%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 21 0 R 35 0 R 54 0 R 72 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 37 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 10 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20150802004756+01'00') /ModDate (D:20150802004756+01'00') /Title (Response to Review no. 215a) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 11 0 R 13 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 6726 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 635.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kevin Kenny2010-01-08T16:43:30+00:00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I greatly appreciate Donald MacRaild's comprehensive and enthusiastic review of )] TJ ET BT 429.416 595.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Irish: A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 581.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 70.016 581.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( .)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 76.016 581.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 76.016 579.801 m 82.016 579.801 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 85.016 581.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1])] TJ ET BT 99.008 581.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Such a detailed and laudatory review needs no direct response, let alone a challenge or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 566.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refutation, on my part. Instead I would like to say a few words about my general perspective on Irish-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American history, about the evolution and structure of the book, and about the concept of "diaspora" as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 538.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(applied to Irish history. My comments on these three related questions will serve as a complement to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 524.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various lines of inquiry opened up by MacRaild's reflective and wide-ranging review essay.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The type of history I write and teach is best called "transatlantic." It deals with Irish history in both Ireland )] TJ ET BT 34.016 483.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and North America simultaneously, examining patterns of migration, of cultural continuity and change, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 469.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of economic and political interaction. My first attempt to write this sort of history was a doctoral dissertation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 455.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in U.S. history called "Making Sense of the Molly Maguires," which eventually became a book of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(name.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 63.008 440.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 63.008 439.497 m 69.008 439.497 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 72.008 440.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 86.000 440.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( On one level, the approach was quite narrow, telling the story of a group of Irish mine workers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pennsylvania the 1860s and 1870s, twenty of whom were hanged for sixteen murders committed, according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the authorities, as part of a conspiracy imported directly from Ireland. On another level, the approach was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 398.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(very broad, for the story contained at its heart the principal themes in both Irish and Irish-American history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 383.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the mid-nineteenth century: land, famine, and emigration on the Irish side and, on the American, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industrialization, the Civil War, and immigration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 343.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The actions of the "Molly Maguires" in Pennsylvania, it became clear, would make little sense unless they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 329.099 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were placed in an Irish as well as an American context. In Ireland, the socio-economic structure of rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society in general, and of specific regions like the north-western and north-central counties, needed close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 300.587 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attention, as did the long history of agrarian violence embodied by such shadowy groups as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 286.331 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Ribbonmen," the "Whiteboys"-and, indeed, the "Molly Maguires," who first emerged in north-central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 272.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland in the 1840s and 1850s. Making sense of the American phase of the violence, in turn, required a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 257.819 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proper understanding of patterns of immigration, labor, and religious devotion, along with the politics of anti-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 243.563 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigrant nativism and the origins and impact of the Civil War. The "Molly Maguires" in Pennsylvania )] TJ ET BT 34.016 229.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were a rare transatlantic example of a form of violent protest deeply rooted in the Irish countryside. Bringing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Irish and American strands of their story together in a single narrative resulted in the form of history that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 200.795 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I later began to call "transatlantic." And that is the approach I have taken ever since.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 174.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While my work on the Molly Maguires examined a single dramatic episode, )] TJ ET BT 402.968 174.539 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Irish)] TJ ET BT 496.292 174.539 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( applies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 160.283 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transatlantic approach on a much broader scale over a much longer period. The book examines Irish-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.027 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American history from beginning to end, star ting with the Ulster migrations of the eighteenth century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 131.771 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ending with the evolution of the Northern Ireland peace process, in both Ireland and the United States, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 117.515 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990s. And, of course, it deals not just with labor protest but with all aspects of the Irish-American past. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 103.259 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the series "Studies in Modern History," edited by David Cannadine and John Morrill, the book offers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 89.003 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a synthesis spanning three centuries, it is based mainly on secondary rather than primary sources, and it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 74.747 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intended primarily for students and general readers, while still being of considerable use to the specialist. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 60.491 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the first synthesis of its field in a generation, and unlike any other previous book it covers not only the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 12 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 14 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 76.0157 580.1155 82.0157 591.9955 ] >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#1a) >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 63.0077 439.8115 69.0077 451.6915 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#2a) >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7816 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classic period from the 1820s to the 1920s but the entire eighteenth and twentieth centuries as well. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while so many traditional accounts of the American Irish, and so much popular understanding of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history, begin with the Famine and end in the 1920s, my own book extends the analysis backward by more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than a century and forward by three or four generations, integrating the entire 300-year period into a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Putting a book of this sort together is a challenge. But the beauty of writing this particular book, especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given its intended audience, is that I was able to write it by teaching it. At the University of Texas I offered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three undergraduate seminar s on the subject, which allowed me to determine the principal themes of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book: emigration, immigration, labor, religion, politics, and nationalism, with the analytical categories of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race, class, and gender deployed as appropriate. After three semesters , then, I had my themes; the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem was that I still had not written a word \(or, to more precise, I had written six, one for the name of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each theme\). So I converted the class into a course of lectures, first at the University of Texas and then at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Boston College, inviting the students to critique each week's material as vociferously as they wished and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrating their concerns and demands into the re-worked versions of the lectures that made their way into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the evolving manuscript. There is no passage in )] TJ ET BT 265.652 584.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Irish)] TJ ET BT 358.976 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that was not at some point discussed in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(classroom. I can therefore feel quite confident that I have written the right book for my intended audience.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Armed with my six thematic categories, I did at one point deceive myself into thinking that the book would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more or less write itself. All I would have to do, I told myself, was to write a chapter on each of my six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes, with every chapter beginning in 1700 and ending in 2000. Of course, I realized soon enough that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this analytical framework, while very useful for research and organization, would produce a book that was at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(best unwieldy and repetitive. Interestingly, the same thing had happened when I wrote my first book: I began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with a thematic model for purposes of research and organization but, when it came time to write, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abandoned this model in favor of a chronological approach, interweaving the analysis into a narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. In my own work at least, telling the story of change over time has provided the most compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mode of historical explanation. )] TJ ET BT 186.332 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Irish)] TJ ET BT 279.656 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is unabashedly chronological in structure, its six chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bearing the following titles: "The Eighteenth Century," "Before the Famine," "The Famine Generation," )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("After the Famine," "Irish America, 1900-1940," and "Irish America Since the Second World War." )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, as the titles of the middle chapters are intended to convey, the Great Famine stands at the heart of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Within the overall chronological framework, each the six chapters examines the six basic themes of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as a whole. Thus, as MacRaild notes, all of the chapters begin with a detailed account of the conditions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland that led to mass emigration, without which the history of the Irish in America can make little sense. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remainder of each chapter examines such themes as immigrant settlement patterns, social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical mobility, labor and class, race and gender, and religion, politics, and nationalism, the relative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight of each theme varying by period. And every chapter \(except the last\) incorporates into the narrative a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate between historians, a critical point on which interpretations of history have differed. From the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthetic historian's point of view, it can be deeply satisfying to review and adjudicate controversies of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(kind. But I present these often very lively debates primarily for the reader's pleasure, not my own, and I do )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so in the conviction \(gleaned from teaching and repeatedly endorsed by my students\) that excursions into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography and interpretation are a strong incentive, rather than a distraction or a bore, to undergraduates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and general readers studying history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The debates integrated into the first two chapters concern questions of ethnic and racial identity in the United )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(States. Chapter 1 examines \(very briefly\) and refutes the "Celtic Thesis," whereby the population of the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(United States in 1790 has been divided into so-called "Celts" and "Saxons," the former including the Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish. According to this rather strange theory, America to the south of Philadelphia was settled largely by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Celts and to the north by Saxons, deter mining in large measure the course of American history, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Civil War, when southern Celts and Cavaliers were bested by northern Saxons and Roundheads \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(innate tension between them providing a causal explanation that conveniently deflects attention away from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(slavery\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 75.668 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 75.668 62.787 m 81.668 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 84.668 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 98.660 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Chapter 2, as MacRaild mentions, considers the recent, very influential debate over white )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial formation \("how the Irish became white"\), that had its origins in Irish-American and American labor )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 75.6677 63.1015 81.6677 74.9815 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#3a) >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 8837 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. My critique of the historiography in this case suggests that both the degree of Irish racial subjugation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the degree of Irish responsibility in altering the course of American race relations are open to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considerable exaggeration. At the same time, much greater attention is needed in this area to the history of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women and to the Irish culture from which the migrants came.