%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150126155424+00'00') /ModDate (D:20150126155424+00'00') /Title (Cromwellian Ireland: English Government and Reform in Ireland, 1649-1660) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4504 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cromwellian Ireland: English Government and Reform in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1649-1660)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is a pleasure to welcome back into print Toby Barnard's detailed study of what the back-cover blurb refers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to as 'the constructive side of English policy in Ireland during a formative period'. First published in 1975 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and widely praised at the time, it had long been out of print. Available once again, it comprises in the main a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(straight reissue of that first edition, with its original text unchanged and unrevised. However, a completely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new foreword has been added, a 'historiographical essay', which in twenty, heavily footnoted pages seeks to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflect 'on how work in the intervening period might modify or correct the original'. In the mould of other, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recently reissued studies of the mid seventeenth century - one thinks of John Morrill's )] TJ ET BT 448.124 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revolt of/in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Provinces)] TJ ET BT 82.004 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and Ronald Hutton's )] TJ ET BT 186.164 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Royalist War Effort)] TJ ET BT 301.172 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, for example - this work is, then, something of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hybrid of old and new, with a freshly-propagated bloom grafted onto the trusty old stock, rather than a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(completely revised text. This begs a number of related questions - principally about the strengths, limitations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and importance of the original text, returning to it anew a quarter of a century after it first appeared, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more briefly about how well and how fully the new introductory chapter brings the volume up to date.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is no doubting the enormous strengths and qualities of the original work. Despite the limitations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surviving primary source material, caused especially but not exclusively by the destruction wreaked in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin in 1922, Barnard was able to hunt down and to draw upon a very varied and now widely scattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of evidence to produce a clear, coherent and generally convincing account of some aspects of English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government policy in and towards Ireland during the interregnum, with an emphasis on the often traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(214)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Toby Barnard)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(381pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarendon Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Gaunt)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7677 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and positive nature of that policy. But it is important at the outset to recognise that Barnard's coverage was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither full nor even. Because of the limitations of the surviving sources and/or of time and space, some very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extensive fields were largely or wholly omitted from the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although the reactions to English policy of many of the landed, mercantile, religious and military elites are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(studied and form a core theme, Barnard acknowledges at the outset that there is very little here about how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ordinary Protestant and Catholic Irish responded to governmental initiatives, regretting that lack of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources precluded an assessment of 'lower-class' reactions. There is material aplenty, albeit incomplete, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various land seizures and resettlements which occurred in Ireland during these years, and which saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics dispossessed and relocated in favour of Protestant soldiers and civilians, but Barnard chose not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover this huge subject here, presumably on grounds of space and because it had been extensively explored )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in other published works, including the closing chapters of Karl Bottigheimer's )] TJ ET BT 416.144 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(English Money and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Land)] TJ ET BT 58.688 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which had appeared shortly before in 1971. Whilst this deliberate omission is understandable, it left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this study of English policy towards Ireland incomplete, 'a )] TJ ET BT 316.820 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Hamlet )] TJ ET BT 355.148 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without the prince', as one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviewers of the 1975 edition put it. Similarly, there is little here on land management, farming and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture. The focus throughout is upon the nature and application of English governmental policy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaction of power-groups in Ireland to it, rather than upon the administrative process itself. Thus there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little on the practice and operation of the governmental process, on how the commissioners, councillors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other officials, from the lord lieutenant or lord deputy downwards, operated on a day-to-day basis and ran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish government and administration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is also an uneven temporal coverage of the interregnum. Military campaigns are almost entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excluded, so there is nothing here on the campaigns of Oliver Cromwell and Henry Ireton, nothing on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(storming of Drogheda and Wexford, the sieges of Clonmel or Limerick, or, indeed, on the more limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(military operations later in the decade. Understandably, therefore, there is a fairly thin coverage of the years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1649-51, when the emphasis was upon military reconquest rather than civilian government and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration. But there is also little here on the closing year of the decade, from the enforced resignation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Cromwell in spring 1659 to the Restoration, a period which at one point Barnard rather unfortunately )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likens to the 'anarchy of Fleetwood's regime' - though elsewhere this study successfully demonstrates that, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever its limitations and failures, 'anarchy' is hardly the right word for Fleetwood's governorship. Aidan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke's )] TJ ET BT 75.836 373.