%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R 23 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140922203752+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140922203752+01'00') /Title (Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4549 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong in Islamic Thought)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one saw a wrong being committed in public, should one intervene? This basic moral question is at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heart of a significant body of Muslim scholarship, and forms the topic of Michael Cook's eminently learned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and comprehensive study. The historian is interested in the scholastic elaboration of all issues surrounding ")] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(al-amr bi-l-ma'ruf wa-l-nahy 'an al-munkar)] TJ ET BT 243.800 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(", as "Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong" is known in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabic. Furthermore, he tries to reconstruct how, in different phases of Islamic history and in different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doctrinal settings, this principle has been applied by Muslims.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The matter seems simple enough at first sight, particularly if one takes Cook's initial example, that of rape in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a public space, which evokes moral outrage in most societies regardless of their creed. But how about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second example, a goldsmith in the Khurassanian town of Merw which became the seat of the 'Abbasid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revolutionary leader Abu Muslim in the mid-8th century?)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 310.316 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 310.316 174.393 m 324.308 174.393 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 324.308 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( According to Muslim tradition, the goldsmith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeatedly went to Abu Muslim, reproaching him of un-Islamic behaviour and eventually threatening with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rebellion, upon which Abu Muslim had him executed. In this example, some of the many underlying issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the seemingly clear moral principle become visible, among them the question whether or not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correction of alleged wrongdoing justifies armed rebellion against a Muslim ruler? And, perhaps more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, who has the authority to judge what constitutes right, what wrong? After all, Abu Muslim, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the example accused of not following proper Islamic behaviour, led a rebellion in the name of Islam against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another Muslim dynasty, the Umayyads.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cook reconstructs the scholastic edifice by first analyzing the sources of Muslim creed and law, the Koran )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(215)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 September, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Allan Cook)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521661749)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulrike Freitag)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 310.3157 174.7075 324.3077 186.5875 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7573 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the sayings and deeds of the Prophet Muhammad \(Hadith\), and then goes on to scrutinize early Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing and practice. In the main part of the book, he systematically traces the development of scholarship on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the topic in the different legal schools and by prominent jurists. He not only retraces the steps of later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Muslim commentators, who wrote systematic treatises on the subject, he also succeeds in giving at times, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very lively picture of the problems confronting a relatively new monotheistic community. This allows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers, even those whose main interest might lie outside the scope of his immediate problem, to obtain a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vivid image of many aspects of the processes which eventually led to the elaboration of Islamic law and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology in the 9th century. Cook succeeds in demonstrating how the relatively scattered Koranic references )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the duty were supplemented by rather contradictory traditions of what the Prophet had reportedly said or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done. This development can be explained to a considerable degree by accounting for the different political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and historical conditions in various places. Thus, scholars in the Iraqi city of Kufa focussed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmission of traditions which emphasized that individual Muslims were obliged to fulfil the duty, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Syrians quite often held that to direct one's efforts towards the reform of others in an activist fashion was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only incumbent upon Muslims during periods of "good" Muslim government. If this had lapsed, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals were excused - something that might be interpreted as political quietism. This view gained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(currency during a period when Syria was the centre of the Umayyad caliphate \(661-750\) - by many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered to constitute a departure from the caliphate as established by the Prophet's immediate successors, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Kufa at the time was a major centre of political opposition.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author then traces the development of the ideas on Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the enormous amount of material produced by Muslim scholars. He considers all major schools of law, both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunni and Shi'i, as well as some smaller sects, paying attention to minute points of agreement and dissent, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well as to common roots of the different views. Incidentally, his work thus contains much of interest to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers working on almost any aspect of Muslim doctrine. As quite a lot of the material and the arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(repeat themselves by their very nature, it might be useful, for the purposes of such a review, to use the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably most elaborate argument on Commanding Right, presented in Cook's chapter 16, as a vantage point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which to explore wider discussions, rather than following Cook's genealogical approach. The reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is to the )] TJ ET BT 75.020 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Revival of Religious Sciences)] TJ ET BT 215.996 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( by the influential scholar Abu Hamid al-Ghazzali \(d. 1111\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(al-Ghazzali starts out by noting that Commanding Right is a duty derived from the Koran, Prophetic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later traditions as well as from the consensus of the jurists and common sense. Only those Muslims who are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legally competent and able to fulfil the duty are obliged to carry it out, excluding the infirm, under-age and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lunatics, but including sinners \(albeit with certain limitations\), slaves and women. Incidentally, the latter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group is often excluded in classical Islamic thought, and only relatively few scholars, most notably the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ibadis in Oman, spilt some ink on discussing female participation in the duty controversially. Only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern times, women seem to be considered relatively regularly as eligible for Commanding Right, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although the question of propriety, i.e. problems arising from women speaking or acting publicly, continues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to pose a problem.