%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 28 0 R 36 0 R 44 0 R 57 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728065719+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728065719+01'00') /Title (After the War was Over. Reconstructing the Family, Nation and State in Greece, 1943-1960) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4205 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(After the War was Over. Reconstructing the Family, Nation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(State in Greece, 1943-1960)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If any era deserves the epithet 'tragic' then it is the 1940s in Greece. Conquered in spring 1941, its people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were subjected to a brutal occupation regime, enduring famine, forced labour, deportation and terror. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1942, armed resistance to the occupying powers of Germany, Italy and Bulgaria and the collaborationist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government began in earnest. The main resistance movement, the National Liberation Front \(EAM\), was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially a creation of the Greek Communist Party \(the KKE\) which also dominated its military wing, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(National People's Liberation Army \(ELAS\). From 1943, large parts of Greece saw fierce fighting as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EAM/ELAS established its ascendancy over other resistance organisations and engaged with the Wehrmacht )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quisling Security Battalions. When Axis forces withdrew in the autumn of 1944, EAM/ELAS effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controlled most of the country, in parts of which it had implemented popular government with progressive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social policies, even if elsewhere it was viewed as a repressive military occupier. Arguably, EAM/ELAS )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have seized power after the German evacuation, but instead participated in a British-backed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of national unity largely composed of bourgeois conservative politicians returning from wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exile.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Suspicion and division ran deep, however, and soon the fragile coalition broke apart over the issue of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(composition of the armed forces of the post-war state. Early in December, after a wave of communist-led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strikes and demonstrations in Athens, open fighting broke out between ELAS units on the one hand and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government forces, anticommunist irregulars and British troops on the other. ELAS enjoyed considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(206)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 June, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Mazower)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780691058423)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(324pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Princeton, NJ)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick Finney)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 8278 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success elsewhere in the country but was defeated in Athens, called a truce, and entered into negotiations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure free elections and an amnesty. The tide had turned against the left, however, and by the Varkiza )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreement signed in February it agreed to the demobilization of ELAS and the exclusion from amnesty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those guilty of common-law crimes, which in effect facilitated the criminalisation of political opposition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There followed a 'white terror'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 182.624 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 182.624 738.051 m 196.616 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 196.616 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( EAM sympathisers were purged from the civil service and gendarmerie, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tens of thousands of former resistance fighters and communists were imprisoned, and nationalist bands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(roamed the countryside engaged in murder, rape and pillage against leftist communities. Centrist politicians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly lost control of nationalist and royalist elements dominating the army and security services, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government's writ scarcely ran in large parts of the country. The left abstained from elections in March )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1946 which consequently saw a victory for vindictive and partisan royalists, later that year a rigged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(plebiscite secured the return of the monarch, and government policy became increasingly brutal, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed by the executions of thousands of political prisoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repression forced many leftists to leave their homes and armed units began reforming in the mountainous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former strongholds of EAM/ELAS, eventually coalescing into the Democratic Army of Greece \(the DSE\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By 1947, the country was enveloped in civil war. Its outcome was determined by external geopolitical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factors as much as internal ones, for this civil war was also a crucial episode in the nascent Cold War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precipitating as it did the shift in American foreign policy signalled by the Truman Doctrine. The left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initially held its own against the reconstituted Greek National Army, but over time the latter's tight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organisation, ruthless tactics and American money and materiel began to tell; the DSE also suffered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grievously when it fell out with its patron Tito over the Soviet-Yugoslav split in 1948. By 1950 the war was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over, and many thousands of DSE fighters, their families and sympathisers went into exile in the eastern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bloc or into Greek prisons. Thereafter, democracy of a kind was re-established, but politics was dominated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by conservative, nationalist elements deeply imbued with anti-communism. Individuals tainted by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(association with the left in the civil war or even with participation in the wartime resistance were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalized politically and socially. Thus as Mark Mazower comments in his introduction, it was 'arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not until the anticommunist Right was itself discredited with the fall of the junta in 1974 that the country )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could return to some semblance of tranquility' \(p. 7\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays in this collection deal, on the one hand, with the history of wartime resistance and the civil war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, on the other, with their aftermath \(in this respect its title is slightly misleading\). Several contexts that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have informed their appearance can be briefly adumbrated. First, they are testimony to what Mazower has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere termed the 'remarkable renaissance of scholarship' in the historiography of modern Greece over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the last twenty years, and to his own efforts to disseminate the best of it to the Anglophone world. During )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the repressive post-war decades it was impossible to ask critical questions about the recent national past )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Greece, and so scholarship was both limited in quantity and dominated by foreign scholars. But now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a 'self-standing community of modern historians' has emerged there, in tune with intellectual developments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the broader international discipline, enjoying fruitful academic interchange with specialist centres abroad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but able as never before to push scholarship forward in universities and research centres at home.