%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141119115405+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141119115405+00'00') /Title (Domesday: the Inquest and the Book) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4353 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Domesday: the Inquest and the Book)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is now forty years since Galbraith published the Making of Domesday Book. Since then his thesis has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been refined in various ways, but there has been no serious challenge to his central propositions: that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(object of the Domesday survey was to produce Domesday Book, and that the purpose of the whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enterprise must be inferred from Domesday Book itself. Dr Roffe's book develops a radical alternative thesis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(His main propositions are these. William the Conqueror did not commission Domesday Book. The threat of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(invasion and the strain on resources created by the need to billet a large mercenary army in England caused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him to commission the Domesday inquest at Christmas in 1085. This inquest took place the following year )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and produced a survey of royal resources and a geld survey, and also a survey of the tenurial resources of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tenants-in-chief and their tenants. Prior to 1086, the land which tenants-in-chief held in demesne had been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exempt from the geld, and the purpose of the inquest was to identify this land with a view to taxing it. All )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the records from the inquest were brought to the king. There followed some hard bargaining between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king and his barons: in return for the loss of geld exemption on their demesne, the tenants-in-chief received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain concessions concerning the service they owed to the king, and their requirement to billet mercenaries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also lifted. The production of Domesday Book was an entirely separate and later exercise. Domesday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Book was 'unrelated to the concerns which launched the inquest in 1085. It seems to have been compiled, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probably under the supervision of Rannulf Flambard, from the records of the inquest after 1089 and is best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreted as a response to the revolt, and consequent tenurial chaos, of 1088' \(p. ix\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is structured as follows. Chapter 1 describes how Domesday Book acquired the awesome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(216)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 September, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(David Roffe)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198208472)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(291pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen Baxter)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7440 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reputation which accounts for its name. It also surveys Domesday historiography since Galbraith. A fixation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Domesday Book - 'the mystique of the book' - has caused most scholars to ignore the possibility that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday inquest and production of Domesday Book might have been separate exercises. Chapter 2 turns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to land tenure, title, and the problem of tenurial continuity between 1066 and 1086. Roffe rejects the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition that the Domesday survey was intended to determine or resolve disputes concerning title to land. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The 'Norman Settlement' was virtually a fait accompli by 1085. The process of transferring land from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English antecessores to the incoming aristocracy was comprehensive and efficient, mainly because one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the structures of pre-Conquest lordship - parcels of bookland held by 'king's thegns' with 'sake and soke' - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been preserved in the process. Domesday Book suggests that only a small proportion of the estates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England were the subject of disputes about title in 1086 and the inconsistent, almost casual, manner in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those disputes were recorded proves that 'title was not an issue in the Domesday inquest' \(p. 46\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 3 compares the Domesday inquest with certain later enterprises including in particular the inquests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which generated the 'Hundred Rolls' of Edward I's reign. It argues that inquests did not as a rule have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('executive' power: the function of the inquest as an instrument of government was 'more modestly to inform' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p. 50\). By analogy, the Domesday inquest was merely a data collection exercise: 'its business was to collect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence for further action, whether it be fiscal, administrative, or judicial' \(p. 67\). Chapter 4 contains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed descriptions and analyses of the principal extant Domesday texts: Great Domesday Book \(GDB\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Little Domesday Book \(LDB\), Liber Exoniensis \(Exon Domesday\), Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ICC\), Inquisitio Eliensis \(IE\), and a number of other Domesday-related texts which scholars have hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referred to as 'satellites' but which Dr Roffe prefers to call 'schedules'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remainder of the book attempts to reconstruct how the Domesday inquest proceeded and how Domesday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Book was written. Roffe rejects Galbraith's premise that all of the extant documentation had a role in an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integrated process which ultimately led to the production of Domesday Book, and argues instead that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different categories of documentation were generated during the Domesday inquest for specific and discrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes. Chapter 5 deals with the process of data collection. First, there was a survey of royal lands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources: the information collected at this stage eventually supplied raw material for the descriptions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towns, customs, and for the 'terra regis' sections in Domesday Book. Separately, there was also a geld )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inquest which took place in county courts. This inquest may have drawn on a certain amount of existing data )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and documentation, but it also involved input from tenants-in-chief who tendered certain basic details with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect to their estates. The result of this exercise 'was effectively a fully annotated geld list in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly fiscal data were combined with presentments on title and tenure' \(p. 138\). Landholders were then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(called before the Domesday commissioners a second time: a date was appointed for each landholder to make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his 'presentment', and it was during these sessions that the more detailed record of individual estates took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shape.