%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818142201+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818142201+01'00') /Title (Ireland and the Great War) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4879 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ireland and the Great War)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The historical significance of the First World War is taken for granted in most European countries. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, however, as Charles Townshend has noted, 'the memory of the war was for a long time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marginalised. A kind of collective amnesia discarded it as a British experience, dwarfed by an event that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was, in physical comparison with the titanic battles on the western and eastern fronts, tiny.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 470.456 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 470.456 300.441 m 484.448 300.441 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 484.448 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Easter Rising, not the Great War, that was seen as the watershed in Irish history, responsible for rousing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nationalist public opinion from its apparent torpor and revitalising separatist republicanism. This view of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish history has undergone a series of challenges in recent years and few academic historians would now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dispute the importance of the War in Irish history. It is this 'historiographical revolution' that Keith Jeffery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seeks both to synthesise and to build upon his book, )] TJ ET BT 286.352 230.555 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland and the Great War)] TJ ET BT 415.004 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This is the first single-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authored, academic study of the impact of the Great War on Ireland, and it performs this pioneering role )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(admirably. It provides an essential introduction to the subject and suggests avenues for further study. It is no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticism of the author to say that he raises far more questions than he answers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book, which originated as a series of four lectures, does not attempt to provide a comprehensive history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Great War. Anyone coming to it seeking a sustained analysis of the impact of the war on Irish politics, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or on Anglo-Irish relations, will be disappointed. Rather it provides a discursive treatment of some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which the war impacted on Ireland, and on individual Irish men and women. Indeed, it is in the use )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of telling examples and quotations that Jeffery is at his strongest. The book is divided into four chapters. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These examine recruitment and enlistment, military experience during the war, cultural responses to the war, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and finally the commemoration of the war. A brief bibliographical essay closes the work. This structure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dictates a somewhat fractured and fragmentary approach. There are, however, a number of themes running )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(218)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Jeffery)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521773237)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Virginia Crossman)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 470.4557 300.7555 484.4477 312.6355 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 7356 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the different sections that help to bind them together. One of these is the author's belief that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great War was 'the single most central experience of twentieth-century Ireland, not just, nor least, for what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(happened at the time, but in its longer-term legacy'. \(p. 2\) This is a large claim \(more central than partition?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but it does provide a framework whereby the political divisions and divergent experiences of the war years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be integrated into one story. By this process the history of this period becomes the history of all the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people of the island, not just one part of it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One effect of the outbreak of war in 1914 was to wrench Irish politics off-course, though whether that course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was heading towards a compromise agreement or civil war is open to dispute. The Home Rule Bill received )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royal assent on 18 September 1914 but its implementation was held over until the end of the war, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unionist leader, Edward Carson, having received an assurance that provision would be made for Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before the Act came into force. The conflict between nationalists and unionists over the position of Ulster )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was thus suspended but not settled. Both sides had gone partway towards achieving their objectives, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neither had obtained their ultimate goal. It was against this background that Carson and John Redmond, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader of the constitutional nationalism, called on their respective supporters to enlist. Both leaders saw )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political advantages to be gained from assisting the war effort. Thus while the war appeared to offer an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity for the two communities to unite in a common cause, it also provided for the advancement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own, divergent interests.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The early stages of the war saw a massive mobilisation in Ireland. 50,000 men joined up in the first six )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(months, and while recruitment declined from 1916 \(not picking up again until 1918\) it did so at a broadly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable rate to that in Great Britain. Ireland contributed over 200,000 men in total, of whom about sixty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(percent were Catholic. Mutual hostility and suspicion were not, however, easily overcome, either within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland or between Ireland and Britain. The contrast in the official attitude adopted towards the 36th \(Ulster\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division created out of members of the Ulster Volunteer Force, and the two 'Irish' divisions formed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accommodate Redmond's Irish Volunteers along with other Catholic recruits, reflected the perception of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two communities within the British establishment. Whereas the Ulster division incorporated the UVF )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(command structure, the 10th and 16th 'Irish' divisions were officered predominantly by Protestants. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survival of the 'old enmity' was also evident amongst Irish prisoners of war, causing men from the 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(division, for example, to sleep outdoors rather than share the quarters with men from the 36th division. \(p. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(64\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Analysing the reasons for enlistment \(there was no conscription in Ireland\) Jeffery rejects monocausal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations and considers a wide range of motivations: moral, political, economic, social, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological. He concludes that a similar range of motivations were present among those who enlisted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British army and those who chose to join the Irish Volunteers to fight for the establishment of an Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(republic. This might not seem surprising, but it is a comparison that would have been firmly rejected in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, north or south, until relatively recently. One of Jeffery's central arguments is that issues such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlistment, mobilisation and fighting, 'actually constitute a series of "parallel texts" in which the similarities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might be more significant than the differences'. \(p. 2\) It is only by recognising these similarities, Jeffery )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests that Irish people will be able to live in peace with their neighbours. This is in many ways a very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal work and Jeffrey is refreshingly open about his personal and political agenda. He draws upon his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own family history, citing in his discussion of recruitment the case of his great-uncles, William and Robert )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hackett, who enlisted in Canada having emigrated from Dublin some years previously. William was killed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in France in November 1918. Robert survived the war and returned to Canada where he remained for the rest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of his life. \(pp 35-36\) Both men took the opportunity while on leave in 1917 to revisit their family in Dublin; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the war reunited Irish families as well as separating them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the time the war was over, the political scene in Ireland had been altered beyond recognition. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constitutional nationalism in the form of the Irish Party had been replaced as the dominant force in Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics by the republicanism of the reconstituted Sinn Fin. Divisions within Ireland between nationalists )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and unionists were even deeper than they had been prior to the war. Having so conspicuously demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their loyalty to King and country, Ulster Unionists were in a stronger position to resist their inclusion in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settlement which would hand power to the very people who had not only refused to support the war effort, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 8049 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but had sought assistance from Britain's enemies. These developments are perceptively discussed in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. But if politics within Ireland were transformed, so too were international relations and in ways that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had important ramifications for the Irish situation. Before the war the concept of a balance of power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe had dominated the thinking of the great powers. Linked to this concept was the assumption that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe should be made up of a small number of large states. Even before the war ended, the balance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power idea had been largely superseded by self-determination as a guiding principle. This had implications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for both nationalists and unionists since the principle of self-determination could clearly be applied to both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 69.680 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 69.680 695.283 m 83.672 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 83.672 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Jeffery has nothing to say about these issues and there is no attempt to locate Irish experience )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a larger international or European context. I wondered, for example, how far 'the common factors and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impulses' \(p. 2\) that motivated Irish people, nationalist and unionist, during the war years, were common to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all those involved in the war, not just to those in Ireland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most original chapters in the book are those on imagination and commemoration. These provide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a wide-ranging discussion of literary and visual representations of and responses to the war. Both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary and modern works are examined, and care is taken to place each work and each artist in their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social, political and artistic context. This provides some fascinating insights and illuminates many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themes highlighted in the previous chapters. Thus the theme of collective amnesia about the war is neatly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated by the fate of Mainie Jellett's prize-winning painting of 1920. The picture, which depicts the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(painter's two sisters together with two other young women relaxing on a beach, was originally exhibited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(under the title )] TJ ET BT 103.676 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peace)] TJ ET BT 132.992 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, but was subsequently renamed )] TJ ET BT 288.968 527.861 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Bathers' Pool)] TJ ET BT 375.536 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. In retrospect, the clouds shown )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bubbling up on the horizon provide a prophetic signal of the uncertain future of Jellett's family and class. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Jellett's painting', Jeffery, observes, 'encapsulates the last peaceful summer of Ascendancy Ireland: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist \(and female\) vision of tranquillity'. \(pp 72-73\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author's comments are generally instructive but there are some odd throwaway remarks which, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they might provide light relief in a lecture, require further elucidation in print. Referring to Sir John Lavery's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triptych, )] TJ ET BT 77.348 430.