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 500.564 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 500.564 257.859 m 514.556 257.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.556 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Second, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the volume illustrates a shift in preoccupations in the historiography of the civil war. During the Cold War, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that writing centred narrowly on high politics and diplomacy and the obviously politicised question of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the KKE or Anglo-American policy-makers were more responsible for its outbreak. Some years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ago, Mazower argued that with the Soviet Union gone it was time to bring the perspectives of social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural history and anthropology to bear, in order to integrate the 'experiences of ordinary Greeks' into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture;)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 70.676 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 70.676 172.323 m 84.668 172.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.668 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( it is this kind of history from the bottom up that this collection begins to delineate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book can also be located within broader trends in the historiography of twentieth century Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mazower and contributors invoke as an inspiration the work of Claudio Pavone on the Italian resistance, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his frank dissection of its social dimension and the murky nature of resistance violence; moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceiving of resistance movements as combatants in civil wars opens the way to rethinking the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940s as a unitary period in which across Europe the domestic social and political order was radically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contested: 'if the war years are seen as part of a broader continuum of conflict, it follows that the war cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be seen as coming to an abrupt end with the German defeat' \(p. 9\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.436 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.436 60.531 m 366.428 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.428 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, this text is more generally )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 182.6237 738.3655 196.6157 750.2455 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 500.5637 258.1735 514.5557 270.0535 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.6757 172.6375 84.6677 184.5175 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 352.4357 60.8455 366.4277 72.7255 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 7813 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representative of recent developments in the literature on the aftermath of the Second World War. Large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scale generalisations about the manner in which different nations historicised the trauma of war, often based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost entirely on analysis of elite rhetoric and state-sponsored narratives, are now being supplemented by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social histories exploring the attitudes and memories of diverse collectivities within nations, often using oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history methods and mining newly opened archives. These more finely grained analyses are helping to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excavate the multiplicity of memory and how would-be dominant discourses were contested and consumed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the essays here contribute to integrating Greece into this wider picture.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.944 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.944 709.539 m 407.936 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although their concerns overlap, these essays nonetheless revolve around four separate themes. The first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group deal with justice, and bring into focus the dramatic turnaround of political fortunes in the second half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the 1940s. It was of course true in most European countries that 'the process of punishment and purge that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was supposed to hand down justice upon criminals and collaborators in the postliberation era was . partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and aborted';)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.828 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.828 626.259 m 109.820 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 109.820 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( but the Greek case was particularly extreme and complex since right wing reaction meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only that collaborators escaped justice but also that participation in the resistance became, in effect, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(retrospectively criminalized: there was no 'myth of the resistance' here to provide national social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political cohesion in the post-war world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mazower's own chapter explores the competing, highly politicised conceptions of justice in play in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucial 'inter-war' period of 1944-1945 and shows on a general level how efforts to re-establish liberal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial norms and prosecute collaborators were thwarted by the resurgence of the anticommunist right. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eleni Haidia's valuable regional study of the trials of collaborators in Thessaloniki shows how an initial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widespread determination for exemplary punishment dissipated amidst administrative disorganisation, under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(funding, corruption and the new political exigencies of the civil war. Procopis Papastratis' institutional case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of the attempts to purge Athens University of those compromised by association with the Germans and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the pre-war Metaxas regime is complementary, and brings out the bitterest ironies of the situation: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conservative faculty not only weathered the threat of purging \(using many of the apparently timeless tactics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of academic politics\) but also managed to secure the expulsion of EAM supporting professors. Susanne-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sophia Spiliotis ensures that the international geopolitical dimension does not become the baby thrown out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the bathwater and shows how it was not merely collaborators but actual German war criminals who fell )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into Greek hands that could evade retribution: in the later 1950s the mutual interest of Greek and West )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German governments in concealing the murkier dimensions of the wartime past to bolster their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary political and economic relations ensured that Max Merten, a Nazi functionary who played a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key role in the deportation of Thessaloniki's Jews, escaped justice.