%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 23 0 R 58 0 R 93 0 R 143 0 R 186 0 R 236 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818150751+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818150751+01'00') /Title (Strangers Settled Here Amongst Us - Policies, Perceptions and the Presence of Aliens in Elizabethan England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4727 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Strangers Settled Here Amongst Us - Policies, Perceptions and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Presence of Aliens in Elizabethan England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In writing about alien immigrants to England and their reception in the sixteenth century Laura Yungblut has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified a subject that has long cried out for further study, both detailed research into particular features of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrant communities and broader overviews to incorporate the accumulated wisdom of specialised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(journal articles, articles often unavailable even in many university libraries. There is a yawning chasm here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than a gap in the literature and a new contribution in this field is most welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last full blown study of this topic, itself focusing largely upon the late Medieval and early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods, is Cunningham's )] TJ ET BT 158.180 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alien Immigrants to England)] TJ ET BT 297.848 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which dates back to 1897.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.828 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.828 138.753 m 442.820 138.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.820 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The fact that this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was reprinted in 1969 after more than seventy years speaks volumes, but although this reprint claims to be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second edition the only novelty is a short introduction by Charles Wilson.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 388.004 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 388.004 110.241 m 401.996 110.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.996 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Wilson is, of course, a most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate editor, for both in specialist articles and in the general theme of his important text book he has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made a notable contribution to our understanding of the relationship between England and the continent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early modern period.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 151.988 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 151.988 67.473 m 165.980 67.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 165.980 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although his focus is upon the seventeenth century rather than the sixteenth, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprising to find no mention of his work either in Yungblut's historiographical survey or her bibliography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 January, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Hunt Yungblut)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415021449)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(192pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/Strangers-Settled-Here-Amongst-Us-isbn9780415021449)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Goose)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.8277 139.0675 442.8197 150.9475 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 388.0037 110.5555 401.9957 122.4355 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 151.9877 67.7875 165.9797 79.6675 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 10390 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whereas a textbook by Holderness, which contains but sparse reference to immigrants, is mentioned in both.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 780.819 m 48.008 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was also surprising to see no reference to Scoville's, )] TJ ET BT 314.120 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Persecution of the Huguenots and French )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic Development)] TJ ET BT 148.316 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or to Ormrod's )] TJ ET BT 224.468 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dutch in London)] TJ ET BT 326.804 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.804 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.804 766.563 m 343.796 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.796 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Notwithstanding such omissions, Yungblut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is surely right to emphasise both the dated nature of the more general surveys and the limited scope of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the more recent publications.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.320 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.320 738.051 m 200.312 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 200.312 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This said, no-one would want to undervalue the importance of two recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs by Gwynn and Pettegree.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.652 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.652 723.795 m 231.644 723.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 231.644 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Gwynn covers considerable ground, and Yungblut merely states )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the obvious when writing that "even this valuable work could not cover everything", whilst it might seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfair to describe it as "somewhat limited by its primary focus on the Huguenots" when that is its professed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject matter.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 681.027 m 118.664 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 118.664 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Pettegree, in a remarkably readable book, concentrates upon the stranger churches in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London, but again ranges more widely to examine economic impacts, social regulation, and the reception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foreigners, and again it is surely unfair to describe these discussions as no more than "an offshoot of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the churches' activities".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.040 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.040 638.259 m 240.032 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.032 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nevertheless, plenty of scope remains for work in this field, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut's call for additional scholarship is justified and welcome.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is also a topic for which original source material is readily available. Immigration in the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century was a highly emotive topic, arousing considerable comment, concern and controversy which has left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a firm imprint in the historical record. Any scholar who has scanned the )] TJ ET BT 381.956 570.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Calendars of State Papers Domestic)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or )] TJ ET BT 47.012 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Acts of the Privy Council)] TJ ET BT 167.672 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( cannot have failed to notice the numerous entries under this head, entries whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(promise is so often fulfilled rather than disappointed when one turns to the original documentation amongst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public records. Local research is equally rewarding, for here the concern was sharpened by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate impact that the tide of immigration had. Furthermore, local and national concern interfaced at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many points, and hence local concerns and aspirations find reflection in the records held centrally, whilst )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government concerns and edicts were acted upon locally. 