%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 26 0 R 31 0 R 36 0 R 55 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140827055218+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140827055218+01'00') /Title (Hitler 1939-45. Nemesis) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 5004 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Hitler 1939-45. Nemesis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a widely-disseminated and highly-regarded set of 'Observations on Hitler' first published in 1978, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(German commentator Sebastian Haffner defined the central problem facing any biographer of the dictator )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus: 'Everything is missing from this life, from beginning to end - everything which would normally give a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human life depth, warmth and dignity: education, career, love and friendship, marriage, parenthood. It is, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaving politics and political passions aside for one moment, a life devoid of content....'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.804 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.804 257.673 m 469.796 257.673 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 469.796 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The decisive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feature of Hitler's life, according to Haffner, was its 'one-dimensionality';)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 385.424 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 385.424 243.417 m 399.416 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 399.416 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( his private life was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by 'emptiness and nothingness'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.300 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.300 229.161 m 265.292 229.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As material for a biography, therefore, Hitler's life would appear to be a little unpromising. But as Haffner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself noted, this unusual 'poverty of the personal' was paralleled by an 'exceptional intensity of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life and experience')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.472 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.472 174.393 m 141.464 174.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.464 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( which culminated, indeed, in the figure concerned becoming the pivotal figure in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system of personal rule unprecedented in modern industrial society, a system whose inherent destructive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulses were given shape and direction by the visionary, utopian politics which its central figure espoused. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elevated to the position of absolute leader of a society which projected its aspirations for national renewal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onto him, and whose social, cultural and ethnic resentments he articulated in extreme, ideologically-defined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion, Hitler unleashed a world-war which left much of Germany and Europe in ruins, 50 million dead and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millions more displaced and uprooted, and above all formed the context in which an act of genocide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented in its scope and fury could take place.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Small wonder, then, that Ian Kershaw has chosen to approach this two-volume study of Hitler less as a study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(207)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Kershaw)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1211pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Neil Gregor)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 455.8037 257.9875 469.7957 269.8675 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 385.4237 243.7315 399.4157 255.6115 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.2997 229.4755 265.2917 241.3555 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.4717 174.7075 141.4637 186.5875 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 7508 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his personality per se - except insofar as his personal habits and preferences influenced his style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government, as it clearly did - than as a study of charismatic politics and personal rule. In the first volume, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published in 1998, Kershaw traced the steps by which the disorientated and highly divided population of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quintessentially modern, but exceptionally crisis-ridden state came to invest its hopes and aspirations for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national renewal and revival in the dynamic Nazi movement and its leader.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.944 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.944 738.051 m 407.936 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 407.936 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While only a minority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germans had actually voted for Hitler in 1933, by 1936 a fatal combination of seduction and savage brutality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had ensured that widespread social consensus behind Hitler's regime had been established and opposition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been more-or-less silenced. The left had been crushed, the coalition with the conservatives cemented; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unemployment had been overcome, and the first diplomatic successes had been registered; not only was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler's personal authority unquestioned by those who sought his grace and favour, his political wishes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anticipated by those who understood what he wanted, and who knew instinctively to do his bidding without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed prompt.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is this same image of a political system driven forwards by individuals 'working towards the Fhrer', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than one driven by dictatorial fiat, which Kershaw develops in his second volume, which covers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years between the occupation of the Rhineland in 1936 and Hitler's final, ignominious end in April 1945. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Drawing out the implications of a phrase in an apparently unremarkable document penned by a mid-ranking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agricultural official in 1934 \(if nothing else, these two volumes surely represent the longest gobbet answer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ever written!