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The role of the Domesday commissioners in all this was limited. They were not expected to confirm title or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to resolve disputes, but were simply required to collect data for fiscal purposes \(chapter 6\). All demesne land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held by tenants-in-chief was exempt to the geld. The information collected during the course of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday inquest - in particular ploughland data - would enable royal officials to identify the exempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portion of the demesne of tenants-in-chief so that it could be taxed. 'The ultimate aim was to increase the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yield of the geld. The inquisitio geldi had identified hides that had been hidden and individuals who had not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paid. The calculation of ploughlands went further by investigating how much more the tax might yield to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king' \(p. 162\). Domesday commissioners produced their findings in the form of 'circuit reports' \(chapter 7\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There was no standard format. Exon Domesday is a circuit report which lists estates in a 'seigneurial' order, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the heading of each tenant-in-chief and within these headings by county. ICC is a fragment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(report produced for the East Midlands circuit \(circuit III\) and lists estates in a 'geographical' order, hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by hundred rather than fee by fee. Since GDB preserves clear traces of a 'hundredal order' in most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counties it covers, Roffe concludes that most of the circuit reports followed the ICC arrangement or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something approximating to it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 considers the writing of Domesday Book itself and reconstructs the order in which it was written. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(LDB was not, as Galbraith argued, a circuit report at all. It was based on 'a fully formulated, geographically )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 5498 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arranged recension of the data' \(p. 177\), and was the first part of Domesday Book to be written: 'what is now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume II of Domesday Book should be more properly volume I' \(p. 223\). LDB was a prototype written by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seven different scribes and it provided a model for the writing of GDB, but GDB was written in its entirety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a single scribe \(with a small quantity of matter written by a second 'correcting' scribe\). The scribe of GDB )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began by writing up a fair copy of circuit VI \(the northern circuit\), devising methods for distilling the matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before him into a comprehensible format as he went. As work progressed, he became more assured in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way he handled his source material. The visible signs of this growing confidence - in particular, the number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of rulings to a page which increased until abandoned altogether - make it possible to reconstruct his progress )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing up the various circuit reports: circuit VI was followed by circuits III, I, II, V and IV in that order. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 9 summarises the argument and considers the dating evidence. It concludes that both LDB and GDB )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were written during the reign of William Rufus: Rannulf Flambard was " 'the man behind the Domesday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Book' \(as opposed to 'the man behind the survey'\)" \(p. 246\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is by any standards a remarkable thesis. To read it is to feel as if the landscape of Domesday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship has been struck by a tidal wave: one feels compelled to return to that landscape to see how many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the familiar structures of Domesday historiography have been swept away, and whether some of them will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remain standing when the water eventually recedes. What follows can be no more than a sketch of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(initial reactions: some of Roffe's propositions are forceful and compelling, but others are much less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persuasive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some of the most convincing matter is that which relates to the structure of the Domesday inquest. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that the inquest went through several discrete stages corresponds neatly with the near )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary descriptions of the process supplied by recension 'E' of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle and by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert de Losinga. The inquest clearly did result in the production of a wide range of written materials, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is by no means clear that all of them were subordinate to the objective of producing Domesday Book: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of them may have been useful outputs in their own right. This suggestion has an important bearing on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question as to why Domesday Book was made. Since the arrangement of the text would have made it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult for royal officials to elicit fiscal information from Domesday Book, many scholars have found it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to accept Maitland's famous assertion that Domesday Book was 'a geld book'; conversely, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations which have stressed the essentially 'feudal' arrangement and purpose of Domesday Book have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(always struggled to explain why it contains so much fiscal information. Roffe reminds us that, in addition to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circuit 'reports', the inquest also produced documents which would have been eminently serviceable in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fiscal context including geld lists and 'summaries' of the tenurial and financial resources of tenants-in-chief. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It may be that texts of this kind are not prominent in the extant corpus of Domesday texts precisely because )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were immediately and heavily used by agents of royal government. It is perfectly plausible that King )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William had more than one objective when he commissioned the Domesday inquest in 1085 and, as often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happens as large-scale surveys or research projects develop their own momentum, those objectives may have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become refined as the inquest progressed. With these considerations in mind, it is no surprise that the inquest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generated a wide range of written outputs as well as the raw material for Domesday Book itself.