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Whilst the dust- jacket emphasises the contemporary relevance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book \(it "provides important insights in the history of immigration and the search for a balance - as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevant today as it was in the sixteenth century"\), the author is aware that she is writing a history. Despite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her historiographical discussions, her own agenda is a strictly limited one, and is defined by the book's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtitle: the numerical )] TJ ET BT 144.344 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(presence)] TJ ET BT 186.992 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of alien immigrants, the )] TJ ET BT 307.652 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perceptions)] TJ ET BT 363.644 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of them by the indigenous population )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and their consequent reception, and the )] TJ ET BT 224.972 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(policies)] TJ ET BT 262.304 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( towards them pursued by Elizabeth and her governments. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so doing she claims that the study "uses documents not previously analyzed as well as making new use of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more familiar materials", "raises new questions, and questions some accepted theories" and "provides new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the social and governmental impact of the arrival of the aliens''.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 400.628 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 400.628 229.347 m 420.620 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After the introductory sections Chapter 1 provides some background and some quantification, indicating that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst the alien presence in England was far from novel the scale of settlement was of an entirely new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(magnitude after the mid- sixteenth century. Pettegree, it is argued, has exaggerated the numbers in London at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end of the reign of Henry VIII.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.964 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.964 160.323 m 219.956 160.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 219.956 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The Low Countries and France replaced Germany and Italy as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most prominent source of immigration, the immigrants coming for both religious and economic reasons, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this combination of factors resulted in "the comparative floodtide of immigration which characterized the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1560s and 1570s''.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.000 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.000 117.555 m 141.992 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.992 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Despite this, "the sustained size of London's alien population remained between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4,000 and 5,000 for most of Elizabeth's reign''.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 257.804 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 257.804 103.299 m 277.796 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 277.796 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This of course creates either a paradox or a contradiction, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained here in terms of the government's policy of dispersing "substantial numbers" of aliens to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(locations, the effects of return migration and the impact of the high death rates found in early modern cities. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Regardless of the exact numbers, there was clearly a )] TJ ET BT 288.608 61.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perception)] TJ ET BT 339.932 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that the level of immigration was )] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj [23 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type 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257.8037 103.6135 277.7957 115.4935 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 61 0 R 64 0 R 67 0 R 70 0 R 73 0 R 76 0 R 79 0 R 82 0 R 85 0 R 88 0 R 91 0 R ] /Contents 59 0 R >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Length 9690 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exceptional, resulting in more frequent and extensive enquiries being ordered by the Crown, and this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perception was heightened by their tendency to concentrate in specific \(generally poorer\) areas within the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(capital.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.008 766.563 m 89.000 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 89.000 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the provinces the south-east was overwhelmingly the favoured area of settlement, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities, it is suggested, were generally smaller than that in London, and "easily the most important" of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the provincial settlements was that in Norwich. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.324 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.324 738.051 m 283.316 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although it is useful to have various estimates of the size of the London and provincial alien communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collected together, there is little here so far to surprise the historian of Elizabethan immigration, and little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new research. Furthermore, the quantitative information that is presented and its interpretation is open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question on a number of grounds. Pettegree's figure of 5,000 or 6,000 is based upon a very sensible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adjustment of the 1541 subsidy list, whilst Yungblut's decision to employ that of 1549 to produce a figure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3,000 appears designed merely to create scope for the subsequent ''floodtide".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 406.484 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 406.484 640.515 m 426.476 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 426.476 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The figure she cites for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1567, 3,324 is substantially )] TJ ET BT 168.692 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lower)] TJ ET BT 196.028 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( than the 4,534 found in 1562/3, and one wonders why the higher earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(figures have been omitted from Table 2.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 226.976 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 226.976 612.003 m 246.968 612.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 246.968 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is clearly true that different surveys were conducted on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different bases, that some sources \(possibly the subsidy of 1549?\) may be less complete than others and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the number of aliens in the capital fluctuated quite markedly over time. But if the "sustained size" of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien presence was 4-5,000, a figure similar to that found in the early 1540s, then it is difficult to accept that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this Elizabethan immigration "dwarfed the immigration of previous eras", except perhaps for very short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods of time.