%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 32 0 R 62 0 R 78 0 R 110 0 R 140 0 R 178 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416113313+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416113313+01'00') /Title (The Christianization of Iceland, priests, power, and social change 1000-1300) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R 28 0 R 30 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 6311 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Christianization of Iceland, priests, power, and social change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1000-1300)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saga and penecontemporaneous 'historical sources' are a minefield for interpretation into which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeologists step at their peril. Historians similarly range across this perilous landscape either confident )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sure-footed in the belief that what they read is true, if often tempered with the supernatural, or as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptics who feels that each footfall may be their last, as myth and family pseudohistory are interpreted as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact. Into this wasteland, Orri Vsteinsson strides with consummate skill. If anything siding with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sceptics, he examines the 'historical' and other written sources with a somewhat iconoclastic approach, borne )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of experience with an Icelandic archaeological record where the artifactual record is so poor that virtually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing can be securely dated. Recourse to the framework provided by frequent layers of volcanic ash, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first demonstrated by Sigurur rarinsson in jrsrdalur over fifty years ago )] TJ ET BT 414.296 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 418.292 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorarinsson 1944)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 418.292 207.777 m 508.616 207.777 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 508.616 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), is itself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliant upon the historical record for dating, and still leaves grounds for dispute \(cf. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 436.616 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vilhjlmsson 1991)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 436.616 193.521 m 527.624 193.521 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 527.624 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whilst the actual dates of eruptions should eventually be resolved by annual snow accumulation counts in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Greenland ice cores \(e.g. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.296 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zielinski )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.296 165.009 m 219.968 165.009 l S BT 219.968 166.403 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.968 165.183 m 240.968 165.183 l S BT 240.968 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1995)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 240.968 165.009 m 270.968 165.009 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 270.968 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), where Icelandic tephra rather than the disputed proxies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acidity peaks actually occur \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 174.644 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckland )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 174.644 150.753 m 223.640 150.753 l S BT 223.640 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 223.640 150.927 m 247.640 150.927 l S BT 247.640 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1996)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.640 150.753 m 274.640 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 274.640 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 280.976 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zielinski )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 280.976 150.753 m 326.648 150.753 l S BT 326.648 152.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 326.648 150.927 m 350.648 150.927 l S BT 350.648 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1998)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 350.648 150.753 m 377.648 150.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 377.648 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), direct relationships with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeology and thereby inferred history remain less secure; the problems of how long between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction/abandonment and volcanic eruption will always remain. Such problems occur frequently in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first part of Vsteinsson's study; just how many early churches are attested archaeologically as opposed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historically, and at what date do pagan burial customs cease? The archaeological record has further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems. Whilst we can recognise some high status pagan interments from their grave goods and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes, pagan temples are particularly elusive, and Christian chapels lacking burial rites may pass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarly unrecognised. Vsteinsson opts for a model in which temples did not exist, although the recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(212)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orri Vsteinsson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(318pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Paul Buckland)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 15 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.2917 208.0915 508.6157 219.9715 ] >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 436.6157 193.8355 527.6237 205.7155 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.2957 165.3235 249.9677 177.2035 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 219.9677 165.3235 240.9677 177.2035 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 174.6437 151.0675 250.6397 162.9475 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 223.6397 151.0675 247.6397 162.9475 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 280.9757 151.0675 326.6477 162.9475 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6477 151.6723 353.6477 163.5523 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 326.6477 151.0675 350.6477 162.9475 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 34 0 R 36 0 R 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R ] /Contents 33 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Length 10488 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discovery of cattle skulls buried beneath the turf walls of the large hall at Hofstair may cause him to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconsider this view \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.660 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fririksson )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.660 780.819 m 195.332 780.819 l S BT 195.332 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.332 780.993 m 219.332 780.993 l S BT 219.332 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in press)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 219.332 780.819 m 259.328 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 259.328 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Feasting in such halls may have had a quasi-ritual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(implication \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fririksson and Vsteinsson 1997)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.684 766.563 m 258.680 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 258.680 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), but the fact that one of the early priests, Bjarnharr the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saxon, spent time blessing not only churches and bells but also wells, fords, lakes and cliffs \(p. 21\) might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taken to imply a need to sanctify previously pagan open ritual sites out in the countryside, traces of which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still survive in those fragments of Icelandic folklore which are not romantic creations of the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century and later; the burials of chieftains with horses and place names like Hestavatn may have a tenuous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(link through the Christian ban on the eating of horse flesh.