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The best contribution here - though some may find it a little encumbered by literary critical circumlocution - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Polymeris Voglis' study of the fate of leftist political prisoners in the civil war. Drawing on various forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of personal testimony, he conjures up the palpable pain and bewilderment of those interned and in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cases executed by the reconstructed right wing state. He casts new light on the strategy of coercing prisoners )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into signing declarations of repentance, characterising it as a means of textually manipulating and re-fixing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prisoners' identities, forcing them into 'a self-betrayal, a self-negation' \(p. 77\). The psychological price of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purchasing one's life in this way was terribly high, for individuals would be stigmatised as sinners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traitors by the KKE and shunned by former comrades, yet scarcely accepted as loyal and trustworthy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the reconstructed national community. The alternative, however, was often execution, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Voglis sensitively explores, drawing on the final correspondence of moribunds, how those who were literally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than textually negated attempted to make their own deaths explicable as sacrifices in the name of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freedom and democracy. Reading their final words arouses feelings of almost unbearable poignancy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly now that the ideals of communism for which they died are apparently so universally discredited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second group of essays deals with various forms of social relations and intensifies this focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human impact of the conflicts. Mando Dalianis' gratifyingly finds that the children of political prisoners - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of whom spent formative years in jail with their mothers or in state institutions - generally suffered few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long-term psychological problems, but does detect a lingering resentment that parents had put ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before family. Riki van Boeschoten's writes on the people of Ziakas, a northern Greek village of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly leftist sympathies that lost 90% of its population, scattered across the eastern bloc from )] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.9437 709.8535 407.9357 721.7335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.8277 626.5735 109.8197 638.4535 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 42 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8139 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prague to Tashkent, in the aftermath of the civil war. Her essay is somewhat overburdened by general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(methodological reflection, but nonetheless contains fascinating material on how refugees separated from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(family members coped with exile, the efforts of those villagers that remained in Greece to reconstruct family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and community relations, and also the processes of reconciliation with each other and with the state that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followed the return of the exiles in the changed political climate of the 1980s. Perhaps the best essay here is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tassoula Vervenioti's analysis of how resistance and civil war impacted upon the lives of leftist women. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war destabilised entrenched family values, and participation in the resistance offered many women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented opportunities to operate in the public sphere. But despite the KKE's progressive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary commitments it too was a patriarchal institution; moreover, after the war with conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideals once more ascendant 'choosing between traditional gender roles or continuing the struggle for social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberation was often a life-or-death matter' \(p. 105\) and most women were forced to return to 'a domesticity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beset with enormous political and economic hardships' \(p. 116\). There is tremendous pathos in the heart-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rending life stories explored in each of these pieces.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essays in the third group open up a fresh field of inquiry through innovative methodological approaches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and regional case studies, and confront squarely the nature of violence in the two conflicts. Stathis Kalyvas' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of resistance violence - indeed, the 'Red Terror' - in the Argolid during the Nazi occupation is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longest piece in the volume, and is hallmarked by impeccable research drawing on regional and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives, oral testimony and unpublished memoirs, autobiographies and local histories. There is, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than a whiff of )] TJ ET BT 135.656 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Book of Communism)] TJ ET BT 286.976 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( about the whole enterprise as he sets out to show that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left-wing violence was much more systematic, ferocious and organised than previous historians \(preferring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 'overlook, minimize, or whitewash' it \(p. 142\)\) have allowed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.296 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.296 497.955 m 353.288 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.288 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The valuable evidence that he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncovered certainly shows that EAM/ELAS fought a dirty war in the region, and he is surely right to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contend that the violence of the two sides must be analysed as relational phenomena; but through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language he employs, the selection of material and the mode of emplotment he adopts it is almost invariably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the left that appear to be initiating violence and committing the graver crimes. Future historians will have to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reckon with his empirical material and his exposition of how private vendettas intertwined with political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological motives, but he surely sets the bar of morality too high in expecting EAM/ELAS to have fought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a partisan war against the Wehrmacht and collaborationists by unimpeachably and consistently fair means.