%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 28 0 R 45 0 R 50 0 R 66 0 R ] /Count 6 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416011908+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416011908+01'00') /Title (History in Practice) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4395 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(History in Practice)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Historians and their publics: a consideration of Ludmilla Jordanova)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1841, having unsuccessfully contested the Professorship of Natural History at University College London, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(W. S. Farquharson wrote to the College authorities as follows:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am given to understand that the Professorship of History is vacant [.]. Should the Council have any desire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the vacancy should be filled up, I beg leave to [.] offer myself as a Candidate for that office.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seven years later, rumour that the Chair of History was once more up for grabs prompted the Rev. Soutaine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to secure a warm testimonial from Thomas Hankey, who indicated that the cleric's 'first-rate talents as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preacher' in addition to his 'literary pursuits' suggested that the candidate was 'fully up to the fulfilment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(duties' of the professor of history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.488 194.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.488 193.161 m 209.480 193.161 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 168.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To a reader of )] TJ ET BT 104.648 168.299 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in Practice)] TJ ET BT 196.640 168.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, encounter with this historical incident would be more likely to provoke )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflective comprehension than amused condescension. For as might be expected from a scholar who was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trained initially as a natural scientist and then practised as a cultural historian of science in history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(departments at Essex and York before becoming Professor of Visual Arts at the University of East Anglia in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996, Jordanova succeeds admirably in her aim to place the practices of history in a wider disciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(context. Not only is she alive to the constructed nature of subject boundaries and their porosity, but also to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relatively recent date of their institutionalisation. Here she fits into a long and fertile tradition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('outsiders' who have helped historians to reflect on what they do and how they do it. As Patrick O'Brien has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(observed elsewhere on this website: 'Intellectual trade across the borders of our disciplines continues as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(217)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ludmilla Jordanova)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780340663316)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Simon Ditchfield)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 195.4877 193.4755 209.4797 205.3555 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 23 0 R 26 0 R ] /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7858 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has done for generations past'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 179.144 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 179.144 795.075 m 193.136 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 193.136 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( What is of particular value about )] TJ ET BT 356.768 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in Practice)] TJ ET BT 448.760 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, is that it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks to build a bridge between the insight of Hayden White et al that history is a 'literary artefact' and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially empirical, 'common sense' working practices of the majority of academic historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 491.264 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 491.264 766.563 m 505.256 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Moreover, it does so using a prose style whose conceptual crispness and clarity of exposition makes the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book a genuine intellectual pleasure to read from cover to cover.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Jordanova 'the most important act historians perform is that of writing' \(p. 186\) From this it follows that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practice of history should be identified not only with the archive, \(which has been the usual focus of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections by historians on their craft from Mabillon to Marwick\) but with the written results of research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their audiences. Attention should therefore be focused on interpretation as much as on sources. This is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only because the authority of historical texts derives substantially from their power to persuade, but also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(because it is primarily by written means \(and oral versions thereof\) that historical ideas, accounts and claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are apprehended, not only within the academy between peers \(in both published and unpublished forms\), but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also by the wider public \(as books, magazine/newspaper articles or as spoken scripts on radio or TV\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Directly related to this is the issue of 'mediation'. Jordanova uses this concept not only to describe how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources are 'turned into' historical narratives, but also to refer to the processes by which sources themselves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(come into being \(as constituted by archivists, museum curators and historians\). In her analysis, she is careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to emphasise that the strategies adopted by historians in order to interpret and mediate between sources and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative are not sequential in a linear way that leads from scarcely intelligible and fragmented archival facts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a coherent narrative of events, with the historian as alchemist. Rather she favours 'a more dialectical way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imagining historical work' \(p. 183\), in which:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians constantly move between the main types of activity they perform, namely, engaging with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, delineating a problem, setting it into broad contexts, developing a framework and constructing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments in written form \(ibid.