%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R ] /Count 2 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150426234744+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150426234744+01'00') /Title (Common Destiny Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4400 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Common Destiny Dictatorship, Foreign Policy, and War in Fascist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Italy and Nazi Germany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I came to review this book with a great deal of anticipation. MacGregor Knox has been working for a long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time on a comparative analysis of the fascist dictatorships, and is one of a line of US or US-trained historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who have breathed life into the recent study of contemporary European history by using a comparative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach. I was, therefore, disappointed to find that this was not the long-awaited comparative history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian Fascism and German Nazism in power, but something rather less than a half-way house, a collection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his articles and essays which have already appeared elsewhere. Of the six chapters, including the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion, two essays are new and written for this volume, one is an English language version of something )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which originally appeared in Italian, one is an article from the )] TJ ET BT 333.956 223.427 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Modern History, )] TJ ET BT 469.616 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and two are taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from contributions to edited books. The previously published four pieces were apparently revamped or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rewritten for this volume. But, having looked at two of the original versions, they do not seem to have)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed that much.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So what is the point? Something for the RAE? Surely not a )] TJ ET BT 320.672 154.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(festschrift, )] TJ ET BT 374.012 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the author is, thankfully, still a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working career historian? These mean-spirited questions perhaps need to be addressed to the publisher, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than to the author!)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That said, I must say that I enjoyed reading MacGregor Knox's work again. As for the new pieces, the first is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an overview of the factors, both structural and conjunctural, which made Italy's and Germany's national state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation different from other West European countries, and so helps to make intelligible fascism's coming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to power in these two countries, and not elsewhere. The second is the German companion to the already )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(209)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 September, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacGregor Knox)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(276pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philip Morgan)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 5219 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published essay on the combat performance of the Italian army during the Second World War. This argues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the greater fighting effectiveness and resilience of the German army up to 1944-45, were down to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of a long standing Prussian-German combat training and tradition emphasising initiative and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(independence on the field of battle, and the Nazis' ruthless revolutionary egalitarianism, which rewarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('performance' above all else. The idea that the German army was an 'ideologically' driven force, and that this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains its tenacity, reminds us of how much, and how effectively, MacGregor Knox's body of work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolves around the analogies he draws from the experience of the French Revolution and revolutionary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wars, when the unprecedented and lethal radical connection of war and revolution, external conquest and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal subversion, became such a threat to the 18th century European order. The author hammers away at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the theme that Mussolini and Hitler followed ideological foreign policies, saw ideological affinity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Axis as making for reliable and trustworthy alliance partners, and treated foreign and domestic policy as one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His work should be required reading for all De Felicians, who implausibly have Mussolini pursuing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moderate foreign policy of 'equidistance', while simultaneously attempting to make Italians warlike through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'totalitarian' state, views which have been reproduced in Richard Lamb's recent book, )] TJ ET BT 464.072 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Mussolini and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British )] TJ ET BT 69.692 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London: John Murray, 1997\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The new pieces in this volume are written with the broad sweep )] TJ ET BT 343.292 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(brio )] TJ ET BT 366.296 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the older ones, and achieve what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best of comparative history offers, the illumination of both sides of the comparison. The author's demolition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jobs on the attempts to conceptualise fascism, which preface one of the new essays and one of the old, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-taken, since the aim is to justify a comparative historical approach, rather than an )] TJ ET BT 451.268 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(a priori )] TJ ET BT 491.276 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generic one. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But he is generally too dismissive of any concept 'that united Nazis, Action Franaise, the Romanian Iron )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guard, and the Estonian Association of Freedom Fighters...' \(page 54\) For one thing, not all historians of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascism would include Action Franaise or the Estonian Association of Freedom Fighters in the stable of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascist movements, which, I suppose, makes MacGregor Knox's point in another way. But it still seems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather gratuitous, especially when his own work has, in effect, allowed us to generalise about the two major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fascisms and treat the regimes they created as revolutionary war-mongering dictatorships for which war was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both means and end. Comparative history may yet be the way to revive the concept of fascism, with a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('f'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Good Reads)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6396412-common-destiny)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 357.651 m 350.672 357.651 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 353.672 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 354.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 336.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 336.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/209)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 335.145 m 322.316 335.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 310.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1223)] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6396412-common-destiny)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 357.9655 350.6717 369.8455 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/6396412-common-destiny) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 335.4595 322.3157 347.3395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/209) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000328 00000 n 0000000365 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000005109 00000 n 0000005218 00000 n 0000005328 00000 n 0000005437 00000 n 0000008998 00000 n 0000009126 00000 n 0000009210 00000 n 0000009301 00000 n 0000014573 00000 n 0000014700 00000 n 0000014809 00000 n 0000014937 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 15032 %%EOF