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The account of the precipitate conversion of the Icelanders following a decision taken at the ing in AD )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(999/1000 provides a legitimate foundation myth for the Church, but there are saga and other references to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the earlier presence of Christians in Iceland, and the progress of christianisation is likely to have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gradual. There remains the thorny problem of the )] TJ ET BT 273.632 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(culdees)] TJ ET BT 309.620 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Did Irish monks seek the solitude of the islands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before Norse landnm, or is this merely an alternative foundation myth built by later clerics to reinforce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further their hold on the land? Forging of charters was a thriving industry in the monasteries of this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including those of Iceland \(pp. 133-4\), and the context of both )] TJ ET BT 335.636 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Landnmabk )] TJ ET BT 407.300 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and )] TJ ET BT 427.628 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(slendingabk )] TJ ET BT 498.620 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(require the Church to establish its deeper roots, alongside those of the leading families. Palaeoecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research on Papey found no hermits, and suggests that little activity preceded the fall of the Landnm tephra )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in )] TJ ET BT 46.352 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ca. )] TJ ET BT 63.680 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(865 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 88.676 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckland )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 88.676 540.723 m 137.672 540.723 l S BT 137.672 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.672 540.897 m 158.672 540.897 l S BT 158.672 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1995)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 158.672 540.723 m 188.672 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 188.672 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), although )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 243.668 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hannon and Bradshaw \(2000\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 243.668 540.723 m 387.968 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 387.968 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( would interpret Faroese evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differently. Dicuil's near-contemporaneous account of both Faroe and a land in the north sufficiently light at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(midsummer midnight to see to pick the lice from a man's shirt has to be accepted at face value. This is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area, which Vsteinsson avoids, lying outside his chosen period, although one would have liked to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known what he thought of the sources.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether Ari rgilsson's words or those handed down to his informant Teitr by his grandfather who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been present, Snorri the Lawgiver's riposte to the claim at the Aling that the old gods' anger was evinced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(news of an eruption, " at whom were the gods angry when these stones were erupted", has a strikingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern ring to it. Much ink has been spilt over the identity of Kristjnshraun, but again foundation myth or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truth, it provides a small window on the natural world, a sense of deep time, which is woefully lacking in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most contemporary literature from mainland Christian Europe, where accounts of natural phenomena \()] TJ ET BT 526.916 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sigurdsson 1999)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 371.907 m 114.356 371.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 114.356 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) derive not from direct observation but from such palimpsests as Solvinus' distillation of all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is wonderful in Pliny the Elder or the cloistered ravings of ill-informed monks. Eventually the cold hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Church falls over Icelandic sources as well, and Hekla becomes the mouth of Hell, turned from Nordic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cold to Mediterranean heat, and its eruptions the screams of the damned. During the period of transition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, Iceland shows a literary flowering, some of it, ironically, written by priests, without parallel in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(West, and these family histories, sagas, variously regarded as fact or collections of fairy stories, provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(additional clues to the location of early churches, several of which have unfortunately been excavated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the benefit of modern archaeological techniques. It is unfortunate that Vsteinsson did not take the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity, whilst discussing these and other early ecclesiastical sites, of pulling together what excavated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence there is and comparing these with contemporary churches in mainland Europe and Greenland; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indeed, with the exception of a good set of location maps, the book is disappointingly short on illustrations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early part of Iceland's history is rightly regarded by Vsteinsson as its prehistory, although the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured in France for the Iron Age, protohistory \(protohistoire\), would perhaps have been more correct. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Archaeology and tephrochronology provide important sources within this period, and despite scepticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere the author falls into a chronological trap at Stng in jrsrsdalur. The careful re-excavation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this site by Vilhjlmur rn Vilhjlmsson located a structure beneath the main house, as well as others to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(east \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 59.672 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vilhjlmsson 1989)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 59.672 131.811 m 150.680 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 150.680 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), beneath what)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 227.324 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roussell \(1943\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 227.324 131.811 m 303.656 131.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 303.656 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( had identified as a pantry. Vilhjlmsson has long )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued that the dating of the destruction of the jrsrsdalur farms by an eruption of Hekla in )] TJ ET BT 484.940 118.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ca. )] TJ ET BT 502.268 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1104 \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarinsson 1967)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 103.299 m 117.680 103.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 117.680 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) was wrong, and that the artefactual record suggests that occupation continued into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first half of the thirteenth century \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 200.648 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vilhjlmsson 1989)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 200.648 89.043 m 291.656 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 291.656 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.992 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.992 89.043 m 321.992 89.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.992 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Vsteinsson accepts this still contentious view )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without comment \(p.55\). Much depends upon a single sherd of glazed pottery identified as 'Grimston Ware'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In her recent study of pottery in Iceland, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.300 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sveinbjarnardttir \(1996\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.300 60.531 m 352.616 60.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 352.616 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is more circumspect, and uses the term )] TJ ET endstream endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.6597 781.1335 235.3277 793.0135 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.3317 781.1335 219.3317 793.0135 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.6837 766.8775 258.6797 778.7575 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.6757 541.0375 167.6717 552.9175 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.6717 541.0375 158.6717 552.9175 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 243.6677 541.0375 387.9677 552.9175 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 538.5797 387.0823 538.5797 398.9623 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 372.2215 114.3557 384.1015 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 59.6717 132.1255 150.6797 144.0055 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 227.3237 132.1255 303.6557 144.0055 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 103.6135 117.6797 115.4935 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 200.6477 89.3575 291.6557 101.2375 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.9917 89.3575 321.9917 101.2375 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 230.2997 60.8455 352.6157 72.7255 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R ] /Contents 63 0 R >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Length 9487 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Grimston-type Ware', but still provides a date range of the 13th to the 15th century. Caution over ascribing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fabrics to sources is particularly needed when dealing with pottery manufactured in eastern England, from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holderness southwards to northern East Anglia, where the clays and temper derive from mineralogically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indistinguishable Late Devensian glacial deposits; dating therefore has to rest upon when the earliest glazed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wares were produced in the region. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 205.628 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mainman's \(1990\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 205.628 738.051 m 293.444 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 293.444 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( work on the York material has shown that glazed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ware production extends back at least to the tenth century; the small Stng sherd can provide limited dating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence. Of the remaining artefacts from jrsrdalur, only the antler combs \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 412.928 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vilhjlmsson 1989)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 412.928 709.539 m 503.936 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.936 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, fig. 5\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belong to a relatively short-lived type, and despite his attempts to date them later, the best parallels lie in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Scandinavian York, )] TJ ET BT 166.328 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ca.)] TJ ET BT 180.656 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 850 to the eleventh century \()] TJ ET BT 321.296 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.960 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MacGregor 1982)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.960 681.027 m 418.268 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 418.268 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, fig.49\). Much hangs upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dating of the jrsrdalur sites, including the putative sequence of house types in the North Atlantic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(region, and it is difficult to push the dating beyond the 1104/58 date favoured by vulcanologists, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are themselves reliant upon annalistic sources. If a later date is accepted, the absence of any trace of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church is a curious feature of the Stng site. The small farm at nearby Skeljastair, with the largest room )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only 9.5m by 4.5m, compared with Stng's massive 18m by 6m hall with outshots, had a church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cemetery.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.996 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vilhjlmarson's \(1996\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.996 595.491 m 194.480 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 194.480 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( excavations have now found a church at Stng, under a later structure, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its burials had been removed for reburial elsewhere before the site's destruction by the eruption. Vsteinsson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notes \(p.53\) that the desertion of a church or chapel normally required the exhumation and reburial of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dead, and this could imply that the decision to abandon the site as a permanent farm, perhaps a reduction to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shieling status, had occurred earlier. As Vilhjlmsson \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 297.644 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 297.644 538.467 m 321.644 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 321.644 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 327.980 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 327.980 538.467 m 351.980 538.