\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A highly significant implication of her foregrounding of this dialectical characterisation of historians' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practice is that it brings the notion of their audiences or publics centre-stage. It has long been publicly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged that one cannot be an archaeologist on one's own. The very creation of archaeological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence necessitates the teamwork and physical effort that make excavation possible \(and, incidentally, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archaeology a media-friendly discipline since its practitioners can actually be seen to be doing something\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By contrast, the image of the historian as a lone researcher beavering away in dusty archives and surrounded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by weighty tomes in libraries is hegemonic not only outside the academy. The current AHRB policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inviting bids for Subject Centres has discomfited not a few professional academic historians, who see their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual working practices as correspondingly undervalued and under threat. In the eyes of such scholars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this development is merely an updated version of the, to their mind, equally misguided attempt by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cliometricians of the 1960s to turn history into a social science of the past staffed by computer-bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teamworkers in white coats. However, if one follows Jordanova's convincing description of historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices as being unavoidably collaborative and social, \(in the sense that even the most inveterate of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solipsists writes for an audience, uses 'primary' materials, many of which were themselves created with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular users/publics in mind and depends on the products of networks of scholarly co-operation for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his/her 'secondary' reading matter\), such fears are not only misguided but irrational.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This acknowledgement that historical practices, even those specifically focused within the academy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(necessarily engage with various publics, has as its corollary an obligation for historians to consider their role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and responsibilities vis vis audiences )] TJ ET BT 222.668 151.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(outside)] TJ ET BT 257.336 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the thinning groves of academe. Accordingly, a specific and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome innovation of )] TJ ET BT 147.668 137.717 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in Practice)] TJ ET BT 239.660 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, is the inclusion of a chapter dedicated to 'Public History'. Here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordanova, as the guest curator of a highly successful and intellectually stimulating exhibition on Scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Medical Portraits 1660-2000 at the National Portrait Gallery last Summer \(2000\), writes from a rare )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(position as an academic historian with direct experience of the challenges of presenting historical arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the general public.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 135.332 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 135.332 79.299 m 149.324 79.299 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of course, the term 'Public history' is by origin a N. American one that specifically refers to the work of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 179.1437 795.3895 193.1357 807.2695 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 22 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 491.2637 766.8775 505.2557 778.7575 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [17 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 135.3317 79.6135 149.3237 91.4935 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 34 0 R 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 29 0 R >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Length 8301 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and archivists active outside the university context in, for example, the National Park Service, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Federal Museums and private corporations \(as authors of company histories or keepers of company archives\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 766.563 m 48.008 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Unlike its UK counterpart, the not entirely helpfully entitled 'Heritage studies', it is not in the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance concerned with analysing the preservation, interpretation and consumption of the past in an extra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic context.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.656 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.656 738.051 m 134.648 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.648 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Indeed, the centrality of place and the latter's role in constituting identities, has resulted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the fact that much of the most innovative work currently being undertaken in this area in the UK is being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conducted not in history, but in geography departments.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.324 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.324 709.539 m 316.316 709.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The very title of the recent report on the future of the historic environment, which was commissioned by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Department of Culture, Media and Sport \(DCMS\) and undertaken under the auspices of English Heritage - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power of Place)] TJ ET BT 108.008 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - is revealing in this context. Even more pertinent are the presuppositions and results of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(MORI poll which was undertaken to assist the authors of )] TJ ET BT 310.652 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Power of Place)] TJ ET BT 384.644 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( in their work.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 452.636 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 452.636 640.515 m 466.628 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 466.628 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The poll, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular, substantiates Jordanova's emphasis on the centrality of the role of state, as key funder of museums )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and archives, in public history, on the one hand, and on the fact that: 'collective understanding of the past is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbibed by )] TJ ET BT 91.352 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(all)] TJ ET BT 104.024 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the senses, and worked upon by the imagination' \(p. 155\), on the other. Committed as it is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social inclusion and the widest possible intellectual access, the DCMS adopted a deliberately all-embracing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definition of 'heritage' as its point of departure.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 258.968 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 258.968 569.235 m 272.960 569.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 272.960 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In their summary to the Poll findings, the authors refer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically to the personal nature of heritage, which specifically among non-white respondents tended to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defined in terms of non-built, cultural issues \(such as styles of dress and types of food\). Moreover, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlight another fast-growing, related trend which they call 'polysensuality':)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More and more people are relying to a greater extent on their feelings and emotions in their everyday lives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the expense of the purely rational. Meaning and value will be placed on something if it satisfies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual in different ways. Not only does this mean that [heritage] providers will need to consider audio, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visual and tactile interpretation techniques, but they will also have to think about how to engage visitors' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotions, if they are to make a lasting impression, and create true value.