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.676 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.676 540.723 m 129.668 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 129.668 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor will Yungblut's attempt to resolve the 'paradox' do. High death rates were most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unlikely to have been new to London after 1558, there had long been a return flow of immigrants to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continent, and one would need more concrete evidence that aliens were removed to provincial communities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in large numbers before attributing the fall off in the number resident in London substantially to this factor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps Pettegree was right to argue that "reports of enormously inflated numbers of strangers in the capital )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be seen more as indications of concern than realistic estimates of the extent of the immigration", at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least before the late 1560s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.320 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.320 455.187 m 182.312 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clearly wrong to claim that the provincial communities were invariably smaller, for that in Norwich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stood at between 4,000 and 4,700 during the 1570s and 1580s, making it similar in size to the "sustained" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number in the capital, and )] TJ ET BT 161.996 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(far)] TJ ET BT 176.000 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( higher, at roughly one-third, as a proportion of the town's population. Nor was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwich "easily the most important", given that Canterbury contained over 3,300 in 1592 out of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population of 9,000.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 131.348 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 131.348 371.907 m 151.340 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 151.340 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the very least, there is clearly scope for more careful consideration of the extant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantitative evidence, as well as for further enquiry into the causes of apparent fluctuations over time.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 2 turns to English attitudes towards aliens. Here Yungblut develops her central theme of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional English "xenophobia", omnipresent but intensifying at periods of actual or perceived distress, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resulting in "a rising tide of anti- alien expressions" during Elizabeth's reign.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.264 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.264 302.883 m 421.256 302.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.256 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Governments, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both national and local, more commonly sympathised with the aliens, because of their religious identity and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the economic benefits they brought, producing a more coherent and consistent policy in place of the more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ad hoc)] TJ ET BT 66.344 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( approaches adopted previously. Nevertheless, the strangers had to be controlled and regulated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corporation officers needed frequent reminders from central government of their duties towards them, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even the Queen and Privy Council harboured secret suspicions beneath their public support. Attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently shifted from "eager invitation and warm welcome to bitter disputes and deepening hostility" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whilst "distrust of foreigners was not limited to the lower classes".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 352.784 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 352.784 203.091 m 372.776 203.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 372.776 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the root of resentment at the local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level lay jealousy of the economic success of the aliens, of the privileges they were granted to encourage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them to settle and suspicion that they favoured their own community and failed to share their skills with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indigenous population.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The material contained in this chapter is once again either entirely unremarkable, or questionable and even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictory. The existence of an ambivalent response to alien immigrants, with both local and national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities more commonly appreciative of the benefits they brought and inclined to protect them, is both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well established and unsurprising.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.336 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.336 91.299 m 217.328 91.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 217.328 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is also well known, and equally unsurprising, that resentment )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increased at times of economic distress.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 224.648 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 224.648 77.043 m 244.640 77.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 244.640 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Popular attitudes were often far less favourable, and any attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to play this down would fly in the face of all the evidence of previous research as well as that presented here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which so frequently refers to resentment and hostility from "the poor tradesmen", "the meaner people", or )] TJ ET endstream endobj 60 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 62 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.0077 766.8775 88.9997 778.7575 ] >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 63 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 263.3237 738.3655 283.3157 750.2455 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 68 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 406.4837 640.8295 426.4757 652.7095 ] >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 69 0 obj [58 0 R /Fit] endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 226.9757 612.3175 246.9677 624.1975 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type 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214.688 780.819 m 234.680 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 234.680 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) The one example of Sir Nicholas Bacon is a wholly inadequate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for the extension of the purported xenophobia of the English into the realms of the upper social orders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, the whole notion of xenophobia is itself questionable, given the ambivalence of attitudes, the paucity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evidence of concerted hostility, the general absence of violence, frequent expressions of support for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien communities, the evident sympathy and financial support following the St. Bartholomew's Day )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massacre in 1572, and the manner in which immigrant families quickly became established and integrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the indigenous population, the latter being a topic that clearly deserves fuller investigation.