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 333.632 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 333.632 752.307 m 339.632 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 342.632 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contentious historiography of the great Irish potato famine is considered in Chapter 3. Between 1846 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1855 \("the famine decade"\) an estimated 1.1 million people died in Ireland and another 2.1 million )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigrated, amounting to more than one-third of the pre-famine population. The famine and its memory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain the defining moment in Irish-American history and, contrary to the efforts of a recent generation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians, I place it very much at the heart of Irish domestic history as well. The debate presented in Chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3 counterpoises the now familiar "romantic nationalist" and "revisionist" interpretations of the famine, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concluding that the latter, in standing the former on its head, unwittingly reproduces a slanted and extreme )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position of its own \(protestations of dispassionate objectivity notwithstanding\). Instead of choosing between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these two antagonistic and perhaps outmoded interpretations, I endorse an emerging school of historiography )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that, for want of a better word, I call "post-revisionist." This new interpretation concedes much of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revisionist case, for example that various demographic, socio-economic, and cultural changes \(concerning )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population decline, language use, and patterns of landholding, marriage, and migration\) actually have their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origins in the early nineteenth century and beyond and not simply in the great upheaval of the 1840s. That )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upheaval, nonetheless, greatly magnified and accelerated these changes, such that the famine can still be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen as modern Ireland's great watershed event. The "post-revisionist" perspective rejects all talk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliberate genocide, but points to a pervasive providentialist belief among British officials and opinion-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(makers that the famine represented an opportunity for re-making Ireland. The British government, moreover, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bore direct responsibility for the actions it did and did not take to avert the catastrophe. In endorsing this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretation, I have opened myself to the charge of one recent reviewer that my approach to Irish history is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not only "bleak" but "old-fashioned." So it bears repeating here that "post-revisionism" in this case is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply a euphemism for unreconstructed romantic nationalism. Far from being old-fashioned, it represents )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latest and most sophisticated phase of Irish famine scholarship.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.644 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.644 426.675 m 360.644 426.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 363.644 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([5])] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historians' debates in the remaining chapters have to do with questions of labor and gender, nationalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and politics. Chapter 4 yields two debates, one on the social bases of support for Irish-American nationalism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the other on the nature of domestic service, the primary occupation for Irish-American women. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former debate I reinsert the question of social radicalism into the traditional polarity between physical force )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republicanism and constitutional nationalism.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 252.680 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 252.680 343.395 m 258.680 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 261.680 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([6])] TJ ET BT 275.672 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In the latter I challenge previous historians' conception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(service as a launching pad to liberation, emphasizing instead the nature of the relationship between mistress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and servant.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 92.000 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 92.000 314.883 m 98.000 314.883 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.000 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([7])] TJ ET BT 114.992 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although service could indeed be a training ground in American middle-class morality, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also by definition a servile form of labor in a republican democracy whose more privileged members )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frowned upon servility. In Chapter 5, I examine competing theories of the rise, functions, and decline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish-American urban machine politics.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 222.644 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 222.644 272.115 m 228.644 272.115 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 231.644 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([8])] TJ ET BT 245.636 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Only Chapter 6, which deals with the contemporary era, lacks a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical controversy, reflecting the undeveloped state of the scholarship on that period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Let me close, as promised, by saying a few words on "diaspora," the critical new concept \(new in the Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case, that is\) which MacRaild discusses in opening his review essay. The term "diaspora," as he suggests, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potentially a useful one for historians of Irish migration. If a single theme dominates current historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing, at least in the United States, it is the need to transcend the boundaries of nation-states and write )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global histories. The history of American immigration is no exception; indeed, it lends itself perfectly to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transnational approach. So too does the history of Irish migration, which despite the centrality of North )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(America has always been global in scope. Given that Irish migration was a genuinely global phenomenon, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover, it has become increasingly clear that the story of the Irish in one part of the world can no longer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be told without reference to the Irish elsewhere. Historians of the American Irish, for example, clearly have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much to learn from the history of the Irish in Britain, Canada, or Australia. In seeking to encompass the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(global dimension to their subject, historians of the Irish-like historians all over the world in the last ten years-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have turned increasingly to the concept of diaspora.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.960 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.960 74.787 m 287.960 74.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 290.960 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([9])] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Yet, as MacRaild points out, it is striking how few historians say precisely what they mean by this term. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 333.6317 752.6215 339.6317 764.5015 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#4a) >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 354.6437 426.9895 360.6437 438.8695 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#5a) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 252.6797 343.7095 258.6797 355.5895 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#6a) >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.9997 315.1975 97.9997 327.0775 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#7a) >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 222.6437 272.4295 228.6437 284.3095 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#8a) >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.9597 75.1015 287.9597 86.9815 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#9a) >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 38 0 R 40 0 R 42 0 R 44 0 R 46 0 R 48 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R ] /Contents 36 0 R >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Length 9619 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("Diaspora" has entered academic discourse with a vengeance, but all too often as a synonym for every type )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of population movement, migration, or displacement, or \(even more vaguely\) for minority status, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonial identity, and the processes of globalization. Unless one makes some effort to give the term a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning, it actually means very little; and if the term is intended simply as a loose substitute for, say, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration, then it is not clear why one would need to use the term at all. Moreover, the historian who decides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to investigate the possible meanings of the term immediately confronts a wide array of theoretical literature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fraught with more than its share of disagreements, contradictions, and incompatibilities. The term "diaspora" )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has no agreed-upon meaning. Some scholars define "diaspora" very narrowly, insisting that it be reserved for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Jews and, possibly, for African slaves and Armenian refugees.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 351.272 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 351.272 681.027 m 363.272 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 366.272 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([10])] TJ ET BT 386.264 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( But where does one draw the line? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A second, increasingly popular group of theorists defines the term very broadly to include "imperial," )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("trade," and "labor" diasporas as well as those based more traditionally on conquest, catastrophe, or exile.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 541.172 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 541.172 652.515 m 553.172 652.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([11])] TJ ET BT 54.008 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( And a third group, avowedly "postmodern" by persuasion, objects to all typologies, seeing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("diasporic" as a state of mind and a form of discourse \(which amount to the same thing\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.744 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.744 624.003 m 470.744 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 473.744 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([12])] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The point here is not to endorse one position or another, but simply to echo MacRaild's comment that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meaning of the term "diaspora" is not self-evident and that using it unreflectively may be worse than not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using it at all. The future of Irish migration historiography undoubtedly lies in the global arena, beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confines of individual nation states. But until the theoretical and practical possibilities of "diaspora" have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been clarified, scholars could do worse than to remember that the very nation-states we are today so busily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transcending were the essential building blocks of modern history. If our object of inquiry is the past rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than the present, it might be better to compare and contrast the history of migrant groups within nation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(states, no matter how arbitrarily they were constructed and defined, than to transcend these real national and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state differences by ignoring them. Treating the global Irish as if they all belonged to a single diaspora runs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the risk of impov erishing a rich and complex history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 403.923 m 40.016 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([13])] TJ ET BT 63.008 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Kevin Kenny, )] TJ ET BT 139.328 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The American Irish: A History)] TJ ET BT 285.980 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London and New York: Longman, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 377.667 m 40.016 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([14])] TJ ET BT 63.008 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.Kevin Kenny, )] TJ ET BT 136.328 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Making Sense of the Molly Maguires)] TJ ET BT 313.304 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Oxford University Press, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 351.411 m 40.016 351.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([15])] TJ ET BT 63.008 352.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See, for example, Ellen Shapiro McDonald and Forrest McDonald, "The Ethnic Origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American People, 1790," )] TJ ET BT 157.892 338.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(William and Mary Quarterly)] TJ ET BT 296.216 338.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 3rd ser., XXXVII \(January 1980\): 179-99, with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communications by Francis Jennings and Rowl and Berthoff and a reply by the McDonalds, 3rd ser., )] TJ ET BT 34.016 310.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XXXVII \(October 1980\), 700-3; Forrest McDonald and Grady McWhiney, "Celtic Origins of Southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Herding Practices," )] TJ ET BT 130.556 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Journal of Southern History)] TJ ET BT 286.556 295.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 51 \(1985\): 165-82; Grady M cWhiney, )] TJ ET BT 482.192 295.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cracker )] TJ ET BT 34.016 281.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Culture: Celtic Ways in the Old South)] TJ ET BT 216.680 281.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press, 1988\); and, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an excellent critique, Rowland Berthoff, "Celtic Mist Over the South," )] TJ ET BT 375.440 267.269 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Southern History)] TJ ET BT 510.440 267.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 52 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 253.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Novem ber 1986\): 523-46.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 225.363 m 40.016 225.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([16])] TJ ET BT 63.008 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See Theodore W. Allen, )] TJ ET BT 188.312 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of the White )] TJ ET BT 318.632 226.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Race, Vol. 1., )] TJ ET BT 387.620 226.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Racial Oppression and Social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Control)] TJ ET BT 71.360 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Verso, 1994\) and Vol. II., )] TJ ET BT 261.980 212.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Origin of Racial Oppression in Anglo-America)] TJ ET BT 508.640 212.