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Sakkas' work on the civil war in Evrytania tackles a similar subject a little more even-handedly. He too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that the violence of the Greek resistance requires further systematic research, but he is not so quick to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismiss the role of individual 'ideologically fanatical )] TJ ET BT 289.160 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kapetans)] TJ ET BT 331.820 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(' \(p. 194\) in its worst excesses, or to assert that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the black hand of the KKE lay behind every single atrocity \(indeed, he highlights palpable tensions between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ELAS fighters and their political advisers\). Surveying violence across the whole decade, and thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encompassing the 'white terror' before and during the civil war, also helps to put 'red terror' in perspective. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sakkas is also eloquent, again through the use of well-chosen life stories, in invoking the manner in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those on the losing side were 'not only silent and silenced, but . virtually written out of history except in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of the "enemy" in the moral Greek drama of Good versus Evil' \(p. 204\). Lee Sarafis' piece on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policing - by state authorities and EAM/ELAS - of the village of Deskati in northern Greece is, in contrast, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather one-dimensional: she paints a rosy picture of the resistance that would surely infuriate Kalyvas and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even appears to contradict herself, since having described the assassination of two collaborators she goes on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to recount the villagers' pride that 'in Deskati, no one was killed by the resistance movement' \(pp. 213, 217\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Taken collectively, however, these essays successfully further the ongoing excavation of the murky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ambiguities of resistance, and even if the wider applicability of arguments based on local studies may be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioned, this point becomes less significant as they accumulate. They also unintentionally illustrate that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lingering Cold War tensions still inflect interpretations of this crucial issue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final set of essays is the least cohesive but uniformly interesting. It focuses on issues of national and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnic identity that have loomed large in recent research, not least because developments in former )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yugoslavia through the 1990s sensitised scholars to this dimension.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.012 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.012 89.043 m 373.004 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 373.004 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Bea Lewkowicz' study of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragment of the Jewish community of Thessaloniki that survived the Holocaust very perceptively handles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral testimony gathered from those who faced most starkly the problems of attempting to return to normality )] TJ ET endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 339.2957 498.2695 353.2877 510.1495 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.0117 89.3575 373.0037 101.2375 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R 55 0 R ] /Contents 45 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Length 7903 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after violence. She skilfully traces how Jews returning from the death camps or the mountains attempted to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconstruct family and community life, and how they too were rendered invisible not only by physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decimation but also, until very recently, by the dominant discourses of the Greek state that stressed historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuity and homogeneity. Xanthippi Kotzageorgi-Zymari and Tassos Hadjianastassiou also use oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony to great effect to trace the impact of the Bulgarian occupation in Eastern Macedonia on those that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered it, and how those events have been remembered by subsequent generations; they discover that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst the post-war generation is rather dismissive of the emotions and experiences of their forebears, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(share similar ethno-cultural stereotypes of the Bulgarians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anastasia Karakasidou explores how the Greek government attempted to instil a sense of conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity and unity after these bitter internecine wars through the orchestration of patriotic pageants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on national holidays. Although there is some interesting empirical material on the staging of national holiday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(festivities, her essay as a whole is rather disappointing because it lacks firm focus and does not connect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficiently closely to the central concerns of the volume. What one would have liked to see here was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysis of what kind of authorised version of the Second World War the state attempted to propagate in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aftermath, and a detailed analysis of precisely how through rhetoric and symbolism leftist values were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalized and discredited during and after the civil war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 318.284 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 318.284 569.235 m 332.276 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 332.276 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( These issues are touched on: the decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make a national holiday of 28 October, the anniversary of Greece's defiant 'no' to Mussolini's ultimatum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1940, clearly focused attention on a moment of unambiguous national unity unlike what followed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German invasion in 1941. But instead of developing them, the essay ranges too widely and sometimes reads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like a general study of Greek nation building in the twentieth century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These essays vary quite widely in length and scope and employ a pleasingly eclectic range of source )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materials and methodologies. Some are based on oral testimony and anthropological analysis, others employ )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly available Greek and German archival materials, while yet others use more familiar documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence \(Mazower's chapter, for example, shows the enduring utility of the FO 371 and similar series in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Public Record Office\). Given that the volume aims to showcase cutting edge research, it inevitably raises as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many questions as it answers, pointing productively if perhaps rather untidily in numerous directions. But it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes a fine contribution in sketching out with an unprecedented level of