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prelude to Restoration in Ireland: The End of the Commonwealth, 1659-60)] TJ ET BT 437.492 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1999\), which appeared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortly before this volume was reissued and which is noted and briefly discussed in the new opening chapter, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now provides a compelling and detailed account of Ireland over precisely this period, picking up in spring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1659 where Barnard acknowledges his own study 'tails off'. At the heart of Barnard's assessment is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thematic study of the policies adopted and applied during the governorships of Ireland of Charles Fleetwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from summer 1652 until his departure in September 1655 and of Henry Cromwell from then until he, too, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left Ireland in spring 1659. Cromwell's governorship is explored rather more deeply than Fleetwood's, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably a reflection of the richer and more detailed surviving source material of the latter half of the 1650s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and perhaps also of Barnard's tendency to see Cromwell as the more successful of the two, arguing that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while radicalism, militarism and imposition marked the Fleetwood years, moderation, civilianisation and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater sensitivity to the needs of the established Protestant Irish population characterised Henry Cromwell's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period in charge.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(After two preliminary chapters, summarising the treatment of Ireland by England down to 1649 and charting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the changing structure and personnel of the English government in Dublin during the interregnum, the 1975 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text embarks upon a series of substantial accounts of different aspects of policy - state finance and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commerce, the treatment of the boroughs, propagation of the gospel, ecclesiastical reform, education, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advancement of learning, and the administration and reform of the law - most of which are strongly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analytical, persuasive and draw upon a wealth of primary source material. All these principal chapters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broken down into half a dozen or more sub-sections, exploring particular periods or sub-themes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A number of recurring features emerge from these assessments. Firstly, Barnard demonstrates the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mixed results of English policy for Ireland during the 1650s, much of which he portrays as rather cautious, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the application of traditional early Stuart policy in a new context and sometimes with a new vigour, rather )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7907 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than of completely new initiatives. In some areas, there were considerable achievements, some transitory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others more lasting and setting the tone for Ireland during the Protestant ascendancy - an improvement in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(corn production and in sheep and cattle stocks during the 1650s; the reestablishment from 1656 of civilian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urban administration under new charters, creating or cementing an enduring Protestant monopoly of town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government; the marked recovery of Dublin and its increasing dominance of Irish trade, laying the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundation for Dublin's prosperity and pre-eminence in the post-Restoration era; the conservative religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement sought or achieved by Henry Cromwell after 1655, which entailed reorganising and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amalgamating parishes to increase the salaries of incumbents \(a reorganisation renewed and repeated after )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Restoration\), breaking the power of the Baptists and ending their dominance, seeking in the late 1650s a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad Protestant settlement based upon a tithe-maintained ministry organised on semi-Presbyterian lines, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and conciliating the Ulster Presbyterians, so bringing a stronger if still fragile peace and security to that part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ireland; and the restoration from 1655-6 of the established central judicial system, based on the Four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Courts, and the established forms of local justice and administration, based on the commission of the peace. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is noticeable that many of these achievements were secured or became apparent during the latter half of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1650s, after Henry Cromwell had replaced Fleetwood in Dublin. But against this, Barnard produces a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long and, at times, rather depressing list of failures - the continuing and unresolved inadequacy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government income during the interregnum, portrayed here as 'the foremost reason for the failure of much of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cromwellians' reforming programme' in other areas; continuing official restrictions upon Irish trade and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacture lest they undermine England's interests, and a failure to regulate or reform the debased coinage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Ireland; the weakening of many provincial towns caused by the physical expulsion of Catholics or at least )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their exclusion from trade and administration, and the failure to attract to the towns substantial numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant planters to replace them; the rise of Baptism in English garrisons and amongst the army in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 482.