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Madonna of the Lakes)] TJ ET BT 205.340 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Jeffery notes that with this work, 'Lavery, though he was no bigot, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clearly identified himself with Irish Catholicism'. \(p. 77\) Are we to assume that the adoption of Catholic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious imagery and Celtic motifs inevitably invoke the spectre of bigotry? Similarly, in the midst of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of William Orpen's painting, )] TJ ET BT 227.504 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Armistice Night, Amiens)] TJ ET BT 344.504 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, we are reassured that Orpen was 'no prude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or misogynist, far from it'. \(p. 81\) Amiens functioned as a 'rest and recreation' centre, the most popular forms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of recreation being drink and sex. Orpen regarded both as dangerous to the health of soldiers. His description )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of officers and men being preyed on by 'strange women - the riffraff from Paris, the expelled from Rouen, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fact the badly diseased from all parts of France', \(p. 81\) reflected a common middle-class anxiety regarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the link between prostitution and disease. Prostitutes were widely believed to pose a threat to men, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly to soldiers, as carriers of disease, polluting not only their clients but also society. That the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverse might also be true was rarely considered, and clearly had not occurred to Orpen however free he may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been from prudery or misogyny.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffery's account of the building of the Irish national war memorial, eventually sited at Islandbridge, across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the River Liffey from Phoenix Park, is particularly moving and poignant. The project was delayed for so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many years that plans for an opening ceremony in 1939, to be attended by representatives from both parts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ireland, were abandoned on account of the 'tenseness of the international situation' and the 'consequent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ferment' in Ireland. \(p. 123\) The tortuous history of the memorial provides ample evidence of the reluctance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Free State ministers to adopt wholeheartedly the 'policy of appeasement and reconciliation' urged upon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them by those like William Archer Redmond, son of John, whose political and personal loyalties lay with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the dead. Public acknowledgement was nevertheless given to the sacrifice and patriotic motives of those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had served in the British Army during the war. To expect the Free State to have done more is to ignore the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances in which it came into being. For, as Kevin O'Higgins pointed out in a Dail debate on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national war memorial in 1927, while no-one denied the sacrifice of those who had fought in the war, it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not 'on their sacrifice that this State is built'. \(p. 114\) That some official ambivalence should be displayed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards the commemoration of Ireland's Great War dead was perhaps inevitable; more surprising is the slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and partial progress made towards commemorating those who died in the fight for the Irish republic. A )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 69.6797 695.5975 83.6717 707.4775 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7708 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Celtic cross was erected on the lawn of the Irish parliament building \(Leinster House\) in 1923 as a memorial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to Arthur Griffith and Michael Collins, but this was only a temporary structure and was removed ten years )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later. It was eventually replaced in 1947 by an obelisk, whose 'discreet height' and 'position behind an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elaborate railing make it almost invisible'. Thus, as Jeffery tellingly observes, 'in a curious way, this national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monument reflects the public invisibility of Lutyens's garden in distant Islandbridge'. \(p. 125\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As previously suggested, this is a largely inward-looking study. It examines the Great War in the context of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish history past and present, and does so with great skill, but it rarely looks beyond Ireland. It would clearly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be unfair to expect too much from one short study, but it is difficult not to be disappointed with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowness of the author's focus. There is, for example, no sense of engagement with some of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conceptual questions presently exercising historians of the Great War. This is particularly striking in relation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the current debate over the impact of the war on gender relations. In Britain the initial impact of the war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had the effect of emphasising and reinforcing gender divisions. Men actively supported the war effort by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(joining up and going off to fight. Women were required to wait passively behind. Their primary means of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporting the war was to urge their male relatives to enlist. But as the war continued and women became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more actively involved both at the front as nurses and VADs, and at home as war workers, there were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing signs of gender confusion. While some men were emasculated by their experiences in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trenches, some women were empowered by the experience of taking over male occupations and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responsibilities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is to Jeffery's credit that he does not ignore women - he discusses women's war-related employment for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example \(pp 28-30, 32-33\) - but he makes no attempt to use Irish evidence to engage in the broader debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over gender relations. For women throughout Europe the war saw both an expansion of opportunities, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of employment, education and national service, and the reinforcement of gender roles and perceptions. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Women's primary role was still perceived to be that of motherhood. In countries such as Britain, France and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, this role acquired increasing importance as public attention focused on the need to replace those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lost during the war.