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 494.300 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 494.300 695.283 m 514.292 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 514.292 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the notion of a "rising tide" of hostility be sustained, for this is contradicted by Yungblut herself, both for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norwich and Canterbury.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 156.320 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 156.320 666.771 m 176.312 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 176.312 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor does such a pattern fit the town of Colchester, where disputes in the early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seventeenth century appear to indicate growing confidence amongst native bay and saymakers rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continuous escalation of jealous hostility.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 233.012 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 233.012 638.259 m 253.004 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 253.004 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, this all needs to be placed within the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and social context of a growing population, escalation of urban poverty and vagrancy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhanced migration to towns from the English countryside as much as from overseas. To argue that the alien )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(searches assume significance because "no corresponding record was made of the native populace")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 505.004 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 505.004 595.491 m 524.996 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely ignores the growing tide of concern over urban immigration in general in the later sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, which in some cases did indeed lead to the taking of either comprehensive or partial surveys.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.924 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.924 566.979 m 541.916 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nor can the particular difficulties caused by four successive harvest failures in 1593-7 be ignored. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context resentment of successful aliens is hardly surprising, and nor is it surprising to find hostility reaching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a peak, at least in London, in the troubled 1590s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.992 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.992 524.211 m 287.984 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.984 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The periodic 'scapegoating' of aliens is not, however, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sufficient basis for the identification of either an underlying xenophobia nor a "rising tide" of resentment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters 3 and 4 cover government policy towards aliens, with twenty-four pages - over 20% of the length )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the text of the entire book - dealing with the pre-Elizabethan era. Government policy was informed by a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of concerns: fear of social disorder and the spread of plague, religious sympathy, the possible threat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to national security, the requirements of international diplomacy and the perceived economic benefits that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration would bring. Together this produced a dichotomy in government attitudes, generally publicly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supportive, encouraging and protective, though more covertly suspicious, particularly at times of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intrigue such as 1571, these suspicions gradually subsiding as the aliens became more integrated and as any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential threat failed to materialise. All of this is unexceptionable if mostly well known though one might )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have expected to see some reference to fears that the Dutch and French churches might be serving to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(encourage English religious radicalism in the 1570s.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 285.656 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 285.656 355.395 m 305.648 355.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the economic sphere Elizabeth and Cecil continued the policies of extending a welcome to skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees and periodically inviting specific craftsmen to settle, simultaneously protecting them from periodic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local opposition, regulating their activities and taxing them to the full. Their key contribution was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction of the 'new draperies', notably at Norwich, Colchester and Sandwich. Other trades were also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either newly planted or transformed, including threadmaking, needle- making, silk, glassmaking, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extractive industries, gunpowder, steel, paper manufacture, printing, sugar-refining, saltmaking, starch )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacture, market gardening "and many others".)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.416 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.416 243.603 m 299.408 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.408 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such a list might have been gleaned from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cunningham.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 99.020 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 99.020 229.347 m 119.012 229.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 119.012 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( No substantial new research informs this section of the book, there is no attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider possible theories of diffusion,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.328 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.328 215.091 m 240.320 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 240.320 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and there is a particular gap with respect to the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activities of aliens in London, just now being filled in a Ph.D. thesis which is on the point of completion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 537.008 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 537.008 200.835 m 557.000 200.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also a tendency to overstate the economic problems of mid-century.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 401.276 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(38\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 401.276 186.579 m 421.268 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 421.268 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The inherent difficulty of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quantifying the alien contribution is noted, though at this point no reference is made to one of the few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles that attempts to do just that.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(39\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.016 158.067 m 225.008 158.067 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 225.008 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor does the author appear to be aware that some scholars have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempted to play down the alien contribution, with greater or lesser justification.