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 198.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(York: Verso, 1997\); David Roediger , )] TJ ET BT 219.320 198.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Working Class)] TJ ET BT 105.020 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Verso, 1992\); Noel Ignatiev, )] TJ ET BT 309.308 183.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(How the Irish Became White)] TJ ET BT 447.284 183.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 169.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge, 1995\); Matthew Frye Jacobson, )] TJ ET BT 244.328 169.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Whiteness of a Different Color: European Im migrants and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 155.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alchemy of Race)] TJ ET BT 114.656 155.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 127.827 m 40.016 127.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([17])] TJ ET BT 63.008 129.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. As examples of the "revisionist" perspective on the famine I cite R. Dudley Edwards and T. Desmond )] TJ ET BT 34.016 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Williams, )] TJ ET BT 84.020 114.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Famine: Studies in Irish History, 1845-52)] TJ ET BT 337.340 114.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin: Browne and Nolan, 1956\); Mary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 100.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Daly, )] TJ ET BT 63.344 100.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Famine in Ireland \(Dublin: Dublin Historical Association, 1986\) and "Revisionism and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 86.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History: The Great Famine," in D. George Boyce and Alan O'Day, eds., )] TJ ET BT 383.900 86.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Modern Irish History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 72.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(London and New York: Routledge, 1996\); and R.F. Foster, < I>Modern Ireland, 1600-1972)] TJ ET BT 481.844 72.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allen Lane, 1988\), 318-44. My examples of "post-revisionism" are Peter Gray, )] TJ ET BT 416.744 57.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Irish Famine)] TJ ET BT 500.072 57.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: )] TJ ET endstream endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 351.2717 681.3415 363.2717 693.2215 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#10a) >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 541.1717 652.8295 553.1717 664.7095 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#11a) >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 43 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.7437 624.3175 470.7437 636.1975 ] >> endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#12a) >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 404.2375 40.0157 416.1175 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#1) >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 377.9815 40.0157 389.8615 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#2) >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 351.7255 40.0157 363.6055 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#3) >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 225.6775 40.0157 237.5575 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#4) >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 128.1415 40.0157 140.0215 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/../../../../reviews/articles/kennyKevin.html#5) >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 8541 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thames and Hudson, 1995\) and )] TJ ET BT 189.992 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Famine, Land and Politics: British Government and Irish Society, 1843-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1850)] TJ ET BT 58.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1999\), both of which are especially good on providentialism; and, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(famine relief among other questions, Cormac O'Grda, )] TJ ET BT 300.452 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland: A New Economic History, 1780-1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford: Clarendon Press, 19 94\), especially Chapter 8, and )] TJ ET BT 324.632 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black '47 and Beyond. The Great Irish Famine: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History, Economy, and Memory)] TJ ET BT 187.652 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999\), especially Chapter 2. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evidence of a "romantic nationalist" perspective is harder to f ind, as there was never any such school of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional history. The target of much revisionism was popular rather than academic history, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exemplified by John Mitchel's infamous comment that "The almighty indeed sent the potato blight, but the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Engl ish created the Famine.")] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 654.771 m 40.016 654.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([18])] TJ ET BT 63.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See in particular Thomas N. Brown, )] TJ ET BT 245.648 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Irish-American Nationalism, 1870-1890 )] TJ ET BT 441.644 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Philadelphia: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lippincott, 1966\); Eric Foner, "Class, Ethnicity, and Radicalism in the Gilded Age: The Land League in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish-America," in Eric Foner, )] TJ ET BT 181.544 627.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Politic s and Ideology in the Age of the Civil War)] TJ ET BT 418.868 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Oxford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 1980\); Victor A. Walsh, "'A Fanatic Heart': The Cause of Irish-American Nationalism in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Pittsburgh During the Gilded Age," )] TJ ET BT 207.572 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Social History)] TJ ET BT 329.240 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 15 \(19 81\): 187-204.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 571.491 m 40.016 571.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([19])] TJ ET BT 63.008 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. See in particular Hasia Diner, )] TJ ET BT 214.304 572.885 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Erin's Daughters in America: Irish Immigrant Women in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Nineteenth Century)] TJ ET BT 127.676 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983\); Janet Nolan, )] TJ ET BT 492.320 558.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ourselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Alone: Women's Emigration from Ireland, 1885-1920 )] TJ ET BT 294.896 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Lexington, KY: The University Press of Kentucky, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 502.467 m 40.016 502.467 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([20])] TJ ET BT 63.008 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. By far the best account is Steven P. Erie, )] TJ ET BT 267.980 503.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rainbow's End: Irish Americans and the Dilemmas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Urban Machine Politics, 1840-1985)] TJ ET BT 208.004 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1988\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 461.955 m 40.016 461.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 43.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([21])] TJ ET BT 63.008 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. I have spent much of the last year working on a historiographical review essay critically examining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the concept of diaspora and its applicability to the Irish case.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 421.443 m 46.016 421.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 49.016 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([22])] TJ ET BT 69.008 422.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. 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