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[(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Irish in America: 'old' history and the 'new')] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(215)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andy Bielenberg)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(368pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Kenny)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.99)] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.067 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(341pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.555 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pearson)] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.043 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.531 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adam Cohen)] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Taylor)] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 128.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.251 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(25.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(614pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.227 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 42.971 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little, Brown and Company)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] 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For many of them-especially those in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and America-the term Diaspora, when applied to the Irish, has a deep, politicised meaning. We can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(see this point exemplified in two observations. First, the term Diaspora once was used mainly to describe the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish experience; only occasionally \(but with increasing frequency lately\) has it been applied to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups with traumatic migration histories, such as the victims of the African slave trade or the Armenians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who fled before the Turks. Secondly, the application of the term Diaspora to the Irish is \(at least in part\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shaped by a particular critique of British rule in Ireland and of the traumatic Great Famine. For nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars, the hunger that accompanied famine is seen to have been exacerbated unnecessarily by British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(callousness; the flight from Ireland thus becomes 'exile' not 'emigration' and the connection with Africans or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews becomes complete.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This increasing deployment of the term Diaspora )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 272.312 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 272.312 400.419 m 278.312 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 281.312 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 295.304 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( may be a good thing; the term itself may provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and social scientists with some of the points of reference they need to plot what was a global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon. It certainly makes scholars think in comparative terms-and this is no bad thing. However, there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a potential downside. By allowing a broader usage of the term Diaspora and by deploying the term for an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing number of groups, there is a sense in which all migrant groups suddenly seem to be locked into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competition of relative victimhood. Whether or not this might affect the utility of the term, depends very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much on the reader's political viewpoint. Whatever that viewpoint, though, there is a sense in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diaspora studies represents a return to the 'emigration as trauma' school which dominated American writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on migration from Thomas and Znaniecki in the aftermath of World War 1 to Oscar Handlin in the Fifties.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 544.940 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 544.940 286.371 m 550.940 286.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 48.008 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This is despite the important work of scholars of migration such as Frank Thistlethwaite and John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bodnar who have stressed the more constructive \(and complicated\) nature of migration in the Atlantic world.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 243.603 m 40.016 243.603 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is perhaps most worrying, however, is the fact that most writers do not actually attempt to define the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(term Diaspora even though they use it with abandon. This is certainly true of Andy Bielenberg's collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays, )] TJ ET BT 70.676 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Diaspora)] TJ ET BT 162.680 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which is the end product of a conference held at University College Cork in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summer of 1997. It should perhaps be pointed out at this stage that the introduction is actually written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Piaras Mac inr, Director of the Centre for Migration Studies, Cork, rather than by the editor himself. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nevertheless, no attempt is made to explain how the contributors use the term. When we read the book, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact, we find that most of the authors don't use it all. As with so many studies, then, an opportunity is lost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the term simply becomes a collective noun rather than an element of social theory.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(That this is the case does not diminish the value of individual contributions. While very few authors seek to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(place what they are writing into the wider context of this book, there is some very good work on offer. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certainly, one cannot help but note the variety and breadth of research that is currently being conducted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the banner of the Irish Diaspora. The editor has been assiduous in putting together essays that range )] TJ ET BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boston)] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Michael Glazier)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(89.95)] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1009pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Notre Dame Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Notre Dame)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Donald MacRaild)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 17 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 272.3117 400.7335 278.3117 412.6135 ] >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#1a) >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 544.9397 286.6855 550.9397 298.5655 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#2a) >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 243.9175 40.0157 255.7975 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#3a) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 8468 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broadly over both chronology and area. Britain, America and the former colonies all receive considerable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coverage. Indeed, the inclusion of the latter enables interesting papers from Bielenberg himself and Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Holmes to provide coverage of aspects of the Irish Diaspora that most scholars will not be familiar with. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Similarly, Bielenberg has also conjured up essays that are historical and sociological; some which are \(near\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary; and others covering the pre-famine period. Breda Gray's study of 1980s London is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting example of how our growing interest in the more recent Irish migration is formulating new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research questions. The inclusion of work demonstrating new methodologies and important new research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings also adds to the important parts of the volume. Ruth-Ann Harris's discussion of her missing friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research, using )] TJ ET BT 108.992 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Boston Pilot)] TJ ET BT 189.668 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( column which for years sought to bring separate migrants back together, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a very good example of this.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When thinking 'Diaspora', we surely must think in comparative terms. Yet few of the essays in this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(address the Irish in more than one polity. The exceptions are Malcolm Campbell's study of migrants in rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Minnesota and New South Wales and Enda Delaney's wide-ranging attempt to place post-war Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration to Britain into European perspective. Both writers succeed well. Campbell's piece is doubly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating for, in addition to considerable the comparative aspects, he draws upon the rural world. In so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing, he demonstrates that \(as Donald Akenson has been saying for years\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.276 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.276 569.235 m 401.276 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 404.276 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 418.268 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( there is more to the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than slum-dwelling and machine politics. The Irish could make a fist of agricultural work in foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, irrespective of the fact that a majority ended up in towns and cities. Delaney, by considering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish alongside migrants from comparable economies, particularly in Mediterranean countries, brings fresh )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new ways of thinking to bear to the problems of language and the issue of return migration. While Mac inr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makes the point about Irish migration being unique in the period between the Great Famine and the mid-20th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, Delaney clearly asserts that this was anything but the case in the later period.. The implications of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Delaney's and Campbell's work is that one of the last great barriers to our understanding of the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Diaspora \(and indeed of any Diaspora\) is our weakness with the comparative method. More research of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(type is needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The part of the Irish Diaspora which we know best is America. New books on this aspect of Irish migration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and settlement continue to flow apace. Kevin Kenny's new book, )] TJ ET BT 348.788 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Irish: a History)] TJ ET BT 494.108 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stands out as an important contribution, offering a compelling narrative for the specialist and the general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader alike, as well as being a must for students. In offering such a volume, he demonstrates a formidable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ability to synthesis a vast body of monographs and articles. But Kenny deserves far more credit than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mere implication that he is a bag carrier for someone else's scholarship. As author of one of the best books )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on an Irish-American theme, )] TJ ET BT 174.980 330.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sense of the Molly Maguires)] TJ ET BT 351.956 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1998\), Kenny is well placed to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of a literature running to thousands of titles. )] TJ ET BT 276.656 316.277 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Irish)] TJ ET BT 369.980 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( provides vital context for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding the breadth and depth of issues underpinning Irish American society as it has emerged, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changed and developed over the past three hundred years. This is the route map through Irish America we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have long needed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is something distinctly un-American about Kenny's book, which might be explained by his )] TJ ET BT 503.804 247.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 526.472 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather than )] TJ ET BT 88.664 232.997 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(American-Irish)] TJ ET BT 161.984 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, nativity. This book is not a celebratory anthology in the style of some of the old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classics: populist works like some of those written in the era of the Kennedys or before.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 454.616 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 454.616 217.347 m 460.616 217.347 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 463.616 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 477.608 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor is it a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection of quirky anecdotes about boozers and boxers, priests and politicos, womanisers and gangsters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenny's study is underpinned by a solid theoretical strength. It moves forward with a sense of period that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much stronger than readers will find in some of the more eclectic early general studies, such as Carl Wittke's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish in America)] TJ ET BT 112.676 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1956\), or the unashamedly one-sided approach of Lawrence McCaffrey's )] TJ ET BT 473.060 161.