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 422.972 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(40\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 422.972 143.811 m 442.964 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 442.964 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Again little is added to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is already known, and one is left feeling that an opportunity has been missed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are a number of stylistic, presentational and technical aspects of this book that could be improved. At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one end of the spectrum, there have been some type-setting or proof reading difficulties that have led not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only to the omission of a number of full stops but also to the transposition of the titles of Maps 2 and 3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 529.676 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(41\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 529.676 74.787 m 549.668 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The use of the first person singular intrudes at many points, and the book is riddled with repetition. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 95 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 214.6877 781.1335 234.6797 793.0135 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 98 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 100 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 494.2997 695.5975 514.2917 707.4775 ] >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 101 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 156.3197 667.0855 176.3117 678.9655 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 104 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 106 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 233.0117 638.5735 253.0037 650.4535 ] >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 107 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 505.0037 595.8055 524.9957 607.6855 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 110 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 111 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 112 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.9237 567.2935 541.9157 579.1735 ] >> endobj 112 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 113 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 114 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 115 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.9917 524.5255 287.9837 536.4055 ] >> endobj 115 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 116 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 117 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 118 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 285.6557 355.7095 305.6477 367.5895 ] >> endobj 118 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 119 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 120 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 121 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.4157 243.9175 299.4077 255.7975 ] >> endobj 121 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 122 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 123 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 124 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 99.0197 229.6615 119.0117 241.5415 ] >> endobj 124 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 125 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 126 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 127 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 220.3277 215.4055 240.3197 227.2855 ] >> endobj 127 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 128 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 129 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 130 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 537.0077 201.1495 556.9997 213.0295 ] >> endobj 130 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 131 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 132 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 133 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 401.2757 186.8935 421.2677 198.7735 ] >> endobj 133 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 134 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 135 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 136 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.0157 158.3815 225.0077 170.2615 ] >> endobj 136 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 137 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 138 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 139 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 422.9717 144.1255 442.9637 156.0055 ] >> endobj 139 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 140 0 obj [93 0 R /Fit] endobj 141 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 142 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 529.6757 75.1015 549.6677 86.9815 ] >> endobj 142 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 143 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 146 0 R 148 0 R 150 0 R 152 0 R 154 0 R 156 0 R 158 0 R 160 0 R 162 0 R 164 0 R 166 0 R 168 0 R 170 0 R 172 0 R 174 0 R 176 0 R 178 0 R 180 0 R 182 0 R 184 0 R ] /Contents 144 0 R >> endobj 144 0 obj << /Length 12224 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Textbooks are frequently cited in preference to more specialist literature, whilst occasionally journal articles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are cited for their background discussion rather than for their specialist contribution. There are a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long sections of potted history, and excessive background material for a book of this length. The Appendices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are problematic for three reasons. First, it is not clear at all why these particular documents have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reproduced in preference to others. Second, they are not discussed in the text, let alone fully analysed. And )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(third, the transcription of the Colchester Contribution to the Poor Book is simply inaccurate in a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects, ranging from a misreading of particular characters, to separating entries that should be bracketed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the complete substitution of some names for the true entries and the omission of other entries entirely.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a book that falls between two stools. It is neither detailed enough nor informed by enough new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research to make a significant contribution to the specialist literature, nor is it broad and comprehensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to replace the older, more general studies that are available. Despite the promises made in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction, much of the documentation employed is familiar, most of the discussion merely reiterates what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be found in the secondary literature, and where the conclusions reached have a greater claim to novelty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are generally highly questionable. It is welcome nevertheless, for it will hopefully achieve two goals. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(First, it can only serve to draw attention to the opportunities that still exist for more detailed research into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alien immigration to England in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, for both sources and topics for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further exploration are clearly available in abundance.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.600 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(42\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.600 554.979 m 313.592 554.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 313.592 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Second, by arguing firmly for particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives on aliens and their reception in sixteenth century England it will undoubtedly generate the type )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of debate or even controversy that is so commonly crucial to of the progress of historical understanding. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, in this latter respect it already has already begun to achieve its goal.