%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 32 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818080943+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818080943+01'00') /Title (Caricature and French Political Culture 1830-1848 Charles Philipon and the Illustrated Press) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4678 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Caricature and French Political Culture 1830-1848 Charles )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Philipon and the Illustrated Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Political caricature flourished as never before in France during the early years of Louis-Philippe's reign. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was Charles X's assault on freedom of the press that led to the Revolution of 1830, and the maintenance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guarantee of this freedom was one of the July Days' few tangible benefits. Numerous under-employed but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically aware Parisian artists made the most of this 'window of opportunity' before the reimposition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(censorship in 1835. But the dramatic progress of caricature in France also relied on technological change: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the artists who feature in David Kerr's history chose the relatively new technique of lithography. Lithographs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were cheap, quick and easy to mass-produce compared with their predecessors, the woodcut or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copperplate engraving.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One might speculate that a later technological innovation, the digital scanner, lies behind historians' current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enthusiasm for imagery as a source. The recent illustrated biographies of two of the most significant pictorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters of nineteenth-century visual culture, the young recruit Chauvin and the hunchback freethinker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mayeux, might serve as examples.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.988 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.988 153.009 m 213.980 153.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 213.980 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The fifty-six images reproduced by Kerr must be a record for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford Historical Monograph Series \(although one longs for more given the importance of several prints to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his argument which are described but not shown\). Probably more significant, however, is the revitalisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of politics in the historiography of France's revolutionary past. Although Kerr makes no such claim for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, his book is an example of how the revisionist interpretation of the Great Revolution might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended into the nineteenth century. Just as revisionist historians of 1789 have argued that books, journals, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(salons and Masonic lodges brought together a new political class away from the influence of the court to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create a 'public sphere' where an oppositional political culture took shape in the form of 'public opinion', so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(210)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 September, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David S. Kerr)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(45.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Hopkin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 199.9877 153.3235 213.9797 165.2035 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7264 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political caricature after 1830 provided notables \(including Legitimists\) with a shared language of ridicule )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and resentment, which seeped into the public spaces of the July Monarchy? the courts, the theatres, street )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(graffiti and demonstrations. Revisionist influence on Kerr's work becomes apparent in a fascinating section )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Grenoble insurrection of March 1832 that, like so many popular uprisings, originated in carnival. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group of medical students chose this moment of license to mock the government of Louis Philippe and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Prime Minister Casimir Prier \(a Grenoblois\) using masks and symbols borrowed from caricature. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefect's attempts to suppress this piece of street theatre led to demonstrations and finally insurrection. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events in Grenoble have not attracted the same level of attention as those in Lyons the previous year because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter was clearly a working-class revolt against capitalism, and therefore much easier to fit into a socio-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic interpretation of political violence than the pranks of a group of middle-class students. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Kerr explains, "Contemporaries saw things very differently. A working-class revolt had something of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of a nature disaster. but the laughter of the political classes was a genuine political event.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians' reassessment of the importance of caricature to political culture likewise brings them into line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with nineteenth-century opinion. Caricature was even more important than freedom of expression in text )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because, while words spoke to a person's intelligence, images spoke directly to the emotions. Newspapers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circulated only among those who could afford them \(or afford to share them\), pamphlets were unlikely to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated by the illiterate. Their influence was, therefore, limited to the educated, order-loving middle-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classes. But a caricature in a shop window or pasted on a wall was available to a much more popular and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellious public. Complex arguments were reduced to simple symbols, and thus more rapidly assimilated. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Caricature not only gave form to ideas; it converted them into acts performed before one's eyes, a far more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerful incitement to emulation. Viewed thus, the illustrated newspaper )] TJ ET BT 389.636 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Charivari)] TJ ET BT 436.976 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s 'Red Number' of 27 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(July 1835 with its lists of those killed by the forces of order since 1830 could be held directly responsible for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fieschi's bomb-attack on the royal family the following day. In the Chamber of Deputies Thiers successfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded the reimposition of censorship because "there is nothing more dangerous. than scandalous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caricatures, than seditious drawings. there is no more direct provocation of attacks." \(As Thiers, the Kenneth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Baker of his era, had a personal collection of 1,500 caricatures presumably he considered himself immune to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their pernicious influence.\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A belief in the efficacy of images was the common intellectual currency at the time. Michelet argued that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republicans needed to plaster the walls with colourful posters if they were to reach the masses. Kerr himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is doubtful about the immediacy of caricature's impact. Caricature in the July Monarchy, just like )] TJ ET BT 503.780 359.045 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Eye )] TJ ET BT 55.004 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(today, relied on a self-referential system of symbols which it took time to learn. Nonetheless the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assumption was one of the motivations for the man at the centre of Kerr's study, Charles Philipon, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impresario of caricature in the July Monarchy: "In France, as in England, caricature has become a power".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philipon was a caricaturist of moderate talents. Despite a reputation built on a couple of anti-Carlist images )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published immediately before and after the July Revolution, his real contribution to the history of caricature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was as an entrepreneur. He was the leading partner in the Maison Aubert, the principle shop-window in Paris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for caricature of all kinds. He was also the founder and editor of the illustrated weekly )] TJ ET BT 450.920 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Caricature )] TJ ET BT 522.260 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later, the illustrated daily )] TJ ET BT 157.004 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Le Charivari)] TJ ET BT 219.344 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, both titles were the most successful of their kind. To provide his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lithographs he brought together the foremost graphic artists of his time: Daumier, Grandville, Travis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Decamps and \(my favourite\) Jeanron. Since caricature became a collectable artistic genre in its own right the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names of these artists have become much more familiar than Philipon's own. As half the book's illustrations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come from Kerr's own collection he must share this appreciation \(and he is good at explaining how a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture's aesthetics convey particular meanings, for example in his analysis of Daumier's well-known )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defence of freedom of the press )] TJ ET BT 188.624 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ne vous y frottez pas)] TJ ET BT 288.620 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). But his focus is not on the artists or their art but on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historical context of caricature's production, dissemination and reception.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7867 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philipon was at the heart of production; he set the political agenda \(which, in the case of Grandville at least, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was not shared by the artist\); the inspiration for particular caricatures was often his \(Daumier's famous series )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning the enterprising thief )] TJ ET BT 193.316 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Robert Macaire)] TJ ET BT 269.636 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example, were illustrations to Philipon's captions\); he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrote the copy. Philipon was the public spokesman for caricature; he was even depicted in his own papers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Demon of caricature incarnate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philipon, who claimed the mantle of a barricade fighter in 1830, did not immediately launch his assault on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the July Monarchy. His disenchantment grew as the Orlanist government moved towards the right, starting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the repression of the anticlerical riots in Paris in December 1830. Philipon initially aligned himself with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'mouvement', those Orlanists who believed that the Revolution was the starting point for reform. Louis-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippe, who much to everyone's surprise took a direct political role himself, gave his support to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('rsistance', those who believed the Revolution was the end of reform. It was the government's creeping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offensive on freedom of the press that pushed Philipon further to the left. Between February 1831 and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August 1832 he was prosecuted sixteen times, and spent much of 1832 in prison. Like )] TJ ET BT 450.308 601.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Private Eye)] TJ ET BT 506.624 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Philipon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used his court appearances both for publicity and fundraising. By the time of his release in 1833 he was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(committed Republican, using his papers to attract support for Republican causes. The caricatures became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly virulent in their attacks on the government and the person of the King himself, particularly after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the suppression of Republican uprisings in 1834. Louis-Philippe was portrayed as an avaricious political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manipulator, his ministers as hypocrites, the deputies as corrupt \(the 'Ventre' of Daumier's satire\). The July )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy's craven foreign policy was compared with its reliance on brute force to crush opposition at home. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The King was at the centre of this failed regime because he denied the true origins of his own legitimacy. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(owed his position as the 'roi des barricades' to public opinion, and yet now he tried to suppress public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opinion. Hence Philipon repeatedly chose to depict him in disguise, the smiling mask of the liberal 'juste )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(milieu' falling away to reveal the autocrat within.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How influential were Philipon's prints? This is the question that lies at the heart of Kerr's book, and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary task, therefore, was to discover their distribution. As is so often the case, we are indebted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments of repression for our historical knowledge. In July 1835 a police raid on Philipon's offices netted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a subscription list to Charivari. Of the 1,400 subscribers \(a decent figure for the period\) more than a quarter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lived in Paris, although copies were sent as far afield as the King of Sardinia. Among Parisians the greatest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of personal subscribers could be found in the arriviste neighbourhoods around the Bourse, or in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old money of the Faubourg Saint-Germain. \(Philipon's aristocratic readership lends the flimsiest support to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the government's charge of a Carlist-Republican plot.\) Illustrated newspapers were expensive, only the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuinely well-heeled could afford to buy their own. But 530 subscriptions were held by cafs, )] TJ ET BT 493.604 318.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cabinets de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(lecture )] TJ ET BT 70.340 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(private, commercial libraries\), and clubs. In Paris these were concentrated around the Palais-Royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the boulevards, where notables rubbed shoulders with the lower middle-classes, clerks, shop assistants, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even workers. They jostled each other to get a glimpse of the latest caricature in the windows of the Maison )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aubert, and in the foyers of the nearby vaudeville theatres where caricature was enacted on stage. Here, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(least, politics was no longer the exclusive concern of the handful of electors, it was available to 'the people'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The close connection between boulevard cafs, vaudeville and caricature, already explored in the works on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chauvin and Mayeux mentioned above, is brought to life by Kerr thanks to his prodigious knowledge of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century French literature and journalism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philipon's success can be gauged by the spread of pear as a symbol originally of the Louis-Philippe's head, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then his whole body, and finally the entire regime. Philipon's first used the pear as part of his defence against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a charge of 'insulting the person of the King'. He argued that, while it was true that one of the characters in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his papers had the features of the King, anything could be made to resemble anything else, for instance a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pear and the King's head. Did that mean that greengrocers were guilty of sedition? The sketches Philipon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drew that day appeared in )] TJ ET BT 160.976 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(La Caricature )] TJ ET BT 232.316 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in January 1832, and the pear rapidly became a stock element in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(artists' repertoire. Kerr suggests that one reason the pear appealed so much is that Philipon's educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readership, possessing some basic knowledge of physiognomy, would understand that by emphasising the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(King's narrow forehead and overdeveloped mouth a reference was being made to his intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incompetence and greed. This is part of a more general argument that Philipon's caricatures eschew )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7816 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references drawn from popular culture, although it should be pointed out that the pear does have a place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French folklore as an extremely crude sexual symbol. But whatever its origins there can be no doubt as to its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumph. Other newspapers, even government ones, found it impossible not to mention pears. Puns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferated, as did pear-shaped graffiti. Fanny Trollope, visiting the Latin Quarter in 1835, found 'Pears of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(every size and form. were to be seen in all directions.' They were also all over the walls of prisons. In 1834 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there was even a shop specialising in wax pears. Through the press the language of pears reached the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provinces, Philipon claimed they were springing up all over the country. Even among historians Louis-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippe cannot rid himself of this tiresome fruit; it is simply impossible to write about him without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of the pear floating into one's mind, the very symbol of an unloved and unlovable monarch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Given the wide distribution of the pear \(so much part of the collective consciousness of the time that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appears in the autobiography of the working-class politician Martin Nadaud a year before Philipon had even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought of it\), it is surprising that Kerr himself denies caricature's influence on the political upheavals of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Caricature did not penetrate the countryside; it did not form part of the culture of the working-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(barricade fighters of 1834 or 1848. Louis-Philippe may have blamed his overthrow in the February )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Revolution