%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 34 0 R 45 0 R 50 0 R 52 0 R 54 0 R 60 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818114318+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818114318+01'00') /Title (The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4908 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948)] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.720 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Introduction)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In an earlier review in the IHR 'Reviews in History' series \(number 154\) of Avi Shlaim's )] TJ ET BT 461.096 287.435 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Iron Wall: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.179 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Israel and the Arab World)] TJ ET BT 160.676 273.179 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Allen Lane, 2000\), I pointed to the intense historiographical conflict )] TJ ET BT 34.016 258.923 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raging over the formation of Israel in 1948, the cause\(s\) of the Palestinian refugee crisis and the nature of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.667 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel's subsequent relations with its Arab neighbours. For those readers unfamiliar with the debate, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.411 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential fault line is between those who say that Israel was in some measure responsible for the Palestinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.155 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diaspora in 1948 and the subsequent Arab-Israeli conflict, and those who argue that the Palestinian refugee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.899 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crisis was not, fundamentally, Israel's fault and that chances for peace were scuppered not by Israel but by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.643 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obstinacy on the part of the Arabs. The debate has shifted over time. Until the 1970s it was dominated by an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.387 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('old' or 'mobilised' Israeli history that portrayed a Jewish state under serious threat from the Arabs and so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.131 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctantly forced into a series of wars of survival. This changed in the 1980s with the arrival of what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 144.875 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(became known as the 'new' or 'revisionist' historians - sometimes also called the 'critical sociologists' - who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.619 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offered radically contrary perspectives on the formation of Israel, the causes of the Palestinian refugee crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.363 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the origins of the Arab-Israeli wars. These 'Young Turks', led by the likes of Simha Flapan, Benny )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.107 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris, Ilan Papp and Avi Shlaim, set out to overturn received history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 378.644 102.107 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 378.644 100.713 m 392.636 100.713 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 392.636 102.107 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( They argued that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.851 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography on Israel had for too long been dominated by an approach that has sought to exculpate Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.595 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the charge that it stole Palestinian land and forcibly evicted the inhabitants.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 420.968 73.595 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 420.968 72.201 m 434.960 72.201 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 434.960 73.595 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While the conclusions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.339 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'new' historians were not necessarily pro-Palestinian, they stressed that Israel needed to take some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(219)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday, 30 September, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eugene Rogan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Avi Shlaim)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521794765)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(249pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hughes)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 378.6437 101.0275 392.6357 112.9075 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 420.9677 72.5155 434.9597 84.3955 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8105 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blame for the Palestinian refugee crisis, the Arab-Israeli wars and the failed peace of 1949, and that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(image of Israel put forward by the 'old' historians was both misleading and determined by the political need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be pro-Zionist.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The debunking by the 'new' historians of long-held shibboleths provoked a furore among the 'old' historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(who now became the 'new old' historians\) and the debate soon spilled over into the public domain. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles and books, the 'new old' historians such as Shabtai Teveth and Anita Shapira counter-attacked. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aharon Megged charged the 'new' historians with writing history in the spirit of Israel's enemies; Efraim )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karsh accused Morris and Shlaim of falsifying and recycling history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 365.960 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 365.960 683.283 m 379.952 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 379.952 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Attack and counter-attack ensued as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both sides slugged it out.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 153.692 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 153.692 669.027 m 167.684 669.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 167.684 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( At the same time, some pro-Palestinian academics attacked the 'new' historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for not going far enough in their analysis; other Palestinian authors acknowledged the honest debate of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('new' historians.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 110.996 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 110.996 640.515 m 124.988 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 124.988 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( While the debate on both sides has become more nuanced, nonetheless it continues apace )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in scholarly and popular books, journals and films. The revision of Israeli school text-books to take into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account the 'new' history suggests that the counter-attack on the 'new' historians is failing; it also raises the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of whether the epithets 'new' or 'revisionist' history themselves need revising as this approach to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli history becomes more mainstream and less of an iconoclastic historical fringe.