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 351.980 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) has argued, the process of desertion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(jrsrdalur may not have been occasioned by a single catastrophic event.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vsteinsson sees the christianisation of Iceland as part of the inexorable process of microstate formation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventual incorporation into the kingdom of Norway in 1262-4, but whether such a trajectory was inevitable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the interference of the Church is debateable, although even more remote Greenland was also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(christianized and incorporated. Whether squabbling subsistence farmers on the edge of the World needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe before the arrival of the arch-endoparasite the Church, to modify Vsteinsson's words, is doubtful. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Local animism rooted in a vaguely remembered Norse pantheon fulfilled religious requirements, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church only provided a mechanism by which the few were able to control the many. With its acceptance, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(few sought to keep as much of the tithe in family hands as possible, and Gizurr )] TJ ET BT 416.300 399.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hviti)] TJ ET BT 440.300 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('s astute move in having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his son Isleifr educated abroad, to become Iceland's first native bishop at Skalholt in )] TJ ET BT 441.116 385.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ca.)] TJ ET BT 455.444 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1057, shows one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful attempt to control the parasite which ultimate took control of most of the good land until the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation presented a partial cure, too late for Greenland and in Iceland's case merely replacing largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endoparasitism with the ectoparasite of the Danish king. This perhaps appears a jaundiced view of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(christianisation of Iceland, not in line with Vsteinsson's, but it fits a paradigm, which many anticlerical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writers since the Reformation would recognise. Yet without Church and ultimately state control what could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be the pattern? In the chaos of an independent commonwealth, independent people killed, burned and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maimed in line with the social Darwinism of a code of honour more akin to Clint Eastwood and the myth of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American West \(cf.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.976 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Logan 1992)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.976 269.859 m 206.636 269.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 206.636 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) than the precepts of Christian 'charity', itself another myth, apparent in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that Olafr Tryggvason took Icelandic hostages against the adoption of Christianity at the Aling; this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was hardly a free vote since many of the goi would have been very aware of the likely fate of their sons. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be noted that unlike Norway, Iceland had no Stiklestair, and any powerful allegiance to the old gods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(may already have been in decline. It would, however, be to put a modern set of values on the past to suggest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that prior to the acquisition of Christianity Icelanders were moving towards an agnostic viewpoint; we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply have little idea what the prevailing belief systems were, and what we have is based on a few burials, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trinkets, and the post-hoc word of the eventual victors, the Christian Church. Its moralising overtones )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permeate the sagas, which purport to describe earlier societies, attaching reverence to myths, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated into the films of the last great western frontier, have been termed )] TJ ET BT 397.940 142.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hengikjt Westerns)] TJ ET BT 492.260 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comments may seem far-fetched, but if there are any faults in Vsteinsson's book they lie in his failure to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compare Iceland and Greenland, on Europe's westernmost frontier, with events on its other borders, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholic Christianity came up against other pre-existing belief systems.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the North, the Sami pattern of deposition of offerings in sacred places might parallel hoards and stray )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finds in Iceland; not all wealth was disposed of in winter beer and hengikjt, or in the apparent miserliness )] TJ ET endstream endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 205.6277 738.3655 293.4437 750.2455 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 67 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 412.9277 709.8535 503.9357 721.7335 ] >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.9597 681.3415 418.2677 693.2215 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 71 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.9957 595.8055 194.4797 607.6855 ] >> endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 73 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 297.6437 538.7815 321.6437 550.6615 ] >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 327.9797 538.7815 351.9797 550.6615 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 77 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.9757 270.1735 206.6357 282.0535 ] >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R 88 0 R 90 0 R 92 0 R 94 0 R 96 0 R 98 0 R 100 0 R 102 0 R 104 0 R 106 0 R 108 0 R ] /Contents 79 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Length 10385 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an Egil Skallagrimsson in burying his wealth, - or is the latter a poorly remembered pagan rite? We may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(never know, but the avenue requires further exploration, not only for its own sake, but also because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another curiosity, the acceptance in Iceland of a unique system of tithes. Elsewhere the tithe was 10% of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(production, but in Iceland it was a 1% property tax. Seen as usury by the Continental Church, the Norwegian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(envoy Loinn leppr provides a clue to interpretation in 1281, a point noted by Vsteinsson \(p.69, n.14\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("You bishops claim tithe of buckles and silver girdles, buckets and bushels and other dead objects, and it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amazes me that the populace tolerates such wrong from you.." Whilst Bishop rni in his reply hides behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cloak of an unspecified Pope Innocent approving such things, Vsteinsson suggests that difficulties in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculating yields in a pastoral economy may have lead to this system. Such niceties did not trouble the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church in similar situations elsewhere in Europe, and we may be seeing the appropriation by the negotiators )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Christian Church of a regularised system of offerings to the gods of places; the compromises went )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond infant exposure and the eating of horseflesh.