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7551 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Since the publication of Round's Feudal England in 1895, it has been axiomatic that one must understand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how Domesday Book was made in order to appreciate why it was made. However, Roffe has demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that this is by no means the only justification for the study of the making of Domesday Book. The present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book \(and Roffe's work taken as a whole\) has shown that it is vital to understand how Domesday Book was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made before interpreting the matter it contains. Roffe's analysis of the northern circuit first printed in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English Historical Review and reworked for inclusion in chapter 8 of the book is brilliant and fundamental. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He shows, for example, that some of the peculiarities of Yorkshire Domesday may not have been a function )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the harrying of the north by the Conqueror's army, but may instead have been caused by the rather more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mundane activities of the GDB scribe who began his work with material relating to Yorkshire and was still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developing his technique for abbreviating his source material as he wrote. The wider implications of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proposition are considerable. Domesday evidence supplies us with an image of eleventh-century England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has been refracted through a complex sequence of lenses, and it is necessary to reconstruct this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparatus of distortion in order to bring the original image back into focus.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be possible to list the virtues of the book at greater length. Some of Roffe's propositions are of such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great moment that they merit very careful consideration; his difficult but plainly important thesis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demesne geld exemption is a case in point. For these reasons, one might go so far as to describe the book as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a gold mine of Domesday scholarship; but the corollary is that one must mine for the nuggets of gold that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contains. There are also some striking omissions and some very doubtful propositions.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is the product of very considerable learning. Not the least of its virtues is its extensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bibliography. It is therefore all the more surprising that two of the most important contributions to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday studies since 1986 have not been taken up. Roffe's discussion of Exon Domesday is seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vitiated by its failure to take account of work by Dr Teresa Webber, who has established beyond reasonable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(doubt that Exon Domesday was at least partly written by Salisbury scribes. It is also surprising that Roffe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not engage with the researches of Dr George Garnett, who has shown that a substantial proportion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the documentation of the Conqueror's reign is concerned with questions of legitimacy associated with and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arising from William's supposed claim to the throne of England, and that Domesday Book itself, with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unremitting insistence that the tenants of 1086 were the legitimate successors to those who held land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tempore Regis Edwardi, is a logical and integral part of the Conqueror's propaganda. This is a significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(omission in a book which attempts to divorce Domesday Book from the Conqueror's regime.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roffe has many innovative suggestions and hypotheses, but there is a tendency at crucial moments for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting possibility to harden into established fact, and for this to form the basis for further, increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flimsy speculation. Roffe's thesis on bookland, sake and soke and tenurial continuity after 1086 is a case in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(point. It may be epitomised as follows. A lord who had both jurisdictional rights and the right to collect )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certain other renders due from an estate held it with 'sake and soke'. This was a privilege which only the king )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could grant in the form of royal diplomas or writs, and thus 'sake and soke was synonymous with tenure by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book' \(p. 33\); bookland was therefore land held by a king's thegn with sake and soke. This form of lordship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was distinct from personal or commendatory lordship. Old English legislative texts made the distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between a hlaford, a lord by commendation, and a landhlaford, a lord of bookland; and the same distinction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can also be observed in or inferred from the formulae which describe pre-Conquest lordship and land tenure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Domesday Book. The structure of manors and their dependent sokelands are only consistently identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in circuit VI, but elsewhere it is possible to detect bookland manors and their dependent estates. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, in circuit III, the 'notice of freedom to go with land and the like is in effect a record of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordination to a booklord' \(p. 34\). Those TRE landholders whose tenure is described without reference to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a freedom of alienation formula must therefore have been king's thegns and the holders of bookland, so the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('[x] tenuit' formula in Domesday Book identifies king's thegns holding bookland with sake and soke. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('valuation' or 'valet' of each manor in Domesday Book was not the value of the land to its tenant: rather, it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was 'a sum that went out of the estate to an overlord in recognition of a soke relationship' \(p. 42\). Units of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended lordship held together by sake and soke were frequently transferred wholesale from pre-Conquest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thegns to barons after 1066: in the north 'over three quarters of honourial courts met in the later Middle Ages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in manors which were held with sake and soke, toll and team in 1066' \(p. 36\); 'baronies represent pre-)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7357 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest estates both in form and composition', and 'in its essential the honour was a pre-Conquest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institution' \(p. 45\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At first sight, this is an exciting argument which seems to offer a new method for decoding Domesday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence and for reconstructing the tenurial landscape of both pre- and post-Conquest England. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the argument presents many difficulties. There is not the slightest doubt that some Anglo-Saxon royal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diplomas and many late Anglo-Saxon writs conferred rights of sake and soke to beneficiaries including some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thegns, but this does not prove that the acquisition of bookland was the only way to acquire this form of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lordship. There are good reasons for supposing that bookland did not convey peculiar rights of lordship at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all: the special value of a bookland estate was simply that its owner could grant or dispose of it as he wished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in ways which could preclude the hereditary expectations of kin \(in this respect it was distinct from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(folkland\). Grants of bookland were not the only source of royal patronage in late Anglo-Saxon England. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example, the king could also grant estates to officials such as earls for the duration of their period in office )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(without ever issuing a royal diploma, and it is probable that many of the great manors to which soke was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendered in Domesday England were comital manors of this kind. There was certainly an important )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinction between personal lordship and lordship over land in pre-Conquest England, but there is no clear )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence that the word landhlaford meant anything more than 'landlord' in the most general sense. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Everything we know about soke renders is that they were relatively light and occasional, and it therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems highly improbable that the Domesday 'valet' represents the sum rendered by a sokeman to an overlord )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who had his soke: there remain good reasons for accepting Reginald Lennard's argument that it was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estimate of the sum of money which an estate would yield if it were farmed out on lease. There are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reasons for doubting whether the '[x] tenuit' formula did anything more than establish the identity of pre-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Conquest landholders. When formulae with power of alienation clauses are collected from circuit III and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elsewhere in Domesday Book, it seems plain that when jurors testified that a man could go where he would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with his land, they were not recording 'subordination to a booklord' \(p. 34\), but were simply distinguishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between laenland \(leased land\) held in dependent tenure \(in which case the TRE tenant could not go where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he would\) and allodial or demesne land which was not held in dependent tenure \(in which case the holder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could go where he would\). For these reasons, soke lordships are only clearly visible in circuit VI and \(to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much lesser extent\) circuits III and VII; and it is therefore impossible to quantify how significant these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lordships were either before or after 1066.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, these objections are not statements of established fact, but propositions which must \(and will\) be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued through at greater length; but it is not necessary to accept all of the objections listed here to register a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider methodological point, that Roffe's technique for identifying bookland and soke lordship from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday evidence is a long and precarious chain of mutually dependent arguments which cannot hold the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weight placed upon it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roffe's suggestion that work did not commence on Domesday Book until 1089 is also built on insufficiently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secure foundations. It hinges on just two entries in Domesday Book which refer to William de Warenne as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earl. These are significant because two apparently independent sources suggest that William was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointed to the earldom of Surrey until the first few months of the reign of William Rufus, and because one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the entries occurs in the Huntingdonshire Domesday in circuit VI, apparently the first circuit written up by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the GDB scribe. If this evidence is accepted, it follows that work on Great Domesday could not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(progressed far by the date of William's appointment. This much was established by Dr Chris Lewis writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1990. Roffe pushes the argument further. He cites a passage from Orderic which is concerned with events )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in 1089 and which says that William Rufus caused Rannulf Flambard to 'revise the survey of all England' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to measure all the hides in England 'with a rope'. Roffe also argues that the treatment of Rannulf's estates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Domesday Book were in certain respects 'anomalous' \(p. 247\). On this basis he concludes that work on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday Book did not commence until after 1089, and that Rannulf was the man behind the book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Once again, the argument hangs from a precarious chain of possibilities with weaknesses in each of its links. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The date of William de Warenne's appointment to the earldom of Surrey is not as secure as one would like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since it depends on the testimony of two early twelfth-century chronicles: Orderic, who attributed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appointment to both William I and William II in different parts of his Ecclesiastical History, and an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7434 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anonymous text known erroneously as the 'Hyde Chronicle', which was probably written in the late 1120s or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early 1130s at Lewes priory where William de Warenne was buried. It is also possible if not probable that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Domesday entries which appear to assign William a comital rank contain simple scribal errors. One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entries in question must contain a mistake of some sort because, contrary to all the conventions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday Book, it makes Hugh de Bolbec both the tenant-in-chief and the tenant of 'Earl' William in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respect of the same estate. The suspicion of scribal error also hangs over the other entry, which occurs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William de Warenne's fee in the Sussex Domesday. This is immediately preceded by three large chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describing the Sussex fees of Count Robert of Eu, Count Robert of Mortain and Earl Roger of Shrewsbury in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the GDB scribe wrote the words 'de comite' literally hundreds of times. The particular entry in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question describes an estate which was attributed to Earl Godwine TRE. It is therefore legitimate to wonder )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the words 'de comite' slipped into William de Warenne's fee in error. Either way, one is bound to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ask: if the scribe knew that William de Warenne had been appointed earl, why did he not apply that title to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(him consistently throughout the text?