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 443.276 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 443.276 583.491 m 457.268 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Where does this edited volume fit in these history wars? With Avi Shlaim as one of the co-editors, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afterword by the Palestinian academic Edward W. Said, and essays by the likes of Benny Morris and Rashid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khalidi, the initiated reader will sense the 'new' history flavour even before opening the book. And s/he will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not be disappointed as the contributions to this volume, wrapped around the seminal event of the formation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Israel in the 1948-9 'War of Independence', what for the Palestinians was the 'Catastrophe' - )] TJ ET BT 489.548 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(al-Nakba)] TJ ET BT 534.212 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( - of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1948, are very much in the 'new' history vein. The problem with edited collections is that essays can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disparate and varying in quality. Editors know this to be the case and so, typically, claim to have found some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elusive, special cohesive glue for their volume. This adhesive frequently comes unstuck under closer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scrutiny. For Shlaim and his fellow editor, Eugene L. Rogan, both scholars at the University of Oxford, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ongoing 'new' history versus 'old' history debate gives genuine linkage and binds the chapters, providing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader with a central unifying strand and overcoming any charge that the collection lacks common purpose. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The volume concludes with a pithy - perhaps polemical - afterword by Said.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To make sense of what is in this collection, this review will pose four questions. Firstly, what claims do the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editors make in the introduction where they set out their stall? Secondly, what do each of the chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contain, and what do they add to the debate on Israel and the Palestinians? Thirdly, how does Said's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(afterword tie these different essays together? Finally, are there any weaknesses to the collection?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.418 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the introduction, the editors make three key points. Firstly, the war of 1948 was an immensely significant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 277.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(event for Israel and the Arab Middle East, worthy of continued study. As Rogan and Shlaim proclaim \(p.1\): )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('No event has marked Arab politics in the second half of the twentieth century more profoundly. The Arab-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli wars, the Cold War in the Middle East, the rise of the Palestinian armed struggle and the politics of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peace making in all of their complexity are a direct consequence of the Palestine War.' For the editors, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1948 war was also formative in that it was the first serious challenge for the newly independent Arab states. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How they reacted would determine the course of their subsequent histories. Secondly, the editors raise the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of how the 1948 war has been factored into the histories of Israel and the Arab states as part of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of national identity building. It is argued that by rewriting history both sides have used the 1948 war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as the seed to nurture particular national myths and narratives. The editors are keen to pursue the idea that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical 'facts' have been manipulated by elites through media such as history books. Thirdly, the editors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasise the critical reappraisal of these national myths by the 'new' historians of the 1980s and locate their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume firmly in the revisionist trend in the Arab-Israeli conflict. These three themes resonate through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948)] TJ ET BT 290.684 106.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The core 'new' historian thesis of the volume under review is not groundbreaking. Rather, it builds upon and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledges a debt to earlier scholars, some of whom have contributed to this collection. To give these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essays a new spin to the 'old' versus 'new' history debate, the editors make two claims. Firstly, they have )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 365.9597 683.5975 379.9517 695.4775 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 153.6917 669.3415 167.6837 681.2215 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 110.9957 640.8295 124.9877 652.7095 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 443.2757 583.8055 457.2677 595.6855 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 37 0 R 40 0 R 43 0 R ] /Contents 35 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Length 8453 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn together in one show case volume essays from historians on all the major participants in the 1948 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war: Israel \(Shlaim\), Syria \(Joshua Landis\), Jordan \(Rogan\), Iraq \(Charles Tripp\), Egypt \(Fawaz A. Gerges\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the Palestinians \(Rashid Khalidi\). There are also two chapters on the vexed question of the origins of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian refugee crisis which form another node of analysis \(Benny Morris and Laila Parsons\). In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collecting together these Israeli, Arab and Western academics, the editors provide the reader with the latest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('new' history debates from a variety of perspectives in one handy volume. Secondly, the chapters open up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(new avenues of enquiry that will be pathways for more historical exploration. This is, if you like, revision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the revisionism as most of the chapters contain new ideas that will prompt further research to confirm )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or disprove what these authors have to say.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.050 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What do these chapters contain and what to they add to our understanding of the debate around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of Israel? In the two chapters on the origins of the Palestinian refugee crisis, Parsons disagrees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Morris's findings that the refugee crisis 'was born of war, not by design, Jewish or Arab.')