on the campaign ridicule he suffered \(just as Napoleonic imagery was credited at the time, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a recent work by the historian Barbara Day-Hickman,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 291.944 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 291.944 569.235 m 305.936 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 305.936 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with Louis-Napoleon's electoral success later in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year\), but Kerr argues that "Caricature was not an important means of initiation into the world of national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics; in a sense Philipon preached to the converted". Indeed, the more the opposition \(and in particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Republicans\) adopted Philipon's satirical language the easier it was for the government to discredit them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The more violent the image the more likely it was to invoke memories of 1793 \(Philipon's contemporaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistakenly believing that the Terror had also been a period of graphic incontinence\). The more crude and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insulting the representation, the more the middle classes \(on whom Louis-Philippe relied for his support\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(learnt to associate political liberty with )] TJ ET BT 224.000 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(libertinage)] TJ ET BT 276.668 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, an accusation that has dogged revolutionaries from 1830 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 1968. "The Revolution of 1848 perhaps owes as much to the reassuring absence of political caricature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from 1835 to 1848 as it does to Philipon's brilliant but unsettling political campaign from 1830 to 1835.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kerr's conclusion has its modern echo - why was Mrs Thatcher not driven from office in the 1980s by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laughter generated by )] TJ ET BT 140.984 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Spitting Image)] TJ ET BT 211.316 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and alternative comedy? A book that denies its own wider significance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, in a way, quite refreshing. And if one accepts the downbeat conclusion one can still enjoy this book for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insights into the meaning of caricature, and its portrayal of that exciting part of Paris where middle-class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respectability bordered on Bohemia. It seems to me, however, that Kerr is too quick to dismiss the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he himself has assembled. It may not have been the sight of a caricature that led people onto the streets )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1848, but might not Louis-Philippe's failure to create a popular counter-image to the pear help explain his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficulties in mobilising support in that crisis? Might the camaraderie of a shared joke help us understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Republicans were able to build their alliance with the nascent labour movement? Modern research has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so far failed to reveal any clear-cut link between portrayals of violence on TV and actual violence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nonetheless the suspicion remains that they are connected. Guizot, Thiers, Michelet and Stendhal had a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar suspicion about caricature, and so does this reviewer, though how I might prove it is another matter.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.355 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 193.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grard de Puymge, )] TJ ET BT 165.320 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Chauvin, le soldat-laboureur: Contribution l'tude des nationalismes)] TJ ET BT 506.564 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Paris )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1993\); Elizabeth K. Menon, )] TJ ET BT 201.332 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Complete Mayeux: Use and Abuse of a French Icon)] TJ ET BT 471.608 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Peter Lang, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bern, 1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.340 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.340 163.827 m 178.328 163.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 150.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barbara Day-Hickman,)] TJ ET BT 175.976 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Napoleonic Art: Nationalism and the Spirit of Rebellion \(1815-1848\) )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(University of Delaware Press, Newark, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 289.952 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 289.952 135.315 m 343.940 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 110.453 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 96.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 91.471 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 73.691 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 73.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/210)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 72.297 m 322.316 72.297 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 47.320 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj [21 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 291.9437 569.5495 305.9357 581.4295 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 124.3397 164.1415 178.3277 176.0215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 289.9517 135.6295 343.9397 147.5095 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 23 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 72.6115 322.3157 84.4915 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/210) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 234 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.354 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1225)] TJ ET BT 34.016 781.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 34 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000602 00000 n 0000000691 00000 n 0000005421 00000 n 0000005530 00000 n 0000005640 00000 n 0000005749 00000 n 0000009310 00000 n 0000009438 00000 n 0000009522 00000 n 0000009551 00000 n 0000009679 00000 n 0000009715 00000 n 0000009780 00000 n 0000017097 00000 n 0000017162 00000 n 0000025082 00000 n 0000025187 00000 n 0000033056 00000 n 0000033086 00000 n 0000033214 00000 n 0000033250 00000 n 0000033378 00000 n 0000033433 00000 n 0000033561 00000 n 0000033616 00000 n 0000033742 00000 n 0000033837 00000 n 0000033902 00000 n trailer << /Size 34 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34188 %%EOF