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.340 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.340 428.931 m 141.332 428.931 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 141.332 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Women's participation in the war effort was seen as essential but also as potentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(damaging to the fabric of society. Working mothers might neglect their children. Young female workers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living apart from their families might become promiscuous. Such concerns are reflected in the efforts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(various states to police female behaviour. Similar efforts are evident in Ireland. Women's patrols were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established in Dublin and Belfast, for example, in order to monitor women's night-time activities. In Ireland, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the political context in which such measures were undertaken was very different from that in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain \(or elsewhere\). In Britain public hostility to separation women \(dependants of British soldiers\) was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked to their perceived immorality. In Ireland it was their perceived lack of nationality that caused most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outrage. Attitudes to motherhood were also different. Maintaining the Irish birth-rate was not a matter of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern to the British government. It was a matter of concern to the nationalist movement. Within nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideology motherhood occupied a central and iconic role. Irish women found it very difficult to operate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outside established gender roles, and the majority of female political activists, whether nationalist or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unionist, found themselves restricted to supporting their male colleagues largely by means of such traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tasks as cooking and nursing. Although he refers to the 'conventional allocation of gender roles' \(p. 28\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within nationalist organisations such as Cumann na mBan \(the female auxiliary of the Irish Volunteers\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffery neither explains why this was, nor discusses the broader, ideological context. An exploration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender relations in Ireland during the period the Great War is long overdue. While Jeffery may not have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been in a position to undertake such an exploration himself, it would have been helpful to have outlined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms and parameters of the current debate and to have located Ireland within them. A book that claims to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assess the impact of the war 'across the broadest range of experience' \(jacket blurb\), can reasonably be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expected to address the role of women and of gender issues more generally.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It would be wrong to end on a negative note. This is an immensely valuable book that is certain to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standard text. It is engagingly written, well illustrated and will be of benefit to, and enjoyed by, anyone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interested in Irish history. Reflecting on the central theme of the work, the shared experience of enlistment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fighting, destruction and loss, I increasingly came to feel that the real lesson of the War may be less one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similarities previously overlooked and unacknowledged, but of the acceptance of difference. Reconciliation )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.3397 429.2455 141.3317 441.1255 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 2921 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Ireland surely depends not on seeing the experiences of different sections of Irish people as essentially the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same, but on acknowledging the ways in which their experiences did differ, and respecting the different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives from which these experiences were and are viewed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 733.059 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 702.442 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles Townshend, )] TJ ET BT 165.668 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ireland: The 20th Century)] TJ ET BT 291.992 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, Arnold: 1999\), p.68.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.648 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.648 701.043 m 494.636 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seamus Dunn and T.G. Fraser \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 245.312 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Europe and Ethnicity: World War I and Contemporary Ethnic )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Conflict)] TJ ET BT 102.692 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, Routledge: 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 239.684 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 239.684 672.531 m 293.672 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 659.674 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a recent analysis of these issues see Susan R. Grayzel, )] TJ ET BT 346.292 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Women's Identities at War: Gender, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Motherhood, and Politics in Britain and France during the First World War)] TJ ET BT 430.688 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of North )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carolina Press, Chapel Hill: 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 232.676 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 232.676 629.763 m 286.664 629.763 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 604.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 578.645 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 564.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 559.663 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 541.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 541.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/218)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 540.489 m 322.316 540.489 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 515.512 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.112 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1246)] TJ ET BT 34.016 486.712 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.6477 701.3575 494.6357 713.2375 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 239.6837 672.8455 293.6717 684.7255 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 232.6757 630.0775 286.6637 641.9575 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 540.8035 322.3157 552.6835 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/218) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000535 00000 n 0000000624 00000 n 0000005555 00000 n 0000005664 00000 n 0000005774 00000 n 0000005883 00000 n 0000009444 00000 n 0000009572 00000 n 0000009656 00000 n 0000009685 00000 n 0000009813 00000 n 0000009849 00000 n 0000009914 00000 n 0000017323 00000 n 0000017407 00000 n 0000025509 00000 n 0000025539 00000 n 0000025665 00000 n 0000025701 00000 n 0000025785 00000 n 0000033546 00000 n 0000033576 00000 n 0000033704 00000 n 0000033740 00000 n 0000033845 00000 n 0000036819 00000 n 0000036947 00000 n 0000037002 00000 n 0000037130 00000 n 0000037185 00000 n 0000037313 00000 n 0000037368 00000 n 0000037496 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 37591 %%EOF