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.428 613.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.428 611.859 m 497.420 611.859 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 497.420 613.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rather, in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 598.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stimulating case study, Parsons looks at the interchange between the Israeli army \(the IDF\) and the Druze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(community in Galilee during the IDF's conquest of the region. For Parsons, Israeli policy towards the Druze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helps us to understand the wider picture of Israeli policy towards the Palestinians. She attacks the argument )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Israel's expulsions of Palestinians were essentially random and based on local factors and the actions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subordinate IDF commanders by showing how the IDF \(which contained some Druze troops\) left Druze )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villages unmolested, even when they had been fired on from these villages. For Parsons, the actions of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IDF in sparing the Druze show the grand design in an Israeli policy that would target one community )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perceived as a threat \(the Palestinians\) and leave alone another seen as a potential ally \(the Druze\) even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the former were pacific and the latter bellicose towards the IDF. Parsons also claims \(p.67\) that Morris )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made two errors in his earlier )] TJ ET BT 177.980 470.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem 1947-49)] TJ ET BT 434.972 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1987\): firstly, some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Druze )] TJ ET BT 66.332 456.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(did)] TJ ET BT 81.668 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( fire on IDF - and lived to tell the tale; secondly, villagers from 'Amqa, expelled by the IDF, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, as Morris claimed, Druze, but, in fact, Muslims, thus confirming Parsons' thesis that the IDF acted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within a carefully structured plan in the 1948 war to drive out only the Palestinians so as to make a viable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionist state \(p.68\): 'If you have a policy not to do something it implies that you also have a position on what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(you are doing.' The second part of Parsons' chapter moves the emphasis from the history itself to the writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the history. In line with the 'rewriting history' theme detailed by the editors in the introduction, she claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that Israeli historiography and perceptions of the Druze were consciously skewed to create a common past to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prove a Jewish-Druze friendship. This 'invention of tradition' has, of course, its own logic as if people are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(told they have a bond with another group this can well become a reality regardless of historical truth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 518.600 342.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.600 340.995 m 532.592 340.995 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 316.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris complements Parsons' analysis of Israeli relations with the Druze by concentrating on two discrete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but interconnected areas of enquiry: pre-war Zionist transfer thinking on the Palestinians, and supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(atrocities by IDF troops during the 1948 war that were designed to drive out the Palestinian population of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Galilee. While Morris provides some revision in his chapter, broadly speaking, the evidence he presents, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he himself admits, is in line with his earlier works such as )] TJ ET BT 314.996 259.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The birth of the Palestinian refugee problem 1947-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(49)] TJ ET BT 46.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1987\) and )] TJ ET BT 104.336 244.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1948 and After: Israel and the Palestinians)] TJ ET BT 312.332 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1990\). Morris concludes that there was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crystallisation of consensus among Zionist leaders on expulsion before the war. Having trawled through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israeli archives, he then presents a nuanced if inchoate study of the claim that the IDF committed massacres )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Palestinians. These findings, based on new archival research in Israel, will be presented in a fuller form in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a planned revised version of )] TJ ET BT 172.316 187.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1948 and After)] TJ ET BT 244.316 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of the other chapters? The co-editor, Rogan, concentrates on Jordan, the subject of his recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monograph.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 91.676 147.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 91.676 145.923 m 105.668 145.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 105.668 147.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As with Parsons, Rogan differentiates between historical 'facts' and the purposeful writing up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these 'facts' as history. Therefore, Rogan, unpacks how the Jordanian state created a particular narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Jordan's involvement in the 1948 war, what he terms the 'Jordanian loyalist' history, that emphasised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordan's difficulties and valour in 1948 against tough odds. In contrast, an 'Arab nationalist' history based )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(around Gamal Abd al-Nasir charged Jordan with deceit and greed as it colluded with Israel to divide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine. Using what primary sources are available, Rogan weaves the events of 1948 within this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical narrative to unpack fact and fiction. He does a good job of this and in doing so paints a )] TJ ET endstream endobj 36 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 483.4277 612.1735 497.4197 624.0535 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 39 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.5997 341.3095 532.5917 353.1895 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [34 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 91.6757 146.2375 105.6677 158.1175 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 48 0 R ] /Contents 46 0 R >> endobj 46 0 obj << /Length 8059 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more sympathetic portrait of the actions of the Jordanian army - the Arab Legion - in the war of 1948. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in no sense being an apologist for the Jordanians, Rogan shows, amidst King Abdullah of Jordan's abundant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treachery, just how difficult was the fight for the Arab Legion. While well trained and equipped by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards of the other Arab protagonists, the Arab Legion was terribly overstretched and often outnumbered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In contrast to arguments elsewhere in this volume, Rogan argues that it is not clear that the Arab Legion had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the military clout to save the Palestinian towns of Lydda and Ramla; neither was the rescue of the Egyptian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forces trapped in the Faluja pocket a clear-cut operation. Nonetheless, Rogan is careful to detail the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infighting between the Jordanians and Egyptians that torpedoed any chances of joint, effective military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(action. He also recounts the evident collusion between Israelis and Jordanians first described in Shlaim's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collusion Across the Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of Palestine)] TJ ET BT 503.360 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1988\). As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogan shows, these were not politically correct times: the Jordanians were never fully reconciled to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negotiating with Israel's Golda Meir \(Meyerson\), feeling that \(p.117\) 'optimal results would be had through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(direct meetings between reasonable )] TJ ET BT 207.968 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(men)] TJ ET BT 227.960 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.' The Arab Legion's defence of the Jerusalem-Latrun line, where it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battered the IDF in a series of tough actions, represents one of the few military high points for the Arabs in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1948 war and shows what might have been possible had the disparate Arab armies united and acted in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unison, something that this volume amply shows the Arabs failed to do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chapter by Tripp on Iraq, as with Rogan the subject of a recent book, seems, at first sight, odd as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spotlight is turned away from Palestine and put on domestic politics within Iraq.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 419.000 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 419.000 540.723 m 438.992 540.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 438.992 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( However, as the reader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(delves deeper into the text interesting and relevant themes emerge that link up with the chapters on Syria and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt. Tripp outlines the impact of the war in Palestine on Iraq, one of the Arab states that sent troops to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fight in the 1948 war. In doing so, he highlights the lack of synergy between the home front and the trenches )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that was so fatal for the Arab armies fighting the IDF. Tripp also throws the reader's attention forward to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show how the Palestine war had a longer-term impact within the Arab world \(p.128\): '...the cause of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine created the basis of a language of legitimation within Iraqi politics that politicians ignored at their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peril...It thus provided an opportunity for those in command of the state...to displace more radical languages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social revolution.' As with Jordan, Iraq manipulated events in Palestine for its own ends. Israel was, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some sense, an irrelevance but for what it could provide the ruling elite in Baghdad in terms of continued )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power. This, of course, was disastrous for the 'united' Arab attack on Israel as the Iraqi leaders used the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preparations for a war in Palestine as a means to check rivals such as Abdullah of Jordan and the Palestinian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leader, Hajj Amin al-Husayni - the 'Mufti of Jerusalem'. There were essentially two narratives at work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.130\): firstly, a symbolic, radical view on Palestine for public consumption; secondly, the reality of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pragmatic policy by Iraqi elites on Palestine that was designed to do nothing to rock the boat )] TJ ET BT 481.640 342.533 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(within)] TJ ET BT 511.652 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Iraq. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Jordan, Iraq was complicit in the avaricious partition of Palestine. In December 1947, Iraqi leaders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(visited Amman to tell Abdullah that Great Britain favoured the partition of Palestine \(p.134\). Iraq pledged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support for this Jordanian take-over of parts of Palestine in the hope of some mutual gain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The politicking within Iraq fed down the line to make the Iraqi army an ineffective tool for military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operations. After making a derisory, failed attack near Beisan, the Iraqi army relieved the Arab Legion and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(settled into holding the line in the northern sector of the front in a phoney war that resulted in few casualties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for either side. As Tripp proves, Iraqi military intervention summed up the uncoordinated nature of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attack on Israel: 18,000 men doing nothing sitting on the defensive in positions some 12 miles from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mediterranean Sea from where they could cut Israel in half. With allies like these, did the Palestinians need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemies?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim takes up the baton of challenging the myth of an Israeli David versus an Arab Goliath in the 1948 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war in his chapter on Israel and the Arab coalition in 1948. Developing themes from his recent )] TJ ET BT 491.264 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Iron Wall)] TJ ET BT 537.596 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim gels with the arguments in the other chapters in the volume and slams into the David versus Goliath )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thesis so popular in the 'old' history. Shlaim does not pull his punches, arguing that the Arab coalition \(p.82\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('was one of the most divided, disorganised and ramshackle coalitions in the entire history of warfare.' The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fissiparous Arab bloc set Hashemites against anti-Hashemites in the Arab League; Abdullah of Jordan, keen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to create a 'greater Syria' under his rule, schemed against the Syrians and others; King Faruq of Egypt looked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on aghast at Abdullah's evident ambitions; all the while, the Palestinian leadership, such as it was, worked )] TJ ET endstream endobj 47 0 obj [45 0 R /Fit] endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 49 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 418.9997 541.0375 438.9917 552.9175 ] >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 51 0 R >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Length 7002 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(against itself as different nodes of power jockeyed for position. As Shlaim concluded, as the Arabs attacked )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Israel \(p.89\) 'the politicians of the Arab League continued their backstage manoeuvres, labyrinthine intrigues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and sordid attempts to stab each other in the back - all in the name of the highest pan-Arab ideals.