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Diaspora in America)] TJ ET BT 135.344 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Too many books on Irish America in the past have written in black and white terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Irish experience of migration, stressing the Catholicism, poverty and oppression of what was in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact a much more variegated transatlantic population movement. English colonial evil \(a viewpoint )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undoubtedly endorsed by some degree of truth\) has dominated so many books on the subject that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be recounted here. On the other side, too many American ethnic histories have celebrated the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievements immigrants in the new Republic in a rather teleological way, the aim seemingly being to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recount how this or that group made good in America, land of opportunity, before contributing uniquely to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.2757 569.5495 401.2757 581.4295 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#4a) >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 454.6157 217.6615 460.6157 229.5415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#5a) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 30 0 R 32 0 R 34 0 R 36 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8102 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever it was that came out of the melting pot. All too often such books ignored the complexities of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrants' experiences, successful or otherwise \(and here I refer to more than just American Irish writers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The thirty years or so after 1914 saw an gradual closing of the 'Golden Door' and, as a counterweight, came a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great outpouring of books offering near-biblical tales of a variety of immigrants groups as they strove to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imprint their signature on American life.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 228.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 228.656 711.795 m 234.656 711.795 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 237.656 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 257.648 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The story being told in those days was of the migrants' value-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(added contribution: the Scandinavian contribution in the mid-West; what the German did for brewing; how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish ran the church, etc. Of course, in the new nation the struggle for recognition was, in a sense, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more important than in the Old World: political and civic fluidity meant there was more to play for, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially higher rewards round the corner. The notion of American sidewalks being paved with gold grew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from a sense of hope far more apparent, far more locked into working-class folk-lore, than was ever the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Irish \(or any other incoming group\) in Britain. Yet the common logic of these early immigrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories was the fact that American society was beginning to reject the very people who were being written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about. Immigrant histories in those days were, in some respects, an attempt to re-impose the notion that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cosmopolitan culture was a central strength of the American self-image.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The immigrants' story in America is as much a part of American passions as class is in Britain. Yet, there has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long been \(in this reviewer's opinion\) a need for more books which emphasises a traditional socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach to the Irish in America, of the type shown \(admittedly in case-study form\) in Burchell's excellent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph on the San Francisco Irish, or in some of Donald Akenson's works on the Irish in Canada.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 521.780 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 521.780 514.467 m 527.780 514.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 530.780 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is his attempt to quantify, objectify and to assess in the round, which prompts praise for Kenny's marking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out of the terrain in general terms.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenny's book takes a chronological approach, starting with the eighteenth century \(and therefore, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, with Protestants\), moving through the period of the Great Famine and beyond, beyond World )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(War II. In assessing each of these periods, Kenny's relegates celebrations of ethnic achievement in favour of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a multi-dimensional approach to the way in which immigrant and indigenous cultures feed off each other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is not simply a book about how the Irish made America; it is also very much a study of how America re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made the Irish. Perhaps most striking of all is Kenny's presentation of important historical context on Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(itself. Again, an observation can me made to the effect that far too many scholars embark on studies on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants in particular places \(America, Britain, Australia\) without knowing very much about the land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from which they were sent forth. This has resulted in some curiously nave and myth-laden writings on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish dimension of the American immigrant story. A rather simplistic paradigm of cruel landlordism, British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial brutality, and the much-bandied concept of 'anti-Irish racism' are too often used as the backdrop to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the migration story. Elements of truth, of course, underpin such conceptualisations, for no one could begin to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imagine Irish history in this period without some sense of Britain's \(or England's\) wrongs. But too often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there has been a tendency to caricature the true complexity of social relations and economic fortunes in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 71.000 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 71.000 260.115 m 77.000 260.