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this context, Jordanova's observation that the past presented by museums 'is highly refined, in the manner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of processed foods, [which] renders both the original materials and the means by which they have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processed relatively invisible' \(p. 143\) is both acute and highly topical. Directly linked to this is her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection on the 'significant silences' of museums, in relation to curators' principles of selection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management and interpretation, [which] are rarely accessible to the general public and remain unimagined )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by them' \(p. 145\). This leads Jordanova to discussion of ways in which museums not only satisfy curiosity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the past but also )] TJ ET BT 144.344 332.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(shape the very forms of the public's curiosity)] TJ ET BT 359.228 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, particularly by deploying unnecessarily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crude models of causation and agency that are irresponsibly value-laden since they tend to operate within an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(idiom of heroes and villains.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordanova, however, is careful not to make the still frequently committed mistake which identifies 'public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history' with museums. Indeed, a central plank of her discussion of the topic centres on the importance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre and other literary conventions for any understanding of the practice of \(public\) history. These genres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include: historical fiction and drama, film documentaries, non-specialist magazines and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memorials/anniversary celebrations. Viewed in this light, 'public history' must be an umbrella term, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, furthermore, brings together two concepts 'public' and 'history' which are particularly slippery and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to define. Just to take the former, it can mean: 'for a mass audience', 'popular', 'non-specialist', 'of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern to an entire polity' or 'available for anyone to see' \(p. 149\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Justification for dedicating such a relatively high proportion of this review article to the subject of Public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History can be found in the fact that this topic crystallises several of Jordanova's central concerns with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard to the practising historian's professional and ethical responsibilities to her publics, both inside and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside the academy. In particular, those who create knowledge need to make clear their position and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specifically, 'to explain more openly to a wider public the processes through which historical judgements are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reached' \(p. 171\). Indeed, there is a sense in which the whole book is a meditation on the words 'history' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('public' and their interaction.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 30 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 766.8775 48.0077 778.7575 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 33 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 35 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.6557 738.3655 134.6477 750.2455 ] >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 36 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 302.3237 709.8535 316.3157 721.7335 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 452.6357 640.8295 466.6277 652.7095 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [28 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 258.9677 569.5495 272.9597 581.4295 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 7681 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having so far largely focused discussion on Jordanova's treatment of 'public', I would like now to devote the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of my consideration of )] TJ ET BT 166.328 770.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History in Practice)] TJ ET BT 258.320 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( to her treatment of 'history'. As the book's very title implies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her approach is fundamentally an anthropological one, in that 'it tries to make sense of the practices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideas of a distinct group of people, without being overly prescriptive about what historians ought to do' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(xv\). If history is best understood as a set of practices rather than a constellation of beliefs and theories or a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stable body of subject matter, then logically 'History is indeed about what historians do' \(p. 2\). Accordingly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordanova lets the \(student or lay\) reader in on the 'secrets' of the guild by giving her a tour of the subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infrastructures \(including professional associations and educational systems with their teaching and research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agendas\) and by introducing her to world of academic publishing and its conventions \(pp. 17-22 where there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the inspired inclusion of a sample set of 'instructions to authors' from an academic journal\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This first chapter provides the reader with appropriate tools with which to map the discipline of history \(ch. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2\) and consider the relationship between history and other cognate disciplines \(ch. 3\), before launching )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(herself into the more 'traditional' topics for discussion relating to the status of historical knowledge \(ch. 4\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and periodisation \(ch. 5\). After an 'excursus' into Public History \(ch. 6\), Jordanova concludes with a chapter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that in more conventional treatments of the discipline might have been expected near or right at the start: the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of historical skills and their application.