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A change in gods for rural societies living close to the subsistence margin may have had less impact than an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increase in taxation to either Church or ultimately King. Even if the offered explanation for the unique tithe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system is accepted, there were clearly changes in the land through the late twelfth and thirteenth centuries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading to the consolidation of holdings, loss of independence by the elite, and eventual dominance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church. This is long after the acceptance of Christianity as essentially the state religion, but it is a reflection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of what Vsteinsson sees as inevitable. The problem has been explored in another doctoral thesis, in )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jn Haukur Ingimundarson's \(1995\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 526.467 m 207.152 526.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 207.152 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( study of tenth to thirteenth century Borgarfjrur. His more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anthropological perspective sees the changes as a result of the progressive incorporation of Iceland into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World system, whereby production is entrained to produce a surplus to enable import of elite goods. A polar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bear might be exchanged for a bishop in Greenland, but the bottom line of elite survival in Iceland was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercialisation of fisheries, stockfish to underpin urbanization and standing armies in mainland Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This required the organization of boats and manpower, the latter leading to a net labour deficit on farms, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formation of another archaeological feature, the farm mound, an accumulation of debris which would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(previously have been spread as manure on the infield \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 296.288 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckland )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 296.288 426.675 m 345.284 426.675 l S BT 345.284 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 345.284 426.849 m 369.284 426.849 l S BT 369.284 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1994)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 369.284 426.675 m 396.284 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 396.284 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Much of this process appears )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to post-date Vsteinsson's period of study, although as Ingimundarson shows the seeds are already there. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Such information is not directly available from the historical record, but there are hints. Why, for example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does the statement that the Orcadian earl 'Torf' Einar was the first to introduce the burning of peat to Orkney )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mean anything to its contemporary Icelandic audience? On the grounds of palaeoecology, if not common )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, he clearly was not, but is it a statement on local Icelandic ecology, the depleting of natural timber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources, both driftwood and birch coppice, or the sequestration of rights traditionally held in common, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcing formerly independent farmers to the demeaning task of digging turves rather than cutting timber? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Both explanations may be correct and be tied up with the absence of men at critical times of the year for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such tasks. Despite Bjrn rsteinsson's idealistic view of the past, rightly criticised by Vsteinsson \(p. 54-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(55\), Iceland was never an egalitarian society, as the archaeology, without history, clearly shows. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposition of Christianity, however, had an ecological dimension, changes in the yearly round not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered by Vsteinsson. In addition, despite the loss of innocence occasioned by such studies as )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 512.948 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cronon's )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 512.948 255.603 m 558.776 255.603 l S BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1983\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 241.347 m 66.008 241.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 66.008 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of pre-Columbian impacts on 'natural landscapes' in New England, Christian attitudes to natural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources appear fundamentally different to those that went before, and exploitation on the basis, still largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(current and fostered by Right-wing American Republicanism, of SEP, Someone Else's Problem \(cf. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGovern )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 198.579 m 89.000 198.579 l S BT 89.000 199.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 89.000 198.753 m 113.000 198.753 l S BT 113.000 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1988)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 113.000 198.579 m 140.000 198.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 140.000 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), was begun.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a story to which the palaeoecological record can contribute significantly. Ari rgilsson's oft quoted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remark about Landnm forest extending )] TJ ET BT 229.640 159.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(milli fjllum og strndum)] TJ ET BT 351.992 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has been amply supported by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palynological record \(e.g.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 160.316 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hallsdttir 1987)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 160.316 143.811 m 238.652 143.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 238.652 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and the fate of Iceland's soils was pointed out by rarinsson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over forty years ago \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 137.312 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rarinsson 1961)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 137.312 129.555 m 220.976 129.