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 80.000 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 99.992 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Expressions of chagrin about the fact that Irish 'peasants' 'had no vote and no stake in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government' may strike an American of the 1950s as odd and unfair.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 362.780 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 362.780 245.859 m 368.780 245.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 371.780 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 391.772 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But it would have been of no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surprise whatsoever to the Chartist, Samuel Holberry, who was walked to death on a York gaol treadmill for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(planning a rising in Sheffield, nor to the Tolpuddle Martyrs who were transported to Australia for forming a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(union bound by a secret oath. Irish 'peasants' or English labourers: neither group enjoyed much political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power in the 1830s and 1840s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenny attempts a more dispassionate analysis of the Irish side of things, and this is crucial. It is rare for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholar of the Irish in America to demonstrate such a keen appreciation of the Irish backdrop to the emigrant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(saga. Each chapter contains a series of passages explaining vital aspects of Irish history, at the given point in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, as they relate to the emigrant experience of those heading to the United States. Landholding systems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(cottier, runrig/rundale, etc\) are outlined; the Penal Laws are indicated where relevant; the famine is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explained rather than enshrined. Indeed, some of these pages on Irish history offer as succinct an insight into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the socio-economic conditions of Irish life as anyone could provide in the space allowed. This material is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfect for the student reader, and not just undergraduates.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 31 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 228.6557 712.1095 234.6557 723.9895 ] >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#6a) >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 521.7797 514.7815 527.7797 526.6615 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#7a) >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 70.9997 260.4295 76.9997 272.3095 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#8a) >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 37 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 362.7797 246.1735 368.7797 258.0535 ] >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#9a) >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R ] /Contents 39 0 R >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Length 8254 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapters on the eighteenth century and on the post-war period must have been the most difficult to write. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is so much material on the nineteenth century, that one could not begin to imagine covering it all. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, the age of the Scotch-Irish migration has attracted less scholarly interested \(though a formidable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(body still exists\), while more recent times are so crowded with contemporary images and unfinished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(business that they are difficult to encapsulate. What Kenny says about the eighteenth century is more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesis; he manages to capture some of the most important aspects of colonial America history and to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them through the prism of ethnicity. Indian fighting might have been heroic, but it was often far from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gallant. Butchery and the frontier went hand-in-hand, and the Scotch-Irish group was involved in many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the major skirmishes. Kenny also captures the cultural imprint of the Scotch-Irish in way that will not be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar to many people. Words that theScotch-Irish introduced to the dialects of Trans-Appalachia are the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of a fascinating discussion; the Irish contribution to American country music provides another )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(valuable source of cultural transplantation and adaptability that Kenny handles well. These are very things, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in fact, that were brought to life in one of the episodes of the recent TV series, )] TJ ET BT 412.268 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Empire)] TJ ET BT 494.264 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(looked at the cultural impress of the Irish abroad. The nineteenth century-that century of so many millions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor emigrants-is detailed with an imperious control. Again, the interweaving of ethnic and indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultures works well: sections on Nativism and the Know-Nothing movement; labour and gender; and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recurring theme of nationalism deliver to the reader, time and again, the duality of being 'ethnic' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('national', 'Irish' and 'American'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One of the sections which most fascinated this reviewer is Kenny's short but sharp discussion of the 'wages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of whiteness', a controversy which has been brewing for quite some time in America. There is some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly interesting work, by historians such as David Roediger and Noel Ignatiev,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 447.620 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 447.620 485.955 m 459.620 485.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 462.620 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET BT 482.612 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( discussing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role of immigrants, particularly the Irish, in propagating American racism. The idea is that the Irish and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blacks competed with each other, and therefore harboured particularly acute animosities. The hinge upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the Irish dimension of the 'wages of whiteness debate turns is the claim that the Irish, when they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arrived as poor, starving, outcast, wretches, were accorded honorary black status. That is, they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(despised, sneered at, and people felt superior to them. Their progress into a position of acceptance by white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America constituted the next important phase.