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Shlaim's chapter paints a broad brush across the canvas and his conclusions are sure to annoy the 'new old' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians \(p.100\): '...when one probes the politics of the war and not merely the military operations, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture that emerges is not the familiar one of Israel standing alone against the combined military might of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the entire Arab world but rather one of a remarkable convergence between the interests of Israel and those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Transjordan against the other members of the Arab coalition and especially against the Palestinians. My )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purpose in writing this survey was not to pass moral judgement on Israel's conduct in 1948 or to delegitimize )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionism but to suggest that the traditional Zionist narrative of the birth of Israel and the first Arab-Israeli )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war is deeply flawed.')] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gerges and Landis do for Egypt and Syria what Rogan and Tripp did for Jordan and Iraq. As Gerges argues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egypt went to war for pretty much the same reasons as Jordan and Iraq: national self-interest. As with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other Arab states, the Egyptians had inadequate military means with which to realise their goals. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egyptians misunderstood the power of the nascent Israeli army, foolishly referring to the IDF as nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more than 'armed gangs' \(p.155\). Thus, Egypt went to war woefully unprepared, eager to fight Abdullah's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretensions to power as much, if not more, than the IDF. The military co-ordination of the Egyptians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordanians was dismal: while a rapidly expanding and effective IDF deployed for battle, Jordanian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Egyptian forces in southern Palestine/Israel squabbled over the size of the flags flying over their respective )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(positions \(p.164\). As Rome burnt, the Egyptian army even mistreated local Palestinians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soon the Egyptians were encircled, leaving courageous Egyptian soldiers with inadequate leadership and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment trapped at the mercy of the IDF. The Egyptian leadership was too proud to ask for help; Abdullah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was delighted that the Israelis were humbling his main rival for power. The Egyptian high command was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unaware of the seriousness of the plight of its army and so, as with the other Arab states, wrote their own )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shortcomings out of the histories of the war, preferring to blame everyone and everything bar themselves for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the defeat. The Free Officers' Egyptian revolution of 1952 and the militarisation of Egyptian politics \(p.100\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves a product of the 1948 defeat, facilitated the rewriting of history as defeat could be blamed on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old monarchical regime. Quite how Nasir's post-1952 regime would explain defeats in 1956 and 1967 is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another story. The defeat of 1948 sent a shock wave through the Arab world: there were coups in Syria, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Faruk of Egypt was toppled and Abdullah was assassinated.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Landis's essay on Syria reiterates the infighting in the Arab camp with the real fight over whether Abdullah )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was going to create a 'greater' Hashemite empire at the expense of other Arab powers. As with Egypt, Syria )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was sure that the biggest threat came from an expanded, powerful Jordan, rather than a small Jewish state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(along a small strip of the Mediterranean. This fear of Abdullah led the Syrians, as with the Egyptians, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reject the Bernadotte peace plan of 1948 that would have prevented a total Arab defeat and limited the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestinian refugee crisis. The reason for this rejection was that the peace plan would have legitimated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jordan's annexation of the west bank of the river Jordan. In military terms, Syria had little to offer as it had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to rebuild its disloyal French-trained army before it could attack. This reduced military effectiveness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Worried by a coup from within the army, the Syrian leadership, according to Landis, emasculated the army. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the end, Syria attacked Galilee with a weak Arab Liberation Army of about 2500 men that advanced no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great distance and was soon checked by the Israelis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The last chapter to be discussed is Khalidi's which articulates the case for the Palestinians being fatally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weakened by the British prior to the 1948 war, so much so that they were unable to make any meaningful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contribution in 1948. Khalidi puts forward a strong argument that the British had paved the way for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionist triumph of 1948 with pro-Zionist policies and military repression of the Palestinians in the 1930s. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This meant that when the war came in 1948, the Palestinians were reliant on other Arab powers. As has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen, this was fatal for the Palestinians and led to years in the wilderness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.322 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET endstream endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 53 0 R >> endobj 53 0 obj << /Length 7694 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What of Said's afterword? Afterwords can be in the way of finishing a lovely meal and then being presented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with another starter rather than the dessert that the diner is after. This is especially the case if the afterword is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially there to sell the book by taking on some eminent scholar willing to put his or her name to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume. Rogan and Shlaim have avoided this pitfall and, in fact, the afterword works extremely well in tying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the historically based arguments in )] TJ ET BT 204.332 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War for Palestine)] TJ ET BT 310.664 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the current situation in the region. Said )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a lucid, passionate and policy relevant essay of some length \(almost as long as some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapters\) that shows how the history that Rogan and Shlaim have brought together has contemporary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance. More than this, Said locates much of the current Israeli-Palestinian impasse to misunderstandings )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the events of 1948. For Said, 1948 is a distinctively significant historical event. In the afterword, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(takes the two histories discussed in this volume - one 'Israeli', one 'Arab' - and tries to bring them together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and show not just the common ground but how they can be reconciled and made to work for future )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generations. This is all done with Said's typical penmanship and flourish, with a touch of the polemical. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What is most striking about Said's afterword is the mismatch between his hopeful words born of a lifetime of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study and reading in the academy, and the reality of the current violent impasse in the region. It is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hoped that the plea of the academic is not drowned out by the reality of cannon fire as the sword triumphs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the pen, as too often happens in history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.258 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are criticisms that can be levelled against this volume and these might be issues that the editors will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(want to raise in their authors' response. One of the most noticeable weaknesses comes when the reader skims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the endnotes looking at sources used. It quickly becomes apparent that when it comes to primary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources - memoirs aside - only Britain, Israel and the USA provide archival material. This is not the fault of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the editors or contributors to this collection - indeed it is acknowledged in the introduction \(p.8\) - but the gap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left by the absence of Arab archives is sorely felt in any scholarship on a debate which has a reasonably full )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(picture of one side - Israel - but less to say on the Arabs based on the original official documentation. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Indeed, 'new old' historians have attacked the 'new' historians for their lack of Arab sources, saying that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more Arab sources are available.\) The contributors to )] TJ ET BT 293.612 427.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War for Palestine)] TJ ET BT 399.944 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( do a good job of overcoming )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this deficiency by using Arab-language books, memoirs diaries and, in the case of Jordan, some printed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primary material, but if and when the Arab governments do open their archives it will be interesting to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how much of the current debate will need to be revised in light of new findings from Arab documents.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 358.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(On the theme of archival access, Morris raises the question of whether the Israeli archives have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('weeded' \(pp.49-50\) to stonewall researchers searching for references to abuses by the IDF during the 1948 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. Morris might be right but it leaves a slightly conspiratorial feel to the scholarship that can be neither )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved nor disproved - which is of course why conspiracy theories are so popular. This is most noticeable in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the chapters by Morris and Parsons where both are forced to present the best case that they can based on, at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, circumstantial evidence. As Parsons confesses in her case study relying on only two villages \(p.68\): 'I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have not found the smoking gun.' It is the connection between what the IDF were doing at the local level and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what the central Zionist leadership were deciding that needs to be unravelled. If IDF abuses occurred were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they centrally or locally directed? As Morris is well aware, the former suggest a policy of expulsion; the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latter suggest undirected actions taken in the heat of battle or soon after by local commanders acting on their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own initiative. Assuming that more information will emerge from the Israeli archives, further revisions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1948 war will be necessary. At the moment there is still a disjuncture between local IDF actions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(central Zionist direction.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two key players in the war of 1948 are absent from )] TJ ET BT 285.620 161.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948)] TJ ET BT 542.288 161.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lebanon and Great Britain. The absence of a chapter on Lebanon is acknowledged by the editors \(pp.8-9\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who lament that a chapter on Lebanon was impossible because of insufficient scholarship. The omission of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter on Great Britain is more puzzling. It might be that that Rogan and Shlaim wanted to focus on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immediate middle eastern states involved in the 1948 war but, as they well know, Britain, as the ex-colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power, had a big part to play in what happened in 1948. A chapter on London's views and policies would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have helped flesh out the insights and conclusions of the contributors to this collection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In terms of the chapters, Khalidi's stands out, to use the current jargon, as the weakest link. It is a pity that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 56 0 R 58 0 R ] /Contents 55 0 R >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Length 8793 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Khalidi's chapter on the Palestinians opens the volume as its central thesis, that the Palestinians were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presented with a level playing field before 1948 and so suffered when it came to a fight with the Zionists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while relevant, interesting and strongly argued, is simply not substantiated. Indeed, Khalidi's