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Of particular value in this book is Jordanova's principled eclecticism and her openness to widely different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches and methods. Whilst one might have anticipated her plea for the integration of the study of visual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture into historical practice, less expected is her impassioned defence of Clio's current Cinderella, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history. She is also excellent on the problematic distinction between 'primary' and 'secondary' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources and for the need to subject the latter to equally unsparing interrogation. Personally, I particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcomed her helpful discussion in chapter five of period terms such as 'modern/early modern' and 'decade', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('century' and 'fin de sicle', as well as that of 'style' as a category of historical interpretation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the section of the book which academic historians will find most contentious is her treatment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(status of historical knowledge in chapter four. Here Jordanova's initial historical training in the field of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history and philosophy of science comes to the fore. This is particularly so in her contention that 'truth' \(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either the upper- or lower-case variety\) assumes and indeed requires a completeness that history lacks \(pp. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(93ff\). She goes on to argue that 'reliability' and 'trust' are more realistic and appropriate aspirations. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Adoption of the latter term clearly alludes to the assumption, shared with scholars of the history of science )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Steven Shapin and Simon Schaffer, that knowledges are negotiated socially and imply a 'community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of belief'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.496 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.496 319.395 m 99.488 319.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 99.488 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It follows from this that the nature and status of historical knowledge cannot be constants and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there are many ways of knowing. Belief in the social construction of knowledge suggests to Jordanova )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that 'truth' and 'objectivity' may not be the most helpful concepts for historians' purposes, and that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should perhaps be replaced with 'reliability' and 'judiciousness' \(p. 113\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Here I detect a moving away from truth being regarded as a rhetorical strategy for acquiring legitimacy \( la )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shapin\) towards its being seen as the embodiment of a code of practice that calls for honesty, decency and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mutual respect. Such high-mindedness certainly commands the assent \(and admiration\) of this reviewer, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I wonder whether it carries so much weight and assent in the highly politicised wider world of usable pasts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Jordanova has so adroitly sketched for us elsewhere in the book? Within the circumscribed world of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic historians I agree that such ground rules are pretty much taken for granted and indeed regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrosanct even at the level of the undergraduate essay. However, I do wonder whether the 'community of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(belief' whose practices Jordanova has so helpfully analysed does extend very far into the public sphere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At this point, I want to follow the author's own preference to avoid arguing out such issues in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremes such as the Irving case. Instead, I would like to pursue the issue of 'trust' in relation to the wider, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extra-academic consumption of the past and take as my example Simon Schama's BBC-TV )] TJ ET BT 475.784 97.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Here I return to Jordanova's crucial observation, mentioned above, that the general public has a tendency to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take the past unproblematically as essentially 'unmediated'. One of the most worrying \(and potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dangerous\) corollaries of this state of affairs is the tendency on the part of many lay enthusiasts who profess )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 79.4957 319.7095 99.4877 331.5895 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 52 0 R 54 0 R 56 0 R 58 0 R 60 0 R 62 0 R 64 0 R ] /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 9319 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an interest in the past to believe and trust 'expert' opinion, especially when it is presented in a slick )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(professional package on prime-time TV and fronted by one of the most articulate and intelligent members of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the academic history profession.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the evidence of at least the first series of episodes, \(without having seen the tie-in book and with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proviso that the second series, which overlaps chronologically with the presenter's 'own period', might yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deliver the critical goods\), Schama has clearly betrayed this public trust and purveyed a 'drum and trumpet' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative of English history \(sic\) which in its social and thematic narrowness would have surprised even the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Victorian author of that eloquent tag, J. R. Green. Even allowing for the constraints of the genre, Schama has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(singularly failed to draw the attention of the viewing public to the processes by which historical narratives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are made not given. By contrast, Michael Wood's most recent series which was also commissioned by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(BBC, )] TJ ET BT 64.028 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conquistadors)] TJ ET BT 134.708 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, clearly testifies to the possibility of putting across a feel for the process/interpretation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by which the narrative/product is arrived at. Instead, the Kings-and- Queens, 1066 and All That storyline of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the )] TJ ET BT 51.680 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(BBC History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 162.692 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Show arrogantly presumes that the viewing public cannot cope with argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a multiplicity of voices even as the MORI poll recently commissioned by English Heritage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequivocally testifies to the variety and sophistication of public engagements with their historic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem, it seems to me, is not how we are to bring to book such loony extremists as David Irving, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how we are to critique effectively such popular history presentations as Schama's )] TJ ET BT 426.764 530.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History of Britain)] TJ ET BT 512.108 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordanova has performed with considerable sensitivity and keen intelligence the valuable task of analysing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the practices of academic history and the assumptions and values they embody. She has also, as never before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the genre of 'history primers', foregrounded the centrality of audiences, both within and without the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academy, and sketched in some of the implications this fact has for historians. It is for us now to take up the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethical challenge she has laid before us and engage more fully with the public understanding of history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 423.939 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 393.