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 220.976 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). More recent work has refined the picture. In Eyjafjallasveit, where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the tephra stratigraphy is particularly complete and well studied, Dugmore and others have been able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show that, whilst much soil loss from middle range outfields is post-medieval \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 413.672 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dugmore and Buckland 1991)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 413.672 101.043 m 555.320 101.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), the more marginal areas were suffering much earlier \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.588 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simpson )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.588 86.787 m 347.600 86.787 l S BT 347.600 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al. )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.600 86.961 m 374.600 86.961 l S BT 374.600 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 374.600 86.787 m 398.600 86.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 398.600 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). On Papey, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(palaeoecological record shows farm abandonment, perhaps consolidation into a single holding, before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mid-thirteenth century \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 148.664 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buckland )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 148.664 58.275 m 197.660 58.275 l S BT 197.660 59.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.660 58.449 m 218.660 58.449 l S BT 218.660 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 1995)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 218.660 58.275 m 248.660 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 248.660 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Whilst )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 293.660 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sveinbjarnardttir \(1992\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 293.660 58.275 m 415.976 58.275 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 415.976 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has urged caution in the use )] TJ ET endstream endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 81 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 526.7815 207.1517 538.6615 ] >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 296.2877 426.9895 372.2837 438.8695 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 85 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 345.2837 426.9895 369.2837 438.8695 ] >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 86 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 87 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 512.9477 255.9175 558.7757 267.7975 ] >> endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 89 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 241.6615 66.0077 253.5415 ] >> endobj 89 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 198.8935 115.9997 210.7735 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 92 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 93 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 88.9997 198.8935 112.9997 210.7735 ] >> endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 95 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 160.3157 144.1255 238.6517 156.0055 ] >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 97 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 137.3117 129.8695 220.9757 141.7495 ] >> endobj 97 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 413.6717 101.3575 555.3197 113.2375 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 101 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.5877 87.1015 371.5997 98.9815 ] >> endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 103 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.5997 87.1015 374.5997 98.9815 ] >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 105 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 148.6637 58.5895 227.6597 70.4695 ] >> endobj 105 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 106 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 107 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.6597 58.5895 218.6597 70.4695 ] >> endobj 107 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 108 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 109 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 293.6597 58.5895 415.9757 70.4695 ] >> endobj 109 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 110 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R ] /Contents 111 0 R >> endobj 111 0 obj << /Length 10022 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of over-simplistic models of farm abandonment, the questions still need to be asked as to whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(climatic, historical, archaeological and palaeoecological records might combine to impose some sort of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental determinism on the path of Christianity in Iceland. The close correlation between climate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(productivity and survival has recently been extensively explored \(cf. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.948 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ogilvie and Jnsson 2001)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.948 752.307 m 490.280 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 490.280 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offer of hay today and hay tomorrow, admittedly in the afterlife, provide some degree of certainty after a run )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of poor years? Such speculation lies with the post-processualists rather than the neopragmatists of science, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but the approach of historical ecology \(cf. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 237.968 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Crumley 1994)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 237.968 709.539 m 306.968 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.968 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) requires us to ask such questions of the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and palaeoecological records, and then devise models that can be tested. Over ten years ago, the noted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian Gwyn Jones remarked that there was nothing new that the historical record could offer us )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concerning Norse expansion. He might wish us to reconsider on reading Vsteinsson's study, but further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeological research excavation can only be justified when supported by a full range of palaeoecological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques, not all of which can be site-based \()] TJ ET BT 258.968 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(contra)] TJ ET BT 290.300 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Andrews and Barrett 2000\), and there is no doubt that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these may answer some of his remaining questions, including at least the bare bones of what took place in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chieftains' halls \(p. 8\) \()] TJ ET BT 162.152 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cf)] TJ ET BT 170.816 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 176.816 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simpson )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 176.816 609.747 m 221.828 609.747 l S BT 221.828 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al.)