chapter raises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more questions than it answers and is an example of the sort of apologia that the other authors in this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are careful to avoid. To blame the Palestinians' lack of leadership in 1948 on events such as the Balfour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Declaration seems misplaced and misleading. The Balfour Declaration of 1917 was, in a vague way, pro-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionist. But Britain acted primarily out of national self-interest, supporting Jew and Arab in equal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unequal measure when it suited. Thus, in the 1939 White Paper, notwithstanding Khalidi's contrary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, the British performed a volte-face, supporting the Arabs because they wanted their support against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany and Italy in the Second World War. The fact is that what Britain did to the Arabs it did to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Zionists. It is more that the Zionists were far better at exploiting what was offered. Therefore, from 1936-9 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British successfully suppressed the Arab revolt in Palestine; from 1945-7, the British unsuccessfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppressed Zionist terrorism in Palestine. Obviously, the context of the Arab revolt and the Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insurgency after the Second World War and the Holocaust was different but Khalidi never really presents a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing case to prove that the real fault lay outside rather than inside the Palestinian community. Khalidi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presents an interesting argument but the reader is left wondering whether the Palestinians still need to face )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to their own shortcomings which left them reliant on an avaricious group of Arab states for support when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it came to war in 1948 rather than blame external factors in the form of Britain and/or the Zionists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.746 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Conclusion)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These minor criticisms should not detract from the topicality, scholarship and interest provided by )] TJ ET BT 508.304 513.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948)] TJ ET BT 246.020 499.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Anti-revisionists will doubtless attack the veracity of the finer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(details embedded in this volume. Was an expulsion policy around 'Plan Dalet' ever agreed before 1948? Are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the IDF to blame for the Palestinian refugee crisis when Arab leaders acted so stupidly? Why attack Israel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when the Arabs were just as bad, if not worse, in their behaviour to the Palestinians? While the 'new' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians certainly present Israel in a more hostile light, Rogan and Shlaim show how, at the end of the day, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no-one emerges from the machinations of 1948 with much credit. Indeed, the reader of )] TJ ET BT 453.920 427.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The War for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948)] TJ ET BT 229.016 413.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is left rather shocked at the greed and complicity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbouring Arab states who pretended they were acting for pan-Arab ideals. At least the Zionists, busy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trying to forge a Jewish state out of the ruins of the Holocaust, had the excuse that the Arabs were the enemy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and that without a substantial Jewish majority Israel was simply not viable.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The editors have attempted to address the issue of what really happened in 1948 but they have also tried to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(show how the subsequent writing of the history of 1948 needs to be challenged. They are to be commended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for a scholarly, readable volume that will provoke more debate and, perhaps, a more honest examination of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the histories of all the protagonists more than half a century after Israel's 'War of Independence'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.979 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 236.362 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 236.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Benny Morris)] TJ ET BT 131.012 236.357 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(, The Birth of the Palestinian Refugee Problem 1947-49)] TJ ET BT 399.332 236.357 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: CUP, 1987\); )] TJ ET BT 64.016 222.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris, )] TJ ET BT 102.680 222.101 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1948 and After: Israel and the Palestinians)] TJ ET BT 310.676 222.101 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Clarendon, 1990\); Morris, )] TJ ET BT 487.652 222.101 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Righteous )] TJ ET BT 64.016 207.845 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict)] TJ ET BT 289.364 207.845 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 1881-1999 \(London: John Murray, 2000\); Ilan Papp, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 193.589 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1947-1951)] TJ ET BT 313.676 193.589 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London & New York: IB Taurus, 1992\); Papp )] TJ ET BT 64.016 179.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 92.336 179.333 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Israel/Palestine Question)] TJ ET BT 235.664 179.333 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London & New York: Routledge, 1999\); Simha Flapan, )] TJ ET BT 513.980 179.333 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 165.077 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birth of Israel: Myths and Realities)] TJ ET BT 234.344 165.077 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York: Pantheon, 1987\); Avi Shlaim, )] TJ ET BT 443.996 165.077 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Collusion Across the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 150.821 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jordan: King Abdullah, the Zionist Movement and the Partition of Palestine)] TJ ET BT 430.352 150.821 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford: Clarendon, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 136.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1988\); Shlaim, )] TJ ET BT 138.356 136.565 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Iron Wall: Israel and the Arab World)] TJ ET BT 339.344 136.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London, Allen Lane, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 480.320 136.565 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 480.320 135.171 m 534.308 135.171 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 122.314 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 122.309 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a cogent summary of the 'new' historians' perspective see Avi Shlaim, 'The Debate about 1948', )] TJ ET BT 64.016 108.053 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(International Journal of Middle East Studies)] TJ ET BT 279.020 108.053 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 27, 1995, 287-304; also Bernard Wasserstein, 'Old )] TJ ET BT 64.016 93.