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(half of the 1650s, bitterly dividing Protestants in Ireland and encouraging the spread of sentiments hostile to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 468.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Protectorate, creating for a time 'a major political danger'; the continuing divisions amongst and between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the Irish Protestant groups through the later 1650s and the failure of the English administration to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(launch any real effort to win over the majority Irish Catholic population, torn instead between persecution or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 425.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasion, between attempting to crush the Irish language or using it to try to convert the native Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 411.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics; and the failure to advance education in Ireland, with the often good intentions of the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administration stymied by lack of resources. As Barnard summarises it in the closing words of the book, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most respects the Cromwellians' Irish policy 'continued in its conventional pattern, occasionally improving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 368.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the record of the Stuarts and the Church of Ireland, more often falling short'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, Barnard exposes the sharp differences between the key individuals and groups who were involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or who wished to be involved in running Ireland during the 1650s. He shows that little love was often lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the various Protestant sects and leaders in Ireland, and brings out the differences and antagonisms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the religious figures Samuel Winter and Edward Worth, between the administrators William Petty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Benjamin Worsley, even between different members and cliques within the Irish council of state. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most obviously and most importantly, he ably demonstrates the deep divisions between Charles Fleetwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Henry Cromwell as governors of Ireland, seen in the very different approaches and policies which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted, and also seen in the hostility, if not between the two men themselves, at least between their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters and allies. Where Fleetwood was tolerant of the spread of Baptism in the English army in Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an approach which one contemporary claimed made him 'not fit for government', a judgement Barnard sees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as 'harsh but true', Cromwell quickly broke from the Baptists and, after a year-long struggle, succeeded in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(breaking their hold on the army and as a political force. In the process, he moved away from the often novel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and semi-military administration favoured or allowed by Fleetwood, and moved to a return to traditional, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilian forms, even where in the process promising reforms were stifled. For example, Barnard praises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(judicial reforms introduced early in the interregnum by John Cook, often springing from the period of Oliver )] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell's campaign, and says that 'the chance of radical reform receded' when in the mid 1650s Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell restored the traditional forms of central and local justice and administration. Indeed, Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell's general approach to Ireland is portrayed as moderate, conservative - witness his plans to restore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something approaching a national church directly funded by tithes - and more sensitive to the needs of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland than to English ideologies. His aim, partly achieved, was to win the trust and support of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established Irish Protestants and to tie them more closely to the Cromwellian Protectorate, altogether very )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7464 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different from Fleetwood's approach, loyal Cromwellian though he appeared. Thus in many key areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, 1655 marked a clear turning point in the interregnum regimes' treatment of Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thirdly, Barnard shows how the continuing control of the London-based regimes over the Dublin )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrations and over Irish policy often hindered or undermined the government of Ireland. Early in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interregnum legislation covering various secular and ecclesiastical areas of government in Ireland was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initiated or passed in the unrealised expectation that a comprehensive Act of Union would be produced. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Repeated requests from Dublin that the English government take action to reform the debased Irish coinage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to protect Ireland and its shipping from pirates fell on deaf ears. Even worse was the ambiguity in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government of Ireland that the Lord Protector created in the mid 1650s. Although in summer 1655 Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell effectively replaced the departing Fleetwood as governor of Ireland, the latter remained lord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deputy until September 1657 and even then Cromwell was not immediately commissioned lord deputy in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stead. He was thus denied full authority at a time when he badly needed it to overcome the Baptist threat, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Fleetwood retained some powers and served as a focus and rallying point for Henry \(and Oliver\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell's opponents in Ireland. Barnard justifiably describes this situation, created by the Lord Protector's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failure fully to grasp the nettle and support his son, as 'one of his least satisfactory compromises'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All these points are clearly and convincingly made and have rightly won broad support and acceptance; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reviews of the 1975 edition were all strongly or overwhelmingly positive. We might regret the absence here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of a \(re\)assessment of the landownership and land settlement issue during the interregnum, and the results of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the various policies so ably detailed by Barnard do not always appear as 'constructive' as some of the broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statements might imply, but few significant weaknesses are apparent in the 1975 text.