. The first, 'Immortal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tones', deals with women as public singers. Once again, fictional works as familiar as )] TJ ET BT 450.440 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Daniel Deronda)] TJ ET BT 528.764 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other titles far less well known are used extremely effectively. Old ambiguities and concerns surface, female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amateur singers deemed at risk from 'moral danger' lest their brief moments in the spotlight lead to an excess )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of adulation and unsuitable expectation. The role of the amateur, according to one 1892 tract by Elizabeth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eastlake, was simply to enhance the domestic life of fathers and husbands. Gillett makes helpful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observations in this chapter on the complex set of attitudes surrounding the operatic diva. Extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful economically \(Adelina Patti received $4,646 per performance during an American tour of 1881-2\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and able to exert remarkable emotional power over her audiences, she was nevertheless both an object of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suspicion because of her association with the stage and with operatic passion, and also a highly sexualised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figure; participation in and endorsement of soap and corset adverts, which 'called direct attention to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singer's fleshly charms' \(p. 178\), made the singers to some extent willing partners here. Although Gillett )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never quite pulls all the various aspects of this chapter together, the trend of broad if never continuous or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchallenged progress which she seems to see as typifying women's position within the musical world, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once again apparent here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final chapter deals with women in the music profession and covers much ground. After examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour market in general terms, it considers opportunities for singers, wind players \(the Royal Academy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Music offered the first wind scholarship for females as late as 1901\), teachers, tuners and various other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups. A picture emerges of an increasing number of young women entering the profession from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing number of colleges and conservatoires, but finding it overstocked and positions therefore often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poorly paid and insecure. The chapter concludes with an interesting section on the Society of Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Musicians \(1911\). This was founded to improve the opportunities for women composers, many of who )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7593 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found it relatively easy to get their work performed but extraordinarily difficult to have it published. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although not an overtly suffragist organisation, some of its members most certainly were involved in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various groupings within the cause. The wide range covered does give this chapter a rather more episodic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feel than most others do, but valuable new material emerges. It is here, however, that the relative lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statistical data is most noticeably felt, while Gillett's concentration on the middle- and lower middle- class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musician is also rather limiting. Working-class female musicians, such as street entertainers, are occasionally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(glimpsed but never receive any sustained attention. While contemporary sources make them hard to study in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any depth, working-class women were involved in the profession in many ways and we need to be aware of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them and the questions they raise. Did those at rank and file level have a less positive career trajectory than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their better-off sisters, for example? Certainly, magistrates in the Yorkshire town of Brighouse, thought they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should, making it a condition of licence renewal in 1904 that women pianists under 21 years of age were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banned from playing in public house music rooms. Let us hope that Gillett or those who follow her will open )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up the class dimension of the gender debate rather more thoroughly in the future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These final comments raise some rather bigger concerns about the book. There is nothing more annoying for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an author than to be criticised for writing the 'wrong book' \(the one the reviewer would have written, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brilliantly so\) and the following might sound a little like a contribution of that type, concerned as it is with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exclusions rather than what is actually there. However, Gillett does leave herself open to the challenge that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(she has ignored or downplayed a number of important issues. The book's title certainly suggests a rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more comprehensive survey than we are actually given. Obviously, a whole variety of practical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial reasons mean that most titles imply a rather more exhaustive coverage than is delivered, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gillett's problem is compounded by her failure to define her content matter at the outset. There is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption that 'music' is mainly \(although certainly not exclusively\) 'art music' or adjacent to it, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('musicians' are largely drawn from beyond the manual working class and that musical activity is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typified by certain types of concert platform, the parlour and the philanthropic venue. This marginalises or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excludes many key areas. Can one really write a history of 'musical women' without mention, beyond a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing remarks, of music hall and musical comedy? For many Victorians and Edwardians, Marie Lloyd, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vesta Victoria, Gertie Millar and others )] TJ ET BT 228.308 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(were)] TJ ET BT 251.636 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the nation's musical women. Such performers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thousands of lesser known compatriots need acknowledgement at the very least \(the class issue is again )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important here\), while comparison between the economic and cultural situation of leading variety and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musical comedy stars and that of their operatic equivalents would have been interesting indeed. Perhaps the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author defines this territory as 'theatre' rather than music, or believes enough has been said and that other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(areas are more neglected, more pressing. Whatever the case, the decision to ignore the halls needed comment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and represents a missed opportunity. Perhaps more strangely, the book does not consider the )] TJ ET BT 480.620 328.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(voluntary)] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(musical society in any detail beyond the limited context of philanthropic activity. However, it was in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sphere, and especially in the choral society, that musical women made \(at first sight\) some of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant musical gains of the period. Male-dominated in the first half of the nineteenth century, the choral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society became a significant female space by the 1890s, where women from a very broad social spectrum )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could enjoy a rich and rewarding musical and social life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other major flaw in the book is the absence of a conclusion. It ends rather suddenly, an informative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of women composers unexpectedly followed by a brief final paragraph. The richness of Gillett's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings deserves better, as does the larger topic of women's place within musical life and the wider culture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While the overall theme of the book concerns the breaking of barriers, the emergence of women into new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territories, there are other narratives that demand attention. Does the fact that choral societies were having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing problems finding male singers from the late nineteenth century, or that there is evidence that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(male audience for serious concerts appears to have shrinking from a similar time, suggest that women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking into the musical world at precisely the moment when music of the types privileged in this book was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(losing its prestige within the wider society? The book ends without larger questions of this type being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(addressed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite these reservations, I left this book with a much new information, many new ideas, a completed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(library order slip \(multiple copies, too\) and the hope that it will be read by a much wider constituency than )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 1610 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that comprised by specialist music historians. 'Mainstream' historians too often ignore music \(although the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(request for this review is a most promising sign in itself\), but in doing so they miss much. Anyone interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in any aspect of women's history or in the wider fields of education, professionalisation, philanthropy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much else will learn from this study. Paula Gillett can have the pleasure of knowing that she has made an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important contribution to Victorian and Edwardian studies and that this will remain a key text for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(serious student of the relationship between music and society for the foreseeable future.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 679.951 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 662.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 662.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/205)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 660.777 m 322.316 660.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 635.800 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.400 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1213)] TJ ET BT 34.016 607.000 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 661.0915 322.3157 672.9715 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/205) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000584 00000 n 0000000666 00000 n 0000005664 00000 n 0000005773 00000 n 0000005883 00000 n 0000005992 00000 n 0000009553 00000 n 0000009681 00000 n 0000009765 00000 n 0000009830 00000 n 0000017442 00000 n 0000017507 00000 n 0000025249 00000 n 0000025314 00000 n 0000032960 00000 n 0000033044 00000 n 0000034707 00000 n 0000034835 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34930 %%EOF