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(al-Ghazzali rejects the notion that official permission from the Imam or other authorities needs to be sought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before an individual engages in Commanding Right. In al-Ghazzali's view, and contrary to views widespread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among Imami Shi'ites, this contravenes early Muslim practice, although al-Ghazzali recognises that violent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action might lead to objectionable general disorder. Similarly, he advises caution in cases where the person )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performing the duty imperils himself, as in the case of Commanding Right to an authority.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context, the distinction between different levels of the duty comes in handy. After all, it can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(performed in many different ways. Firstly, an observant Muslim might want to inform the offender of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deed. If he failed to see the point, he could be politely counselled. Only if this failed as well, should harsh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language be used or physical action such as the breaking of jars containing alcoholic drink, be considered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even among those jurists who in theory approved of violence, its threat or actual use ought to be considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the final resort only. In the case of confronting an authority, one might consider to condemn the offence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(silently \(i.e. perform the duty "in the heart" only\). If one decided to speak out, it was only prudent to avoid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more drastic actions which were likely to cause disorder. This line of argument links nicely to the condition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the actor needs to have the power to act: if his measures were likely to be ineffective, and/or harmful to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7280 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself, it would be pointless and even forbidden to proceed. If, however, the action might endanger him but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the chance of being effective, al-Ghazzali sanctions it - in contrast to quite a few other scholars who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefer a more cautious approach. This notwithstanding, he is quite conscious of the temptations related to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duty: He explicitly warns believers not to perform the duty if they are susceptible to perform it in order to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foster their own feelings of well-doing and moral superiority. The 18th century Sufi \(mystic\) 'Abd al-Ghani )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(al-Nablusi went even further by stating that only Sufis had sufficient self-knowledge to avoid this pitfall. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cook shows, this position was a clear reaction to an earlier anti-Sufi movement which had attacked Sufi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("innovations" under the banner of Commanding Right, and had even risked death in pursuit of the duty.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But what kind of actions are to be confronted by the pious Muslim? While most commentators limit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves to references concerning alcoholic drink, sexual offences and the playing of music, al-Ghazzali )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offers a somewhat longer list. It includes wrongs committed in the mosques, such as "sloppy prayer" and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("faulty recitation of the Koran" \(p. 443\), and improper commercial practices. A Muslim might do wrong by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstructing the roads, e.g. by slaughtering there or soiling them in some other manner. He might commit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offences against propriety in the public baths, not to speak of decorating such bathhouses with imagery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forbidden by Islamic law. Finally, al-Ghazzali discusses offences in relation to hospitality, which can range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a conspicuous display of wealth to offering forbidden drink or food. Cook's investigation of early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(biographical material shows that this list can be easily extended, for example, maltreatment of slaves and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animals prompted some early Muslims to intervene.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Like many other Muslim commentators, al-Ghazzali is also acutely aware of the potential violation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(privacy inherent in the duty. Should one intervene upon hearing music from a stranger's house`? Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theorists actually argue that the duty only applies to offences which occur openly, and explicitly forbid, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, to enter other peoples' houses without leave. al-Ghazzali stresses that one ought not to spy on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others, however, if the offence is discussed in public by good witnesses, he allows for action, even if it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entails an element of intrusion such as entering a house without leave to do so. In order to minimise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(almost inevitable unpleasantness inherent in the duty, al-Ghazzali - in line with all Muslim commentators on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the issue - suggests that it should be carried out as nicely as possible.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cook's thorough investigations show clearly that Commanding Right was \(and is\) very much an urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon. Quite a number of expositions reflect what must have been the view of common people: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commanding Right was easily considered as an unwarranted intrusion into privacy and downright meddling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A major issue of contention seems to have been the question whose task the fulfilment of the duty was. Was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it incumbent upon every single Muslim \(capable of carrying it out\), such as the ritual prayers, or was it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duty - such as holy war - where a sufficient participation absolved others from its performance? Most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars agreed on the latter, and, in general, quite liked to regard Commanding Right as their own preserve. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some, such as the founder of the Hanbali school of law, Ahmad b. Hanbal \(d. 855\), did not really trust the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state to apply the duty in a fair way. Nevertheless, Muslim states have been tempted to try and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutionalise the practice. It has been mentioned earlier in the context of Iraqi interpretations that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commanding Right could be seen as a justification for rebellion. When, in the 19th century, the Wahhabi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sect extended in the Arabian Peninsula, Commanding Right provided a convenient means to deepen what the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wahhabis deemed to be proper Muslim practices. After the Wahhabi conquest of the Hijaz in 1924/25, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confrontations between strict Wahhabi tribesmen from Najd and the more relaxed and ethnically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterogeneous population of Mecca and Jeddah in particular caused much disquiet. In the end, an official )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body charged with Commanding Right and Forbidding Wrong was founded, ostensibly to check the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aggressive behaviour of Ibn Saud's warriors against local inhabitants and pilgrims, but obviously also to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfy Wahhabi demands for stricter adherence of the Hijazis to Muslim laws. This institutionalisation in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name of a variant of Hanbalism certainly was a long way from Ibn Hanbal's sceptical view of state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention, as well as an interesting convergence with practices in modern \(Shi'i\) Iran! It also illustrates the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which the interpretation of Commanding Right could depend on political and historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances more than on the leading authorities of a particular legal school.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context, some interesting modern day interpretations of Commanding Right deserve mention. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7224 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Obviously, Commanding Right still proves an attractive justification of revolt against un-Islamic rule. It is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(therefore quite surprising that a leading theoretician of modern \(Sunni\) Islamism, Sayyid Qutb, advised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(caution on this point. He argued that it was by far more important to strive for the creation of a truly Muslim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society than for individuals to engage in single acts of Commanding Right. Therefore, individuals living in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an un-Islamic society were not really capable of acting upon their duty. Unsurprisingly, not all of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(followers chose to adopt this particular view, which seems rather state-focussed and does not easily appeal to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the activism of many modern-day Islamists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another remarkable interpretation of the duty can be found in conjunction with current discussions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human rights and freedom of speech. Thus, one writer argues in favour of human rights on the basis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(principle. This is based on a reinterpretation according to which Commanding Right provides a public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(safeguard for what is nowadays understood to be human rights, rather than the implementation of specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenets of the Muslim doctrine. Others have suggested that Commanding Right requires Muslims to speak out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(freely. They thus take it as an early guarantee for the freedom of speech. Quite obviously, it might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded also as the exact opposite! These are very interesting issues relevant to a host of current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(international discussions, and as a modern historian, the reviewer would have appreciated if the author had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged with them even nearly as intensively as with the intricacies of earlier legal discussions. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of material that would have needed to be considered, it is quite clear, however, that it was beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scope of Cook's study, and his footnotes give ample material for anybody wishing to embark on a detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigation of these issues.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cook concludes his study with some comparative notes, which should widen its appeal to readers interested )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in moral philosophy in other cultures or in general. Without trying to be exhaustive, he suggests that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notion of intervention in support of moral right is probably universal, but that Islam is unique in terms of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth and breath of attention given to this particular issue. He convincingly shows that both pre-Islamic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arabia as well as the Jewish and Christian faith contain elements similar to those found in Muslim thought. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To his credit, he is extremely circumspect when it comes to the question - very popular among Islamicists of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier generations - whether or not Islam was influenced in particular by Judaism and Christianity. While he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admits that it is difficult to prove separate developments, he suggests that the opposite assumption - of Islam )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influencing the other two monotheistic faiths - is equally possible, and that both types of influence are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to ascertain. Possibly, Cook suggests, the special Islamic attention to the issue was the result of pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic tribal egalitarian activism coupled with monotheism. In a brief discussion of other world religions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Buddhism and Confucianism, he argues that his survey of the literature shows that ideas similar to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Commanding Right were expressed in passing, but did not receive the kind of systematic elaboration which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has shown for the Muslim authors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his conclusion, Cook argues that, although modern secular culture in many cases easily understands the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islamic arguments and may arrive at quite similar reasoning, it is much more concerned with the rescue of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims from unfair treatment than with the "wrong" per se. In addition, not only do the categories of right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and wrong vary between Muslim and secular Western thought, what further differs is the understanding of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(public and private. Thus, Westerners regard human rights as a public affair which consequently deserves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intervention regardless of the places, whereas individual comportment, i.e. regarding the use or abuse of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alcohol, or sexual relationships, are regarded as private at least as long as they do not infringe visibly on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other people. Obviously, a Muslim following Islamic prescriptions of "right" and "wrong" would come to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quite different evaluations of comparable situations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a prime example of meticulous scholarship that will interest a readership far beyond its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate topic. In times when hastily compiled volumes have become the norm and publishers loose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest both in publishing scholarly monographs and in proper editing, Cambridge University Press has to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be congratulated for an outstanding example to the contrary. Without such tools as the extensive and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrupulously researched footnotes \(for once not banned to the end of the chapters or book!\), the detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(index and the long bibliography, Cook's study would have lost much of its current value. As it stands, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likely to become the major reference work for anybody trying to understand an important aspect of Islamic )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R ] /Contents 24 0 R >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Length 1448 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethics in its historical development.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 761.571 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 730.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All dates in the review, unless stated otherwise, refer to the Christian era.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.616 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.616 729.555 m 469.604 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 704.693 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 690.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Good Reads)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.goodreads.com/review/show/910188)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 674.787 m 268.664 674.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 271.664 676.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 671.455 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 653.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 653.675 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/215)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 652.281 m 322.316 652.281 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 627.304 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 612.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1240)] TJ ET BT 34.016 598.504 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.goodreads.com/review/show/910188)] TJ ET endstream endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 415.6157 729.8695 469.6037 741.7495 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 675.1015 268.6637 686.9815 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.goodreads.com/review/show/910188) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 652.5955 322.3157 664.4755 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/215) >> endobj xref 0 31 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000655 00000 n 0000005256 00000 n 0000005365 00000 n 0000005475 00000 n 0000005584 00000 n 0000009145 00000 n 0000009273 00000 n 0000009357 00000 n 0000009386 00000 n 0000009514 00000 n 0000009550 00000 n 0000009615 00000 n 0000017241 00000 n 0000017306 00000 n 0000024639 00000 n 0000024704 00000 n 0000031981 00000 n 0000032079 00000 n 0000033580 00000 n 0000033708 00000 n 0000033763 00000 n 0000033890 00000 n 0000033985 00000 n 0000034113 00000 n trailer << /Size 31 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34208 %%EOF