%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150525111555+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150525111555+01'00') /Title (Suicide in the Middle Ages Volume II, The Curse on Self-Murder [nid:1227]) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2027 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Suicide in the Middle Ages Volume II, The Curse on Self-Murder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [([nid:1227])] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(211)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Alexander Murray)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780199553181)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(0.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(662pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198207313.do#.Ui7zScakpbU)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David d'Avray)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7284 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume is long, and it is the second out of three. Some books are long because it is expected. That was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case with the old )] TJ ET BT 135.668 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thse d'tat)] TJ ET BT 189.896 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in France, and the tradition lives on under different administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrangements. Murray's opus magnum is like a )] TJ ET BT 261.476 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(thse d'tat)] TJ ET BT 315.704 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in that he has taken all the time he needs and cut )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no corners, but unlike a )] TJ ET BT 149.996 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(grande thse )] TJ ET BT 214.652 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is not the product of the first decade or so of research. Murray's first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reason and Society in the Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 251.324 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford, 1978\), was an astounding synthesis of insights. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two decades and more that have elapsed since it appeared, his scholarship and unusual mind have matured, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so that this is a study )] TJ ET BT 137.360 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hors de catgorie)] TJ ET BT 221.348 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. It is true that one senses a reluctance to leave out any of the insights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired along the way. Still, this is not one of those books that grow because the author has accumulated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lot of material and does not want to jettison it. Murray's powers of synthesis protect him from irrelevance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Above all, he has a unifying argument, with many subsidiary arguments that support it rather than detract )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from it. He tries to persuade honestly, without manipulating the reader, and this means taking the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through all the arguments and source problems. He has tried to set them out clearly enough for any educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person to understand. Too much compression would have excluded the combination of reasoned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstration and clarity which characterise Murray's enterprise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The unifying argument of the volume is that harsh treatment of suicide in the Middle Ages does not derive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the specific rationality of the dominant religion. This argument could have been distilled into a slim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(controversial book. It could have been received as a polemic. Instead, Murray sets his data and his reasoning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out in clear daylight. That could have made the book laborious to read, but the quality of mind averts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(danger of drudgery. Much of the empirical data on actual suicides in the Middle Ages was marshalled in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume one. Like a master chef, Murray had set out his )] TJ ET BT 302.300 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(mise )] TJ ET BT 327.296 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in advance. In this volume he sets to work on it, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowing us to watch.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The argument is in fact several arguments, distinct in type. One type is chronological. It is known that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies of suicides were treated with extreme harshness in the Middle Ages. Murray shows that this was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mainly a late- or post medieval phenomenon. Consequently, 'the influence of the medieval Church' cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequately explain it. He draws the obvious parallel with the chronology of witch persecutions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another strand of reasoning centres on the philosophy and law of the ancient world. Ancient pagan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philosophy and Roman Law could show a tolerant face to suicide. Nevertheless, both traditions \(they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperfectly distinct\) developed a less tolerant attitude, and this development seems to have come from an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(internal dynamic, rather than simply from Christian influence. In setting out his argument, Murray provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in passing a fine analysis of the rationalities of Stoicism and of Roman Law.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Analysis of coherence is another of Murray's methods. 'Though theological in apparent idiom, many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval ideas on suicide lacked the coherence of real theology, and indeed any coherence sufficient to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account for the curse in all its vigour. The rationale for the curse must therefore be sought, not just in these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicit testimonies but in their context.' \(p. 395\). Murray is in effect developing a method for deciding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the a set of attitudes in the past can be explained by the inner rationale of a belief system, or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether they have a separate origin, but come to colour and overlay the belief system. This method is widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applicable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Careful linguistic analysis shows that the specific method of suicide was emphasised in legal discourse, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(irrelevantly, one might think. Murray can explain this: it was the vivid horror of particular cases that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the reaction, more than the act )] TJ ET BT 227.972 168.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(per se.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Attempted suicide was treated leniently. Morally, logically, the sin should have been the same. Yet there was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a gulf between the attitude to the successful and the unsuccessful self-murderer.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 101.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most powerful chain of inference is from comparative religious law. In the ancient world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Romans, Greeks and Jews all showed a horror of suicide like that of the Middle Ages. In some cases Murray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has to excavate these attitudes through careful source analysis: he has to bring to light some data that pushes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against scholarly assumptions. Then, in the final chapter, the most impressive of all for this reviewer, he )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4793 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looks further afield, to the anthropology of 'primitive' peoples, to ancient India, and to Islam, finding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everywhere phenomena similar to those of the medieval West. Granted the generality of the 'curse on self-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(murder, Murray's virtuoso reconstruction of a chain linking ancient Egyptian attitudes to early medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synodal law is superfluous to the logic of his argument, though dazzling enough in its breadth of learning.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All these lines of evidence point towards the conclusion that the medieval horror of suicide and the harsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of suicides' bodies represent a crude but overpowering pollution fear liable to manifest itself in any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place or time. Pollution is distinguished 'by its adhesion to a tangible, unmistakable material even without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consideration for the mental state involved, and . by its function in supporting the norms that protect a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community.' \(427\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When these arguments are stated baldly, they seem quite rejectable. Not so when one works through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patient and lucid presentation of the evidence. For those who have the time to do so there are many added )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractions. Medievalists will be full of professional admiration for the technical expertise deployed without )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent effort. Murray takes manuscript discoveries in his stride, convincingly restoring damaged words in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an unpublished sermon by Pope John XXII. He is comfortable with medieval vernaculars. It is one thing to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use easily accessible sources, another to exploit evidence whose structure seems designed to repel all but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most determined. Most serious scholars who do pioneering work have mastered the technical structure of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one such genre of source, but Murray has made a determined effort to learn the ins and outs of a whole range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of them. The expertise acquired for the project extends far beyond the Middle Ages, so that we have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something not far off a comparative cultural history of suicide. Infallibility when far from his medieval base )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is too much to expect. He mistakenly reports \(p. 336\) the majority solution to the synoptic problem, making )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew share the lost Q-source with Mark, rather than Luke. Yet it is an intellectual feature of Murray that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he continues to show great originality when far from the central medieval period with which he is primarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(associated. Despite his small slip, Biblical critics would do well to pay attention to what he has to say in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section on 'The Historical Judas', just as specialists in the world of late Antiquity should reflect on his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments for restoring for some purposes the 'two tier' model of piety, elite and popular, which Momigliano )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had criticised. In fact, not only historians of many periods, but also scholars in many disciplines ought to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study this rather amazing book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 330.319 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 312.539 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 312.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/211)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 311.145 m 322.316 311.145 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 286.168 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1227)] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.368 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 311.4595 322.3157 323.3395 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/211) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000651 00000 n 0000002730 00000 n 0000002839 00000 n 0000002949 00000 n 0000003058 00000 n 0000006619 00000 n 0000006747 00000 n 0000006831 00000 n 0000006896 00000 n 0000014233 00000 n 0000014317 00000 n 0000019163 00000 n 0000019291 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 19386 %%EOF