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Were the Irish and blacks comparable? In the past, anecdotal evidence of blacks denigrating the Irish has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been used to endorse a romantic, politicised notion of the melancholy story of Irish exile and to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the English colonialism which drove them from Erin's shores. Ignatiev, for example, argues in his book, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How the Irish Became White)] TJ ET BT 171.992 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that the life of the Irish peasant was similar to that of the black slave in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(southern states of America. While this is an exaggerated and simplistic conceptualisation, it is nevertheless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true that the Irish were often presented in the receiving countries as the lowest of the low. It is often said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(admittedly from eighteenth- and early-nineteenth-century anecdotes\), that a plantation owner in the south )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would rather use a gang of Irish workers to clear a dangerous swamp than to risk a squad of slaves-his own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal property and therefore of )] TJ ET BT 200.960 261.509 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(real)] TJ ET BT 220.292 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( monetary value-to do the job. The 'Condition of England' debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about Thomas CarlJyle's 'Wild Milesians are not very much different from the suggestion that poor Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics were undermining 'village green America' and threatened the essential democracy of the young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic. This latter point, after all, was one of the things which prompted the huge 'Know Nothing' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development of the mid-1850s, when, for a while, Nativism achieved political dominance in states such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Massachusetts.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 106.340 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 106.340 188.835 m 118.340 188.835 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 121.340 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15])] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The idea that Irish were perhaps even lowlier than America's blacks has provided a useful way of increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the sorrowful image of Irish emigration and exile. More recently, this question of Irish-black relations has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become an issue of more widespread scholarly study, and new light suggests a greater degree of tolerance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between the pre-Famine Irish emigrant and his freeman black neighbour in the big cities of the North.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 522.260 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 522.260 119.811 m 534.260 119.811 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 537.260 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16])] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At the heart of this debate is the invented-ness of race and the sense in which it is an ascribed, mythological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(label rather than an objective fact. Kenny's contribution cuts through much of the half-truth surrounding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debates about the Irish, blacks and race. He places the Irish in their correct position-that is, as whites who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('presumably shared to some extent the general European propensity to attach negative connotations to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("blackness", even if they had not yet encountered racial oppression in its distinctively American form'. The )] TJ ET endstream endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 447.6197 486.2695 459.6197 498.1495 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#10a) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 106.3397 189.1495 118.3397 201.0295 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#11a) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 522.2597 120.1255 534.2597 132.0055 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#12a) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 47 0 R >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Length 6833 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simplistic notion that low-level social improvement might equate with a serious degree of acceptance of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole political structure called whiteness, is rejected by Kenny in favour of a more realistic model:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Picture the case of an impoverished Irishman living with his family in an infested cellar in Manhattan's Sixth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ward. If he took a job on the docks once held by an African American, so that he could move his family up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a tiny, windowless room on the floor above, had he really 'opted for whiteness' in any meaningful sense? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Or had be taken an action, which because of the racial structure of the United States, had important racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consequences?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenny goes on to discuss the more issue of collective action, often violent, against blacks:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those Irishmen who drove black workers from the docks [e.g. in New York] and excluded them from labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organizations knew what they were doing, and they doubtless advanced their assimilation by doing so. But )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the American Irish did not create the social and racial hierarchy into which they came, and to expect them to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have overturned this hierarchy in the course of putting food on their tables is surely unrealistic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 577.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The essential point, as with most history, is that the right answer does not lie on one extreme or the other. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Irish were not the wholly racist fiends that their arraigners might have us believe; nor were they every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 548.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remotely as oppressed as the blacks, which will disappoint some at the other pole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 522.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet there is no question that Irish workers, as with all groups of whites, at times displayed traits that we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 508.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would call racist. One reading of Irish political behaviour, especially among the urban bosses, would be to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 494.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(say that racism, and racially motivated policy enactment, played at least some part in the developing political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 479.