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 393.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philippa Levine, )] TJ ET BT 146.348 393.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Amateur and the Professional: antiquarians, historians and archaeologists in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 379.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victorian England, 1838-1886)] TJ ET BT 211.016 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Cambridge, 1986\), p. 147.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 347.336 379.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 347.336 377.667 m 401.324 377.667 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 364.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 364.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patrick O'Brien, )] TJ ET BT 144.500 364.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Engagement with Postmodern Foes, Literary Theorists and Friends on the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 350.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Borders of History)] TJ ET BT 154.016 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. \(February 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 241.328 350.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 241.328 349.155 m 295.316 349.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 336.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 336.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a concise statement of his position see; Hayden White, )] TJ ET BT 348.980 336.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Tropics of Discourse: essays in cultural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 322.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(criticism,)] TJ ET BT 109.016 322.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Baltimore/London, 1978\), ch. 3 'The Historical Text as Literary Artefact', pp. 81-99. The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 307.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most robust, recent restatement of the case for 'common-sense', empirical history is undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 64.016 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Richard J. Evans, )] TJ ET BT 151.004 293.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(In Defence of History)] TJ ET BT 254.648 293.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 1997\). The book has recently been reprinted )] TJ ET BT 64.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(January 2000\) with a sixty-two page afterward responding to his critics, an earlier version of which )] TJ ET BT 64.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared on this website.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 185.324 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 185.324 263.619 m 239.312 263.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 250.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 250.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a challenging yet thoroughly accessible introduction to the intellectual issues raised by the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhibition see Jordanova's accompanying book: )] TJ ET BT 296.480 236.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Defining Features: scientific and medical portraits )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1660-2000)] TJ ET BT 116.012 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.336 222.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.336 220.851 m 251.324 220.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 207.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the most up-to-date survey see James B. Gardner & Peter S. LaPaglia eds., )] TJ ET BT 445.292 207.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Public History: essays )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from the field,)] TJ ET BT 131.684 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Malabar, Florida, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 256.328 193.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 256.328 192.339 m 310.316 192.339 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 179.482 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, inter alia, Michael Hunter ed., )] TJ ET BT 234.644 179.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Preserving the Past: the rise of heritage in Modern Britain)] TJ ET BT 517.628 179.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Stroud, 1996\) and John Arnold, Kate Davies and Simon Ditchfield eds., )] TJ ET BT 416.312 165.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(History and Heritage: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.965 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(consuming the past in contemporary culture)] TJ ET BT 276.332 150.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(Donhead St Mary, 1998\) and Hilda Kean, Paul Martin )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Sally Morgan eds., )] TJ ET BT 178.004 136.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seeing History: public history in Britain now)] TJ ET BT 394.676 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 479.000 136.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 479.000 135.315 m 532.988 135.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Brian Graham, G. J. Ashworth and J. E. Tunbridge, )] TJ ET BT 401.288 122.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Geography of Heritage: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(power, culture and economy)] TJ ET BT 200.660 108.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, \(London, 2000\). It should also be noted that one of the most widely read )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books in the field of heritage studies, David Lowenthal's )] TJ ET BT 338.144 93.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Past is a Foreign Country)] TJ ET BT 484.484 93.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1985\) with sales in excess of 60,000 copies, was written by a scholar who, although initially trained as )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a historian, spent a significant part of his academic life as a member of a department of Geography, \(at )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(UCL\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 51.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 49.779 m 149.000 49.779 l S endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 53 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 347.3357 377.9815 401.3237 389.8615 ] >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 241.3277 349.4695 295.3157 361.3495 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 19 0 R >> endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 185.3237 263.9335 239.3117 275.8135 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.3357 221.1655 251.3237 233.0455 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 25 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 61 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 256.3277 192.6535 310.3157 204.5335 ] >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 30 0 R >> endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 478.9997 135.6295 532.9877 147.5095 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 33 0 R >> endobj 64 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 65 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 95.0117 50.0935 148.9997 61.9735 ] >> endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 36 0 R >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 67 0 R >> endobj 67 0 obj << /Length 2889 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 796.474 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The results of this poll may be accessed via the English Heritage website at www. english-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heritage.org.uk.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 139.664 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 139.664 780.819 m 193.652 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 767.962 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Government's review of policies relating to the historic environment. 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