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 478.707 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 448.090 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Cunningham,)] TJ ET BT 146.348 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Alien Immigrants to England )] TJ ET BT 292.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1897\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.340 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.340 446.691 m 424.328 446.691 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 433.834 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Cunningham, )] TJ ET BT 149.348 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alien Immigrants to England)] TJ ET BT 289.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd edition with an introduction by Charles Wilson )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(New York, 1969\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 155.324 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 155.324 418.179 m 209.312 418.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 405.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(C. Wilson. "Cloth Production and International Competition in the Seventeenth Century", )] TJ ET BT 497.804 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History Review)] TJ ET BT 137.672 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. 13 \(1960\); C. Wilson, )] TJ ET BT 275.672 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(England's Apprenticeship 1603-1763)] TJ ET BT 454.232 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(lst edn. London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1965, 2nd edn. London, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.672 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.672 375.411 m 266.660 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, Strangers, pp. 4-6; B.A. Holderness, )] TJ ET BT 292.664 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pre- Industrial England: Economy and Society 1500-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1750)] TJ ET BT 88.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 1976\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.340 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.340 346.899 m 223.328 346.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W.C. Scoville, )] TJ ET BT 137.684 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Persecution of the Huguenots and French Economic Development, 1680-1720)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London, 1960\), has numerous English references; D. Ormrod, )] TJ ET BT 368.624 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Dutch in London)] TJ ET BT 470.960 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(London 1973\), is )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a slim but useful pamphlet. See also W.C. Scoville, "Minority Migrations and the Diffusion of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Technology", )] TJ ET BT 132.236 291.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Economic History)] TJ ET BT 271.892 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. 11 \(1951\); Scoville, "The Huguenots and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diffusion of Technology", )] TJ ET BT 194.228 277.013 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Political Economy)] TJ ET BT 335.888 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. 60 \(1952\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.880 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.880 275.619 m 469.868 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 4-5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.016 261.363 m 259.004 261.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 248.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R.D. Gwynn, )] TJ ET BT 131.012 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Huguenot Heritage: The History and Contribution of Huguenots in Britain)] TJ ET BT 490.688 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985\); A. Pettegree, Foreign Protestant Communities in Sixteenth Century London \(Oxford, 1986\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 218.595 m 118.004 218.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 205.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 186.020 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 186.020 204.339 m 240.008 204.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 191.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 5-6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.016 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.016 190.083 m 259.004 190.083 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 177.226 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 6.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.020 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.020 175.827 m 249.008 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 162.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 189.020 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 189.020 161.571 m 249.008 161.571 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 148.714 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 148.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 12-13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.016 147.315 m 277.004 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut,)] TJ ET BT 112.352 134.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 18-19.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.016 133.059 m 277.004 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 21.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.020 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.020 118.803 m 255.008 118.803 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut,)] TJ ET BT 112.352 105.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 23-9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.016 104.547 m 271.004 104.547 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 91.690 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 91.685 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 29-35.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 217.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 217.016 90.291 m 277.004 90.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 77.434 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pettegree, )] TJ ET BT 114.668 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Protestant Communities)] TJ ET BT 272.672 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. l6- 17; Yungtblut, )] TJ ET BT 386.012 77.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 432.680 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 13.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 465.680 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 465.680 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BT 114.668 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Protestant Communities)] TJ ET BT 272.672 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 17, 279-80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.668 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.668 795.075 m 411.656 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers,)] TJ ET BT 165.020 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( pp. 30-4.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 211.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 211.016 780.819 m 271.004 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 41.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.020 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.020 766.563 m 255.008 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 45, 52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.020 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.020 752.307 m 279.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 739.450 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For example, N. 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On support after 1572: Pettegree, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Protestant Communities)] TJ ET BT 222.020 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 269-70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 283.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 283.016 638.259 m 343.004 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(28.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 56, 59.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 219.020 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.020 624.003 m 279.008 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(29.