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture. The problem is that evidence to the contrary can always be found for a subject as vexing as racism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 465.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(across something as complicated as two hundred years. The balance between racism, on the one hand, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 451.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doing deals, on the other, is captured a thousand times over by the realities of city life in America over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 437.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past two centuries. Those who would lionise Irish American politicos for their remarkable ability to grab and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make use of the Democratic political machine, fundamentally underestimate the sense in which both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 408.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(achievement of that power and its maintenance was the product of clever negotiation as well as strong-arm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 394.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tactics. Irish political power was interrupted by defeats as well as cemented by victories. Some Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 380.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politicians did deals with blacks and non-Irish ethnic groups at the same time as others worsted them very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 365.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(badly. Irish politics, as Cohen and Taylor's stimulating biography of the Mayor Daley of Chicago )] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates, was as subtle or as tough as conditions dictated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If New York's Tammany Hall is )] TJ ET BT 191.480 325.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 206.144 325.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( symbol of American Irish political power, we should look to Chicago, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 311.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to Mayor Richard J. Daley, for the greatest wielding of power by any single individual of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 296.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parentage. As with other Irish leaders \(Al Smith or Robert F. Wagner in New York\), Daley's power spread )] TJ ET BT 34.016 282.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond his city, county or state; his power, like theirs was national, but perhaps more so. Daley used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 268.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances, the mass media and a certain personal talent to become a man whose name was associated, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 254.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the minds of millions of Americans beyond Illinois, with a particular brand of conservative political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour. But his background, and his early-life show of talents, were unlikely markers for what was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately to be an astounding achievement: a vice-like grip on power.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The story of the Daley ethos and of his rise is revealing of an acute collective consciousness among Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 184.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrants in America. In this sense, too, Daley was a typical Irishman from a typical community. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 170.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were, though, differences. First, his family was small \(he was an only child\) and his mother and father were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quiet. Daley was noted for not being a drinker in his youth, and he worked incredibly hard to make the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his modest talents \(even in his youth he uttered the malapropism that would draw much comment later\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He went to night school to study law, following a solid Catholic education, which included a spell at De La )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salle College. He fell into the Irish political machine at its lowest level, working for Big Joe McDonough at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a time, in the 1930s\), when a Czech American, Anton Cermak-the man who died taking a bullet aimed at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Franklin D. Roosevelt-was running the show, albeit briefly.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of his twenty-odd year, six-term hold on the mayoral office, Chicago had been transformed. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 7420 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University campuses, O'Hare international airport, a rejuvenated central business district \(including what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was then the world's largest building, the Sears Tower\)-these were just some of his achievements. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were others, some of them controversial. The creation of housing projects such as Cabrini Green helped to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(staunch the flow of whites out of the city by containing the extent of black Chicago, but the cost was in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creation of black-only neighbourhoods. The Dan Ryan Expressway, then the world's widest, acted as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(border between working-class black and white districts of Chicago's south side, including the neighbourhood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where Daley grew up. Daley's Chicago was just about as segregated as some of the southern cities which, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the mid-1960s, were feeling the heat from Martin Luther King Jnr. Indeed, Cohen and Taylor make the point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forcibly that 'Daley's modern Chicago was built . on an unstated foundation: commitment to racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(segregation.' This is why King made Chicago his focus and temporary home when, in 1966, he took the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign against racism north.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daley's battle against King was conducted in a way that typified his political abilities. He refused to allow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(himself to become a fall guy for the black freedom struggle; this, and his other acts of conservatism, cast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him into the public eye across America. As well as opposing King, Daley also stood against President )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Johnson's Great Society programme, and he loathed and fought against the Hippie tendency and the anti-war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement. Daley was a classic product of the ethnic ghetto, yet the English would understand him equally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a nineteenth-century Gladstonian Liberal: he believed in a religious morality that underpinned good social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour, and welcomed the social role of churches as a boon. He also stressed loyalty and bootstrap-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tugging self-help. He was considered 'dollar honest', although he ignored the corruption of those around him. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daley was faithful to his wife. Long days and nights in Springfield, in the execution of duties for the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislature, turned many men to gambling and prostitutes: but not Daley. While others were making hot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(money, sleeping around and getting drunk, Daley was demonstrating a remarkable aptitude for the tedious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actuarial side of politics. Moreover, while he did not trouser millions in ill-gotten gains, he earned enough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legitimate money from his numerous political jobs to raise a large family, to build a big house and to school )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his children well.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daley bore all the hallmarks of a nineteenth-century boss politician displaced into the wrong century. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patch was the neighbourhood into which he was born and where his first political allegiances had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forged. His team was the White Sox. Chicago was his city. But, perhaps by being a man who seemed out of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his time, he was able to be more effective than if this had not been the case. The Chicago he inherited needed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to find itself a new role: it was no longer the boom-time city standing at the crossroads of American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civilisation; this image was giving way, as with most Mid-West towns, to the appeal of the rejuvenated south )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the wider Sun Belt. But Daley set about revitalising Chicago by rebuilding it. Government took a lead )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the physical map of Chicago was changed massively under his tutelage. Despite the negative racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(connotations of so much of what he masterminded, there is no doubt that the revitalised Chicago of the post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war epoch is a far cry from other decaying Mid-West cities, such as Detroit and St Louis, which atrophied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistently in the generation after 1945. As boss politicians fell by the wayside in the post-war years, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old-fashioned Daley machine lived on.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daley rescued his Chicago and rebuilt it. Daley was the last big city boss. At the end of his life, it is said, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was recognising the frailty of his old-style political machine. He was losing ground, but not enough for any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opponent to reap the ultimate reward, not in Chicago at least. Daley managed to win his sixth term in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(year of his death, 1976, but at the same time he lost out in a race to work closely with Jimmy Carter. Big city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bossism had a limited utility beyond its bedrock; bosses such as Al Smith of New York had realised this in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1920s. As a rule, machine politics does not go down well in the rural expanses of other parts of America. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some would argue Daley got lucky in not being able to get closer to Carter, but it is an irrelevance to say so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because death intervened anyway. While this failure struck him hard, changing times enabled one of Daley's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sons to realise his father's dream-but twenty years later and with a very different presidential candidate. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(son is Richard M. Daley and the presidential hopeful was Al Gore. Yet something else that brings us full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circle, and what proves the limitations of any attempt to render Richard Daley Snr as a dinosaur, is the proof, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found in Chicago, that political dynasties are stronger in America than almost anywhere. In 1999, Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(M. Daley was elected to his fourth term as Mayor of Chicago, an office he has held since his father's death in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 7634 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1976. Two Daleys, both named Richard, have held the city's top job for ten terms and nearly half-a-century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not even the Daley lineage in Chicago is as telling an indictment of the power of Irish America as the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existence of the fourth item under review, Michael Glazier's )] TJ ET BT 325.436 755.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopaedia of the Irish in America)] TJ ET BT 508.412 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Advance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(praise from a variety of notable scholars adorns the back cover: Glazier's is, we cannot doubt, )] TJ ET BT 486.068 741.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 500.732 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( book Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America has been waiting for. Given the success of Bayor and Meagher's collection of essays, )] TJ ET BT 489.068 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The New York )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish)] TJ ET BT 56.684 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is not surprising to lean that Irish America is confident in its ability to do itself justice. And Glazier's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an impressive effort. It looks beautiful and is good value for money. Moreover, the coverage is catholic, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not just Catholic. The range and quality of each of the essays are very good. There is also a remarkable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistency to the text, for which both Glazier and Notre Dame University Press deserve our thanks. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choice of subject matter is largely uncontroversial, although one could quibble with certain inclusions. I am )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not sure that some of the Irish-born contemporary figures are necessarily 'Irish in America' in quite the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are asked to believe. It is impossible to imagine that, if this volume had been produced in 1865, John )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mitchel would have been excluded: even though he was born and died in Ireland, he spent important years in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America developing, among other things, a sympathy with slavery. The thematic entries really are excellent: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for example, short histories of the Irish in each major city and every state is provides a resource of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unparalleled utility for scholars trying to come to terms with the huge variety of Irish communities in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America. Readers will not be surprised to learn that New York, Boston and Chicago get large entries. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical characters, each with a short contextual biography, are very well rendered. Helpful lists of further )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading come with each entry. Reading this book enforces the view that the Irish Diaspora is alive and well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that most members seem to be writing books! In future, however, one would imagine that projects such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as Glazier's will appear on CD-Rom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These four books demonstrate the old and new traits of Irish studies in America. Glazier's )] TJ ET BT 467.432 473.093 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Encyclopaedia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(captures the balance of styles most dramatically: hero-worship, as mode of writing, has itself passed into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, yet the sense of communal pride remains. Alongside biographies of the great and the good of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America are some wonderful 'new' historical approaches to the key themes-nationalism, Catholicism, urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, city politics, and so on. Cohen and Taylor's biography of Mayor Daley demonstrates both the utility )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the limitations of bossism; it is a warts and all study that might serve as an emblem of for that period of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American history when Irishmen ran the great cities. The nature of urban politics; the fragility of real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(democracy in a world of such corruption, and the role of grace and favour, are all perfectly balanced against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the degree to which the big city boss could, and could not, extend himself beyond the home turf. Not many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish bosses became President of the United States; yet no president had the degree of control over his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political turf that Mayor Daley had in Chicago.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But it is Kenny's book that points the way forward for American Irish history. His is an inclusive history. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does no disservice to the grand Catholic narrative of so many other studies. Yet it manages to introduce a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much less fleeting image of the Scots-Irish than is portrayed via the usual long list of Irishmen of Scots )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(descent who made America \(from Daniel Boone-who was in fact part Devon Quaker-through Andrew )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jackson to Neal Armstrong and any other Scots-Irish on the moon we might mention\). Irish history in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America grew out of sectarian competition in the nineteenth century, something that was taken to America in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cultural baggage of the emigrants. The Scots-Irish myth was developed in the second-half of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth century as some sort of antidote to the hugely important nationalist tradition focusing on St )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick's Day and the various movements for home rule and independence. It is this sense of connection to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the old country's unfinished business, more than anything else, which has made Irish American history so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important to people whose Irish roots are in the distant past. But the time has come for us really to learn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the Irish in America and to move beyond a prosopography of Irish success. Kenny has provided an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important marker.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 98.307 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 66.291 m 40.016 66.291 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17])] TJ ET BT 63.008 67.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Kurds, Italians and South Asians are just two of the groups recently to have received treatment in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 53.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books bearing the word 'Diaspora' in the titles. See Crispin Bates \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 376.628 53.429 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Community, Empire and Migration: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 39.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(South Asians in Diaspora)] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 66.6055 40.0157 78.4855 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/macraildDonald.html#1) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 7531 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Palgrave, 2001\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 768.819 m 40.016 768.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([18])] TJ ET BT 63.008 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. William Thomas and Florian Znaniecki, The Polish Peasant in Europe and America \(1918-20\); Oscar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Handlin, The Uprooted: The epic study of the Great Migrations that made the America People \(1951\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 728.307 m 40.016 728.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([19])] TJ ET BT 63.008 729.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. F. Thistlethwaite, `Migration from Europe overseas in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries' in H. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moller \(ed.\), Population Movements in Modern European History \(New York, 1964\) and J. Bodnar, The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America \(Bloomington, 1985\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 673.539 m 40.016 673.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([20])] TJ ET BT 63.008 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Donald Akenson, The Irish in Ontario: A Study in Rural History 2nd edn \(2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 647.283 m 40.016 647.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([21])] TJ ET BT 63.008 648.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The American Irish: A Political and Social Portrait \(Boston, 1963; 2nd edn 1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 621.027 m 40.016 621.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([22])] TJ ET BT 63.008 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Many of the early studies were sociological in their orientations, with studies such as Henry P, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 608.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fairchild, Greek Immigration to the United States \(1911\), Thomas Burgess, Greeks in America \(1913\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kenneth Babcock, The Scandinavian Element in the United States \(1914\),\) and Robert E. 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