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The prologue to IE is usually, and with good reason, thought to preserve the 'terms of reference' which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(informed the Domesday survey. There is an important Carolingian parallel here since, as Patrick Wormald )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has observed, the written returns from the survey launched by Charlemagne's Capitulare de Villis are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preserved in the very same unique manuscript. This creates major difficulties for Roffe's thesis since, if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IE prologue does indeed preserve the 'terms of reference', it is powerful evidence that something very much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(like Domesday Book was envisaged at an early stage during the Domesday inquest. Roffe's attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explain it away as a 'template for the abbreviation of the Northern folios' \(p. 116\) is not persuasive. Nor is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his handling of the colophon to LDB, which famously proclaims that ista descriptio was made in 1086 'not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only though these counties but also through the others'. Roffe's argument that these words were written in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1089 referring to the inquest in 1086 is a remarkable exercise in intellectual yoga, but the common sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(and etymologically sound\) alternative is simply to suppose that the word descriptio refers to the written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(output of the survey - that is LDB itself.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further objections to the post-1088 dating of Great Domesday have been suggested by Caroline and Frank )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thorn in a weighty article, imminently forthcoming, which distils some of the findings of their and Michael )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gullick's researches on the writing of Great Domesday Book. They argue that work on Great Domesday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began late in the summer of 1086 and was probably not completed until well into 1088. Work on Great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday began during the later stages of the inquest in 1086 while source material was still coming in: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scribe wrote in spurts, sometimes from more than one source, editing material as he wrote; he left spaces in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his text apparently with the expectation that further information would be forthcoming; and in a substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of instances, he and another scribe went back over the text making corrections and additions as new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information came to hand or as errors were identified. The Thorns also make the most obvious and perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most powerful objection to the thesis that Domesday Book was commissioned by William Rufus. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text makes no attempt to distinguish King William the elder from King William the younger; indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(William 'son of the king' is only specifically identified once in the entire text, and in this entry he is accused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of despoiling land from the monks of Sherborne \(GDB 77a \(Dorset 3:6\)\). As for Rannulf being for the man )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind the book, there is nothing particularly 'anomalous' about the treatment of his name or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(representation of his estates in Domesday Book; indeed, his name is spelt in seven different ways throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the text, a point which seriously weakens the suggestion that he was singled out for special treatment in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(text. These considerations weigh heavily against an argument which turns on two possibly erroneous entries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Domesday Book combined with the dating evidence of two twelfth-century chronicles.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an imaginative and courageous book, and a valuable contribution to Domesday scholarship. The tidal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wave it has generated may demolish some of the more vulnerable structures of Domesday historiography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but many of Roffe's arguments are deflected by the greater force of the structures they are directed against. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is one thing to argue that the Domesday inquest had more than one objective and consequently produced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than one output, but quite another to say that the production of Domesday Book itself was not one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the objectives envisaged from the outset. Again, it is one thing to argue that GDB was still being written )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early in the reign of William Rufus, but quite another to say that it was commissioned at that date. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 26 0 R 28 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 1340 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Domesday: the Inquest and the Book is another important refinement on Galbraith's thesis, but its attempt to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refute that thesis is not ultimately persuasive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Medieval Review)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/5062/01.02.19.html)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 726.051 m 408.344 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.344 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 722.719 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 704.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 704.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/216)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 703.545 m 322.316 703.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 678.568 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 664.168 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1242)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.768 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/5062/01.02.19.html?sequence=1)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 726.3655 408.3437 738.2455 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/5062/01.02.19.html?sequence=1) >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 29 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 703.8595 322.3157 715.7395 ] >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/216) >> endobj xref 0 30 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000363 00000 n 0000000400 00000 n 0000000558 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000005045 00000 n 0000005154 00000 n 0000005264 00000 n 0000005373 00000 n 0000008934 00000 n 0000009062 00000 n 0000009146 00000 n 0000009211 00000 n 0000016704 00000 n 0000016769 00000 n 0000022320 00000 n 0000022385 00000 n 0000029989 00000 n 0000030054 00000 n 0000037464 00000 n 0000037529 00000 n 0000045016 00000 n 0000045107 00000 n 0000046500 00000 n 0000046627 00000 n 0000046765 00000 n 0000046893 00000 n trailer << /Size 30 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 46988 %%EOF