\), Kershaw paints a by now essentially familiar picture of a regime in which the dictator's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satraps competed with each other to be seen to be implementing the 'Fhrer's wishes', in which rational, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bureaucratic government was successively eroded as individuals built empires and pursued initiatives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without regard for the niceties of collective decision-making, and in which a regime whose popularity rested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on its ability to generate constant success was propelled forwards by the expectations of an impulsive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement eager for progress in the pursuit of its central goals. His adumbration of a system based upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charismatic rule in which individuals 'worked towards the Fhrer' - a set of arguments he and others have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been stating and developing over ten to fifteen years - offers the most persuasive way out of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical impasse which scholarly debate on National Socialism had reached by the late 1980s, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which point the 'structuralist' versus 'intentionalist' debate had started to look a little like a Punch and Judy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As the titles of the initial chapters of the second volume make clear, Kershaw sees the regime as having been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characterised by a 'ceaseless radicalisation', which propelled a 'drive for expansion'. Kershaw is willing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concede that Hitler was an opportunist, and as his study of the Anschluss with Austria shows, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sometimes others within the system who made the running at crucial moments, but leaves the reader in no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt that his visionary politics were driving towards war from the outset, and that military expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eastwards was the goal all along.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nowhere was the link between war, 'working towards the Fhrer' and the translation of vision into reality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more clear, of course, than in the pursuit of Nazi racial policy. In foreign policy the refusal of other countries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to play the role Hitler had ascribed to them, and the dictator's miscalculation of the diplomatic situation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1939, had led to him having to fight the war under circumstances somewhat other than those he had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envisaged; Britain's refusal to make peace in 1940 meant that attacking the Soviet Union forced Hitler to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight the two-front war he had always wished to avoid. Differences of opinion between Hitler and his senior )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generals spiralled into a climate of resentment and mistrust in which Hitler took more and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibility for operational details in the military sphere. But in the area of Jewish policy it was different. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here, Hitler could trust his deputies, Himmler and Heydrich, to understand him instinctively and to translate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his wishes into reality - Hitler himself needed 'scarcely any involvement' \(p.317\) in detailed discussion of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution of the Jews. Having indicated his desire that the newly incorporated formerly Polish territories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Warthegau and Danzig-West Prussia be ruthlessly 'Germanised', for example, he could trust the rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gauleiters Arthur Greiser and Albert Forster to compete against one another for the dubious honour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(having been the first to ride their patches of Poles and Jews.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If competition governed relations between Hitler's subordinates it was, as Kershaw makes abundantly clear, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition based on a clear shared understanding of the broad policy agenda, and in no area was this more )] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.9437 738.3655 407.9357 750.2455 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R ] /Contents 32 0 R >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Length 7844 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case than in Jewish policy. Furthermore, while Hitler 'authorised more than initiated' \(p.354\) the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures in the Soviet Union which led to the transition to systematic extermination, Kershaw emphasises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the 'Final Solution' emerged in an environment in which Heydrich, Himmler, Gring and the other key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures were in constant contact with Hitler - it is inconceivable that Hitler was not consulted at key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moments or on momentous decisions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The context for the transition to systematic annihilation of European Jewry was, of course, the attack on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet Union. Hitler's numerous statements on the supposed links between the Jews and Bolshevism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with his clear directives on the manner in which the war in the East was to be conducted - as a war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of annihilation - made clear to SS and Wehrmacht leadership alike what, in general terms, was envisaged for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the hapless civilian population of the Soviet Union. Yet, as Kershaw argues, all the evidence points against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea that the decision to murder all of Soviet Jewry was taken before or at the point of the attack on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia - the fact that the initial membership of the )] TJ ET BT 277.328 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Einsatzgruppen)] TJ ET BT 352.664 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was too small to carry out the mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murder of all Soviet Jewry, combined with the clear variation from )] TJ ET BT 358.628 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Einsatzgruppe )] TJ ET BT 430.964 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to )] TJ ET BT 443.300 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Einsatzgruppe)] TJ ET BT 512.636 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rate of escalation of murder suggest strongly that 'no general mandate to exterminate Soviet Jewry in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entirety had been issued before Barbarossa began.'