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Very occasionally, but particularly in regard to religious affairs, Barnard seems to push the boat a little too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(far out, to suggest that, given rather more time or slightly different circumstances, Henry Cromwell could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have achieved really great things. For example, he implies that the alliance which Cromwell was forging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(near the end of his time in Ireland with the mainly Presbyterian ministers in Ulster and a powerful group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprising many former Anglicans in Munster might have prepared the way for and made possible a broad )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement of the Protestant church in Ireland, much broader than that imposed by the returning Church of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland at the Restoration - 'great things might have been achieved, had Henry Cromwell not fallen so soon'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, he suggests that if Henry and his predecessor had adopted a more sympathetic and evangelistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy towards the majority Catholic population, mass conversion may have been possible - the Cromwellian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest had afforded 'a unique opportunity' and 'had the Cromwellians followed their harsh measures.by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vigorous evangelisation in Irish the hold of Catholicism might have been loosened'. He returns to this theme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the concluding chapter, asserting that evidence 'suggest[s] that Ireland, even in the 1650s, was not yet lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Protestantism and that Cromwellian policy could have succeeded' in mass conversion. However, other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accounts, and indeed some of the sources cited here by Barnard himself, indicate that even with more time at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his disposal, the deep divisions between the various Protestant groups in Ireland would have prevented or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wrecked the sort of broad Protestant settlement towards which Henry Cromwell may have been moving in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1658-9, and that Catholicism was so deeply entrenched in mid seventeenth century Ireland that even an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier and more vigorous programme of conversion, beginning as soon as the military reconquest was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complete and undertaken sympathetically and in the vernacular tongue, would have fallen well short of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(loosening the hold of Catholicism.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Amidst these tightly analytical chapters, sharply focused on English policy for Ireland and on its application )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and consequences, Barnard includes a more speculative chapter, on 'The Advancement of Learning', which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to be moving away from the main theme of the book, and along an interesting if somewhat )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconclusive tangent. This chapter explores the reception and spread of a new scientific spirit among a small )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group in interregnum Ireland, tracing the role and work of a circle of men around Samuel Hartlib who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbibed a new scientific and intellectual approach and who were able to put those ideas into practice via )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public or private employment in Ireland during the 1650s. The lives, work and achievements of half a dozen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or so of these figures are explored and recounted here. Many were for a time employed by the state - most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obviously William Petty - and some were personally close to Henry Cromwell, but the evidence that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dublin government in general or Henry Cromwell in particular was deeply involved in or committed to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7779 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new intellectual ideas is far from compelling, Barnard himself confessing that 'there is no evidence that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using Hartlib's friends he [Henry Cromwell] was endorsing their schemes of intellectual reform'. The whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter seems a little airy and speculative, semi-detached from the tightly focused and rigorous analysis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government policy found in the adjoining chapters.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The brief concluding chapter to the 1975 text covers a number of themes, stressing that the English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government in Dublin was not a free agent but was itself always controlled by Whitehall and Westminster, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exploring briefly the different historical interpretations of the handling of Ireland during the interregnum, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and reflecting upon the strengths and weaknesses, successes and failures of English policy for and in Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over these years. However, at the heart of the conclusion is an attempt to weigh up Charles Fleetwood and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Henry Cromwell as governors. Fleetwood gets rather short shrift. Barnard does not contradict the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditionally low opinion of him - that 'he was an unfortunate choice for lord deputy.popular only among the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremists who made him their tool' - and suggests that, although in the main he was merely continuing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies already laid down before he came to Ireland, his 'conventional ideas' and lack of interest in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formulating proposals for reform in Ireland ensured that little positive was achieved during his time in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. Barnard's assessment of Henry Cromwell is more substantial and warmer, though not as positive as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that of some historians. The changing context of the governorships, with growing peace and stability, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allowed Cromwell more room for manoeuvre than his predecessor, and permitted him to restore some more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traditional forms of government which in turn contributed to 'greater stability and prosperity'. Barnard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dismisses the portrait of Cromwell as a crypto-royalist as a distorted