sophistication how the Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polity in the 1940s was 'fragmented and reformed', 'how Greece recovered from the most prolonged and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traumatic experience of its brief life as a nation-state' \(p. 21\). Some minor gripes can be raised. The two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps included in the volume are not really adequate since they are insufficiently detailed to permit location )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of most of the places mentioned in the text, which will frustrate precisely those general readers, unversed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek geography, that Mazower wishes to reach. Moreover, although some repetition of basic narrative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factual material is probably unavoidable if the essays are to stand alone, on some occasions a firmer editorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention would have been welcome: for example, when two successive authors reproduce the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paragraph from C. M. Woodhouse's memoirs and deem it 'well-known and much-quoted' \(pp. 146, 189\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These quibbles should not detract, however, from the achievements of the editor and his contributors in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(producing an exceptionally absorbing collection that should command a wide readership. What is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arresting and rewarding is the manner in which new source materials and sensibilities are opening up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirely new perspectives on the human dimension of these conflicts: how, in a particular national context, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the grand ideological passions of the twentieth century shaped and scarred the lives of flesh and blood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.331 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 124.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Close, )] TJ ET BT 129.680 124.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origins of the Greek Civil War)] TJ ET BT 299.672 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Longman, 1995\), pp. 150-188.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 497.324 124.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 497.324 123.315 m 551.312 123.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 110.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 110.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Mazower, 'British Historians of Greece since the Second World War', Synthesis: Review of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Modern Greek Studies, 1 \(2\), 1996, pp. 14-21, here at pp. 19-20.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 373.964 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 373.964 94.803 m 427.952 94.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 81.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Mazower, 'Historians at War: Greece, 1940-1950', Historical Journal, 38 \(2\), 1995, p. 505.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 527.240 81.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 527.240 80.547 m 554.900 80.547 l S BT 64.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 66.291 m 90.344 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 53.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Claudio Pavone, )] TJ ET BT 146.348 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Una guerra civile. Saggio storico sulla moralit nella Resistenza)] TJ ET BT 458.684 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Turin: Bollati )] TJ ET endstream endobj 46 0 obj [44 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 318.2837 569.5495 332.2757 581.4295 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 497.3237 123.6295 551.3117 135.5095 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 373.9637 95.1175 427.9517 106.9975 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 527.2397 80.8615 554.8997 92.7415 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 56 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 66.6055 90.3437 78.4855 ] >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R 67 0 R 69 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 58 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Length 4548 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boringhieri, 1991\). Similar themes are prominent in Istvn Dek, Jan Gross and Tony Judt \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Retribution in Europe. World War II and its Aftermath)] TJ ET BT 399.356 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton: Princeton )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 180.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 180.008 766.563 m 233.996 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compare the approach in Henry Rousso, )] TJ ET BT 262.316 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Vichy Syndrome: History and Memory in France since )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1944 )] TJ ET BT 91.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1991\) with that in Pieter Lagrou, )] TJ ET BT 476.636 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Legacy of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nazi Occupation. Patriotic Memory and National Recovery in Western Europe, 1945-1965)] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 299.996 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 299.996 709.539 m 353.984 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 696.682 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tony Judt, 'The Past is Another Country: Myth and Memory in Postwar Europe', in Dek, Gross and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Judt \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 120.008 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Retribution)] TJ ET BT 247.688 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 300.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 286.688 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 286.688 681.027 m 340.676 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 668.170 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephane Courtois et al., )] TJ ET BT 184.676 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, and Repression)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 361.304 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 361.304 652.515 m 415.292 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 639.658 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, John Koliopoulos, )] TJ ET BT 242.000 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Plundered Loyalties: Axis Occupation and Civil Strife in Greek )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(West Macedonia)] TJ ET BT 144.332 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Hurst, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.656 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.656 624.003 m 312.644 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Mazower's own 'The Cold War and the Appropriation of Memory: Greece after Liberation', in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dek, Gross and Judt \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 202.652 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of Retribution)] TJ ET BT 330.332 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 212-232.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 397.328 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 397.328 595.491 m 451.316 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a very generous and thoughtful review which leaves me little to disagree with and obliges me to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thank the reviewer for his attentiveness and his willingness to set the volume in its broader European context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 511.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 493.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 493.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf 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