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and new', )] TJ ET BT 162.164 93.797 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jerusalem Post)] TJ ET BT 235.820 93.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 27 December 1999.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 336.128 93.797 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 336.128 92.403 m 390.116 92.403 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 79.546 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 79.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aharon Megged, 'The Israeli Suicide Drive', )] TJ ET BT 279.620 79.541 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ha-aretz Weekly Magazine)] TJ ET BT 410.252 79.541 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 10 June 1994 quoted in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 65.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Efraim Karsh, )] TJ ET BT 134.996 65.285 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fabricating Israeli History: The 'New Historians')] TJ ET BT 373.808 65.285 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London: Frank Cass, 1997\). See also )] TJ ET BT 64.016 51.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Karsh's, )] TJ ET BT 105.500 51.029 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Fabricating Israeli History)] TJ ET BT 236.168 51.029 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Preface to the Second Revised Edition, pp.xv-xxxix \(London: )] TJ ET endstream endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 480.3197 135.4855 534.3077 147.3655 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 59 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 336.1277 92.7175 390.1157 104.5975 ] >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 62 0 R 64 0 R 66 0 R 68 0 R 70 0 R 72 0 R 74 0 R 76 0 R 78 0 R 80 0 R 82 0 R 84 0 R 86 0 R ] /Contents 61 0 R >> endobj 61 0 obj << /Length 6528 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Frank Cass, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.676 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.676 795.075 m 208.664 795.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 782.218 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance Morris's review of )] TJ ET BT 217.148 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Karsh's Fabricating Israeli History)] TJ ET BT 387.392 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( entitled 'Refabricating 1948' in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Palestinian Studies, 27/2, Winter 1998, 81-95.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 337.004 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 337.004 766.563 m 390.992 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 753.706 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance Nur Masalha's essay 'A Critique on Benny Morris' in Ilan Papp \(ed.\), )] TJ ET BT 465.104 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Israel/Palestine Question)] TJ ET BT 186.344 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(London and New York: Routledge, 1999 \(originally an article in )] TJ ET BT 506.300 739.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palestine Studies)] TJ ET BT 146.348 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 21/1, Autumn 1991, 90-7\); Norman Finklestein, 'Myths, Old and New', )] TJ ET BT 496.988 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Palestine Studies, )] TJ ET BT 152.348 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21/1, Autumn 1991; and Morris 'Response to Finklestein and Masalha', in the same )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of )] TJ ET BT 104.012 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Palestine Studies)] TJ ET BT 239.012 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Prominent Palestinian scholars such as Edward Said have )] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acknowledged the work done by the 'new' historians: see )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 339.284 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ihr.sa.ac.uk/ihr/reviews/shlaimavi.html)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 339.284 681.027 m 555.284 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET BT 78.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 81.008 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 81.008 666.771 m 134.996 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a revision of schoolbooks, see Neil Caplan, review article, 'Zionism and the Arabs: Another Look )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the "New" Historiography', )] TJ ET BT 209.612 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Contemporary History)] TJ ET BT 371.276 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 36/2, April 2001, 348-9.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 493.940 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 493.940 638.259 m 547.928 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Morris, )] TJ ET BT 102.680 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Birth)] TJ ET BT 127.352 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, p.286.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 163.352 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 163.352 624.003 m 217.340 624.003 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(From Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger \(eds\), )] TJ ET BT 303.284 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Invention of Tradition)] TJ ET BT 430.292 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: CUP, 1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 595.491 m 118.004 595.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 582.634 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rogan, )] TJ ET BT 101.348 582.629 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850-1921)] TJ ET BT 487.352 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(CUP, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 124.352 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 124.352 566.979 m 178.340 566.979 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 554.122 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tripp, )] TJ ET BT 96.680 554.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A History of Iraq)] TJ ET BT 179.012 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge: CUP, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 306.008 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 306.008 552.723 m 365.996 552.723 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Middle East Forum)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.meforum.org/1436/the-war-for-palestine)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 497.955 m 286.640 497.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 289.640 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Foreign Affairs)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/57190/l-carl-brown/the-war-for-palestine-rewriting-the-history-of-)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 469.443 m 541.892 469.443 l S BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1948)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 455.187 m 58.016 455.187 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 61.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([4])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 451.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 434.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 434.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/219)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 432.681 m 322.316 432.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 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