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goose, "The 'Dutch' in Colchester", p. 270.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 271.436 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(29\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 271.436 609.747 m 331.424 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(30.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 115.352 596.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 80.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.020 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(30\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.020 595.491 m 255.008 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(N. Goose, "Household Size and Structure in Early-Stuart Cambridge", )] TJ ET BT 404.432 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Social History)] TJ ET BT 473.432 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. 5 \(1980\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 349-57 and sources therein; P. Slack,)] TJ ET BT 260.324 568.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Poverty and Policy in Tudor and Stuart England)] TJ ET BT 496.988 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\), pp. 65-6, 71-80, 88 fn.52.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 221.000 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(31\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.000 552.723 m 280.988 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 539.866 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(32.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pettegree, )] TJ ET BT 114.668 539.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Protestant Communities,)] TJ ET BT 275.672 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( p. 291.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 311.672 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(32\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 311.672 538.467 m 371.660 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 525.610 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(33.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pettegree, )] TJ ET BT 114.668 525.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Protestant Communities)] TJ ET BT 272.672 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 274- 5.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 330.668 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(33\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 330.668 524.211 m 390.656 524.211 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 511.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(34.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yungblut,)] TJ ET BT 112.352 511.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Strangers)] TJ ET BT 162.020 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, pp. 106-111.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(34\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.016 509.955 m 289.004 509.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 497.098 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(35.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. Cunningham, )] TJ ET BT 149.348 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alien Immigrants to England)] TJ ET BT 289.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( ,)] TJ ET BT 295.016 497.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( passim)] TJ ET BT 331.352 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Cunningham, however, singularly failed to )] TJ ET BT 64.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the key importance of the innovations in textiles.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.656 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(35\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.656 481.443 m 411.644 481.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 468.586 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(36.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E.g. D. Ormrod in A. Armstrong \(ed., )] TJ ET BT 248.324 468.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Economy of Kent 1640-1914)] TJ ET BT 406.976 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Woodbridge, 1995\), pp. 97-8.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(36\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 452.931 m 124.004 452.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 440.074 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(37.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L. Luu, "Skills and Innovation: a Study of the Stranger Working Community in London 1550- 1600", )] TJ ET BT 64.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PhD thesis, Inst. Hist. Res., London University, 1996 \(forthcoming\); see also her "Migration and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Change: Religious Refugees and the London Economy, 1550- 1600", )] TJ ET BT 399.884 411.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Critical Survey)] TJ ET BT 472.880 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. 8 \(1996\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp. 93- 102, and "Assimilation or Segregation: Communities of Alien Craftsmen in London in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sixteenth Century", in )] TJ ET BT 174.248 383.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Strangers' Progress: Integration and Disintegration of the Huguenot and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 368.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Walloon Refugee Community, 1567-1889. Essays in memory of Irene Scouloudi.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 449.972 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(37\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 449.972 367.395 m 509.960 367.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 354.538 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(38.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 354.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Few would accept that Cecil was "faced with crippling economic circumstances": Yungblut, )] TJ ET BT 510.068 354.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Strangers)] TJ ET BT 64.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p. 101.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 103.016 340.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(38\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 103.016 338.883 m 163.004 338.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 326.026 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(39.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 326.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Goose, "The 'Dutch' in Colchester", p. 267. See also Goose, "Tudor and Stuart Colchester: Economic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History", in J. Cooper \(ed.\),)] TJ ET BT 197.564 311.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Victoria County History of Essex, Vol. IXII)] TJ ET BT 428.216 311.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1994\), pp. 81-3.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 297.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(39\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 296.115 m 124.004 296.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 283.258 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(E. Kerridge, )] TJ ET BT 125.996 283.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Textile Manufactures in Early Modern England)] TJ ET BT 354.980 283.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester, 1985\), pp. vii-ix, presents )] TJ ET BT 64.016 268.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an extreme denial of the importance of alien contributions, and D.C. Coleman, "An Innovation and its )] TJ ET BT 64.016 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diffusion: the 'New Draperies"', )] TJ ET BT 221.528 254.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 346.172 254.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Vol. 22 \(1969\), pp. 417-29 remains the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 240.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(better balanced exposition. For a reassessment of the importance of home-grown innovations relative )] TJ ET BT 64.016 226.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the German contribution in the metal mining industries see R. 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