\(p.468\). It was, in fact, not so much the launching of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Operation Barbarossa as its failure that provided the context for the final shift into genocide. Prior to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point, Kershaw argues that Hitler had operated on the assumption that a solution would be implemented only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after the \(successful conclusion of the\) war; it was the recognition that the Soviet Union would not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated in 1941 which led to the quasi-genocidal 'territorial solution' being superseded by extermination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the war itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In arguments which broadly echo Philippe Burrin's 1989 study of the genesis of the 'Final Solution')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 510.140 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 510.140 485.955 m 524.132 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kershaw emphasises Hitler's own repeated references to his threatening prophesy of January 1939: 'If the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international Jewish financiers in and outside Europe should succeed in plunging the nations once more into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a world war, then the result will not be the Bolshevising of the earth, and thus the victory of Jewry, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe!' With the failure of Barbarossa, and above all with the entry of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(USA into the war in December, Hitler now found himself fighting that long, drawn-out world war. Over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(autumn and winter of 1941, all the National Socialist neuroses concerning the home front came to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surface - in the nationalist imagination, Germany had lost the First World War not because her armies had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed at the front, but because the national 'body' had been undermined by parasitic enemies within - chiefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews. Preventing another 1918 demanded the ruthless eradication of these enemies. In line with most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent work, Kershaw stresses the gradual emergence of the genocide programme rather than the likelihood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of there having been a single decision, but in the 'gathering whirlwind'\(p.480\) of the autumn of 1941 he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the beginnings of the deportations of German and Czech Jews, rather than a possible decision to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murder )] TJ ET BT 71.672 302.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 84.344 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Soviet Jewry, as having been most decisive - 'once the decision to deport the Reich Jews to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east had been taken, things began to move rapidly'\(p.483\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The home front did, of course, come under increasing strain - not because of the seditious influence of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews, but because of the massive burdens the war of attrition on several fronts placed on German society. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hitler's charismatic power had rested on his constant successes, but these had been welcomed by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population above all because they had initially been achieved without war and without bloodshed. And while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relatively easy military successes of 1939 and 1940 ensured that Hitler's popularity did not wane, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressures of successive winters of war against the Soviet Union saw it quickly undermined. A system which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had not only rested upon consensus and adulation, but had drawn much of its underlying dynamism from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that adulation, was rapidly forced to rely upon ever-increasing terror as its hold on the population started to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fail.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was also the failure of the military adventure in the East which saw the conservative resistance to Hitler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finally coalesce. As Kershaw outlines, the first rumblings of resistance from within the national-conservative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elites began with the crises of 1938-9 over Czechoslovakia. Nothing, however, came of these initial attempts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to organise opposition, and Hitler's ongoing diplomatic and military successes between 1938 and 1941 cut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ground from beneath the feet of the small minority of conservative figures who were willing to entertain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the idea of engaging in resistance. Even as the atrocities in the Soviet Union mounted, very few generals )] TJ ET endstream endobj 33 0 obj [31 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 510.1397 486.2695 524.1317 498.1495 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 39 0 R 41 0 R 43 0 R 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 51 0 R 53 0 R ] /Contents 37 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Length 8400 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seriously considered joining the resistance, whatever moral qualms they may have had in private. Codes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honour and loyalty made it difficult for officers to consider disobeying orders, let alone assassinating the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(head of state; the patriotic values of the military caste made it all the more difficult at a time when the nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was engaged in a struggle of life and death against a powerful array of enemies. As General Manstein )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remarked to an invitation to join the opposition in 1944: 'Prussian Field-Marshals do not mutiny' \(p.666\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, the ever-growing tensions over military strategy notwithstanding, there was still much ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cement binding the National Socialist leadership to the national-conservative elites, who shared Hitler's anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevism and were far from immune from his vicious anti-Semitism. The moral gesture of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bombplotters of July 1944 notwithstanding, most officers remained loyal to Hitler to the end.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The failure of the assassination attempt of July 1944 brought not only swift and brutal reprisals against those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(involved, but a final intensification of the processes which had characterised the internal development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regime since 1933, and especially since 1939. The estrangement of Hitler from the senior army leadership )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became complete, and old radicals such as Goebbels and Himmler became ever more powerful. Hitler, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had long since ceased to appear in public, retreated literally and figuratively into his bunker. In a state of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical physical decline he pondered over architectural models of Linz, regaling his dwindling entourage of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodyguards, adjutants and secretaries with tales of former party glories and diatribes against the 'world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolshevik-Jewish conspiracy', tales which gained nothing from the fact that they had been told a thousand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times already. All suggestions of negotiating peace terms in a situation which had long since become )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hopeless were refused, and even as allied armies poured into Germany from both East and West Hitler )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insisted in dragging the nation down with him. His regime did not, indeed, survive him, collapsing finally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one week after he had committed suicide.