image peddled by himself and his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(friends after the Restoration and is also far from convinced by C H Firth's assessment that he had 'governed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in the interest of all classes of colonists and all sections of Protestants', suggesting instead that his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire to break those allowed undue influence by Fleetwood pushed him into an unhealthily close alliance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with one group in particular, the Old Protestant settlers, which 'damaged him in England', made it likely that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further reforms would be 'cautious' though 'better attuned to Ireland's needs', and 'ultimately undermined his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political position'. Moreover, like Fleetwood, Cromwell had few new answers to the problems of governing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and, although there were some 'useful' if limited reforms, like his predecessor he largely continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existing policies and so left fundamental problems at best unresolved, at worst more complex and pressing. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These assessments are strong and convincing and spring from valuable analysis contained in the body of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. However, Barnard might have gone rather further here, and devoted more space to pulling material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together, to assessing the two governors at greater length, to comparing and contrasting their characters, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(styles, approach and achievements. After all, there had been \(and still are\) no full-length studies of Henry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cromwell more recent than R W Ramsey's pleasant if rather uncritical biography of 1933 and there were and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are none of Fleetwood. The conclusion to this study might have gone further towards filling this gap by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(providing fuller and deeper assessments of the two governors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lastly, what of the new foreword, the historiographical chapter added to bring the volume up to date? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barnard suggests that the few relevant primary sources and collections which have become available or more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible since the original research and writing serve to strengthen and amplify rather than to change or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct his 1975 assessments. He notes and briefly summarises considerable new historical work on aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of interregnum Ireland largely or wholly omitted here - the changing landownership and land settlements of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid seventeenth century and the Cromwellian military campaign of 1649-50 - as well as Clarke's major )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study in )] TJ ET BT 75.356 202.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prelude to Restoration)] TJ ET BT 184.688 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the period after Henry Cromwell's departure that he had covered only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sketchily. Apart from these works, which do not impinge greatly on the areas explored by the 1975 text, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barnard argues that 'Cromwellian Ireland has not attracted many new explorers'; unlike many other periods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Irish history, it 'has not been turned into a historiographical battlefield since 1975'. Assuredly, new work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on medieval, early modern and modern Ireland, Britain and Europe has altered our perspectives on Ireland in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1650s, in some ways, Barnard suggests, making that decade seem less unusual or pivotal and placing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of its key trends in firmer as well as longer contexts, though in other ways, he feels, it confirms the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance and 'idiosyncrasies' of the 1650s in Ireland. But, overall, he presents a strong case for the original )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text standing up pretty well at the close of the millennium, with its detailed exploration of some aspects of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English policy in Ireland little affected by specialist new research and writing of the past quarter century. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Instead, Barnard closes by pointing towards fruitful new areas of research which could change or are already )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 1867 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing the ways in which Ireland in the 1650s may be approached and interpreted - work on the 'British' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the mid seventeenth century, opening up new perspectives on how Ireland and the Irish were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(viewed and viewed themselves, on local history and localism, exploring how different regions and groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within Ireland were affected by or exerted 'contrasting centrifugal and centripetal forces', on religion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious groups and beliefs, and on the origins and nature of republicanism and the history of ideas in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland. Such work will undoubtedly change the context of Cromwellian Ireland, perhaps substantially, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is most unlikely to supersede or to render redundant this outstanding study of the English government of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in the 1650s. It is a pleasure to welcome it back.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 651.439 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 633.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 633.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/214)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 632.265 m 322.316 632.265 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 607.288 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.888 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1236)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.488 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 632.5795 322.3157 644.4595 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/214) >> endobj xref 0 26 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000356 00000 n 0000000393 00000 n 0000000589 00000 n 0000000671 00000 n 0000005227 00000 n 0000005336 00000 n 0000005446 00000 n 0000005555 00000 n 0000009116 00000 n 0000009244 00000 n 0000009328 00000 n 0000009393 00000 n 0000017123 00000 n 0000017188 00000 n 0000025148 00000 n 0000025213 00000 n 0000032730 00000 n 0000032795 00000 n 0000040627 00000 n 0000040711 00000 n 0000042631 00000 n 0000042759 00000 n trailer << /Size 26 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 42854 %%EOF