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 221.828 609.921 m 245.828 609.921 l S BT 245.828 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 1999)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 245.828 609.747 m 272.828 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.828 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vsteinsson ends his study in the late thirteenth century, and it is unfortunate that he did not choose to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continue into the following century. By then the medieval Church had begun another sea change, from one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of hope and expansion to one of increasing pessimism and control, no )] TJ ET BT 372.308 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hengikjt )] TJ ET BT 419.972 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this World and original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sin leading to precious little hope of any in the next. In the past, following)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 389.324 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Huizinga \(1924\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 389.324 540.723 m 471.308 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 471.308 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, many historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have related this to the trauma of the Black Death, but the change has an ecological base, which begins much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier. A run of bad years culminated in a famine in 1315-6, which was reported from the Reykjanes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peninsula of western Iceland to the Urals \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.304 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abel 1980)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.304 497.955 m 288.632 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 288.632 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Christian Europe was in retreat and marginal lands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were increasingly abandoned. In Greenland, the power of the Church in resisting innovation and change in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the subsistence base may have proved fatal \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 247.628 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(McGovern 1980)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 247.628 469.443 m 326.612 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 326.612 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.948 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barlow )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.948 469.443 m 371.276 469.443 l S BT 371.276 470.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(et al. )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 371.276 469.617 m 398.276 469.617 l S BT 398.276 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 398.276 469.443 m 422.276 469.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.276 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\). Settlement in Iceland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survived, although there were many and progressive marginal losses. Changes in the subsistence base did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take place, more seals appear to have been taken in the north \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 332.264 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amorosi 1992)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 332.264 440.931 m 401.264 440.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 401.264 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\), and the key into mainland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe provided by the stockfish trade must have enabled many to exist off the tailings of fishing, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Icelandic success measured against Greenlandic failure still reflects the stranglehold of the Church. Unlike )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greenland, in Iceland, hunting of sea mammals and fish did not require an alien technology borrowed from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the expanding pagan Inuit. By the fourteenth century the hold of the Church was complete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The latter part of Vsteinsson's book is more strictly historical, dealing with the processes, which eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated ecclesiastical and secular power. Chieftains ceased to see advantages in being ordained, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(priests, largely as in the rest of western Europe drawn from those sons who were not to inherit, began their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shift in allegiance through neutrality to the support of the monolithic and increasingly affluent Church. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a much more difficult section for those less familiar with Icelandic history, and the parallels with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar struggles being played out in mainland Europe could have been better developed. )] TJ ET BT 463.952 287.765 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christianisation of Iceland)] TJ ET BT 163.364 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( should established Orri Vsteinsson as a significant figure in the study of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Icelandic history, and his involvement with archaeology places him in a unique position to integrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various lines of evidence. It should be added that the book also provides a series of parallels for the less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documented events leading to the adoption of Christianity in England and elsewhere in northern Europe. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historians, and archaeologists, have much to learn from reading it, and adopting a lateral way of thinking.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(October 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Abel, W. \(1980\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 136.323 m 112.664 136.323 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 112.664 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 118.664 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Agricultural fluctuations in Europe, from the thirteenth to the twentieth centuries)] TJ ET BT 508.340 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Methuen and Co.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amorosi, T. \(1992\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 95.811 m 127.340 95.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 127.340 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Climate impact and human response in Northeast Iceland: Archaeological investigations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at Svalbard. )] TJ ET BT 94.340 82.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Norse and Later Settlement and Subsistence in the North Atlantic)] TJ ET BT 408.008 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. C. Morris and J. Rackham )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(eds.\). Glasgow, Dept of Archaeology, University of Glasgow)] TJ ET BT 332.288 68.693 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 339.284 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(103-138.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 42.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barlow, L. K., Sadler, J. P., Ogilvie, A., Buckland, P. C., Amorosi, T., Ingimundarsson, J. 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