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a superb piece of scholarship. Eulogising reviews are never the most interesting to read, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and one feels under some obligation to find something with which one might take issue. Kershaw's passing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to Hitler's 'poor diet \(even before his cranky vegetarianism set in\)' \(p.36\) was one point at which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this herbivorous reviewer wondered whether the author's own prejudices were unwittingly creeping in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between his discussion of Hitler's. More seriously, one might ask whether, in his characterisation of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(destructive dynamism of regime, Kershaw does not overemphasise slightly the seamlessness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalisation process between 1933 and 1945. The outbreak of war, in particular, marked a very major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(turning point in the scale and scope of Nazi barbarism, and was paralleled by a radical acceleration of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes of internal governmental dissolution - as Robert Gellately succinctly put it in a recent general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation, the war 'revolutionised the revolution'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.304 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.304 343.395 m 303.296 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 303.296 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Kershaw does acknowledge this in passing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sentences, but overall the image of the regime he presents is one of a fairly continuous process of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radicalisation, so that the rupture of 1939 does not quite have the emphasis some might feel that it should. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But there is no gainsaying that this is a masterly account. Its broad arguments are wholly persuasive and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual judgements are similarly authoritative. If there are points at which one senses a slight tension )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between history and biography, then this is perhaps inherent in the undertaking itself. One hesitates to call it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive, since it advances interpretations which some will doubtless wish to challenge. But it will be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential reading on the Third Reich for many years to come.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 210.099 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sebastian Haffner, )] TJ ET BT 156.320 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anmerkungen zu Hitler)] TJ ET BT 268.304 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Frankfurt/Main: Fischer Verlag, 1981\), p.9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.604 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.604 178.083 m 538.592 178.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 165.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p.8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 163.827 m 164.336 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p.11.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 116.348 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 116.348 149.571 m 170.336 149.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 136.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibid., p.8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.348 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.348 135.315 m 164.336 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Kershaw, )] TJ ET BT 130.988 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler 1889-1936. Hubris)] TJ ET BT 253.988 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Allen Lane, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.300 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.300 121.059 m 449.288 121.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 108.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippe Burrin, )] TJ ET BT 144.356 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hitler et les Juifs. Gense d'un gnocide)] TJ ET BT 337.892 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris: ditions du Seuil, 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.900 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.900 106.803 m 548.888 106.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 93.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Gellately, )] TJ ET BT 149.672 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Backing Hitler. Consent and Coercion in Nazi Germany)] TJ ET BT 419.660 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: OUP, 2001\), p.2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 78.291 m 118.004 78.291 l S endstream endobj 38 0 obj [36 0 R /Fit] endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 40 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.3037 343.7095 303.2957 355.5895 ] >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 484.6037 178.3975 538.5917 190.2775 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.3477 164.1415 164.3357 176.0215 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 46 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 116.3477 149.8855 170.3357 161.7655 ] >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 20 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.3477 135.6295 164.3357 147.5095 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 50 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.2997 121.3735 449.2877 133.2535 ] >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.8997 107.1175 548.8877 118.9975 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 64.0157 78.6055 118.0037 90.4855 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 38 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 57 0 R ] /Contents 56 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Length 878 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 739.231 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 721.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 721.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/207)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 720.057 m 322.316 720.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 695.080 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 680.680 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1218)] TJ ET BT 34.016 666.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 720.3715 322.3157 732.2515 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/207) >> endobj xref 0 59 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000533 00000 n 0000000643 00000 n 0000005699 00000 n 0000005808 00000 n 0000005918 00000 n 0000006027 00000 n 0000009588 00000 n 0000009716 00000 n 0000009800 00000 n 0000009829 00000 n 0000009957 00000 n 0000009993 00000 n 0000010022 00000 n 0000010150 00000 n 0000010186 00000 n 0000010215 00000 n 0000010343 00000 n 0000010379 00000 n 0000010408 00000 n 0000010536 00000 n 0000010572 00000 n 0000010656 00000 n 0000018217 00000 n 0000018247 00000 n 0000018375 00000 n 0000018411 00000 n 0000018495 00000 n 0000026392 00000 n 0000026422 00000 n 0000026550 00000 n 0000026586 00000 n 0000026719 00000 n 0000035172 00000 n 0000035202 00000 n 0000035330 00000 n 0000035366 00000 n 0000035494 00000 n 0000035549 00000 n 0000035677 00000 n 0000035732 00000 n 0000035860 00000 n 0000035915 00000 n 0000036043 00000 n 0000036098 00000 n 0000036226 00000 n 0000036281 00000 n 0000036409 00000 n 0000036464 00000 n 0000036589 00000 n 0000036644 00000 n 0000036728 00000 n 0000037658 00000 n 0000037786 00000 n trailer << /Size 59 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37881 %%EOF