%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416171311+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416171311+01'00') /Title (London, a Social History) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4045 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London, a Social History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(''Five million barrels of porter'' \(p. 140\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Early in this substantial, often informative and entertaining, but in the last resort intellectually elusive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(account of London, Porter describes the panorama of the metropolis sketched by Anthonis van den )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wyngaerde in about 1544. He treats it as a coherent representation of the city from a vantage point in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Southwark. But in truth that drawing is an amalgam of views observed from many different sites, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unites the acknowledged set-pieces of the London landscape, many of them delineated with accuracy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(charm, in a single scene, but at the expense of not a little distortion, omission, and duplication. On close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inspection, the sense of jarring unreality grows. Much the same can be said of this social history. Just as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wyngaerde's bold hand gave a semblance of unity to his work, so Porter's verbal style, his distinctive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(personal and occasionally autobiographical approach, and his attractive and straightforward political agenda, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hold the chronicle together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The text skips along, carrying the reader with it, and conveys a mass of detailed information and anecdote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distilled from a wide range of texts, including a fair quantity of recent historical writing. Like many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general histories of London produced since John Stow's ''Survey'' of 1598, this is a green production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(signalled in the fine colour of the binding and dust-jacket\) which involves much recycling. But in contrast )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the general run, much of that work is impressively done, with accuracy, insight, and style. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(22)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 1 January, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Roy Porter)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780241129449)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1994)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(448pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hamish Hamilton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://fivedials.com/)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Derek Keene)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7949 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the constant trickle of minor errors, inevitable in a work of this sort, in places becomes a cascade \(especially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in connection with the earlier periods\), and misleading general statements appear which betray an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfamiliarity with context and a corresponding unwillingness to question conventional interpretations. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the synthesis which the author perhaps hoped for is not achieved. Moreover, the writing lacks that milky )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fullness or that disingenuous forswearing of passion and bias which might have given real relish and power )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to this story of a city. Impasto rules the page. The art with which the gobbets and London stories are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembled is like that of a mosaicist whose skilfully-executed scenes, sometimes placed awkwardly in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ground of lesser quality, too often fail to capture the imagination. More purely literary devices are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed. The alliteration is almost programmatic: as the plosives plop we may be sure that a political point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for our times is being made. Lists are even more luxuriant. They can be fun, and there are some startling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Urquhartian moments as the parts of London are named. But not a few of the lists seem like padding, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some -- such as that of the ''Wren churches'' in the city -- are pedestrian and mislead as accounts of London's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geography and history. Overall they reveal an author who is happier with texts, names, and stories than with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fieldwork. The contrast with Stow, who made excellent use of his feet and had a keen eye for place, is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(striking. Despite Porter's Sunday walks, his lists, often the chosen means of evoking the landscape and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth of the metropolis, seem frequently to have been read from a street the directory or off the A to Z.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The stylistic features raise the problem of assessing the underlying purpose of the book. Are they economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in intent? Fairground glitter for the magpies of the metropolitan reading classes? Or a way of mentioning as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many localities as possible in ''village London'', and thereby increasing sales? Or are they an attempt, brave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but only in part successful, at conveying an impression of the diversity, haphazard confusion, and staccato )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impacts of London life, as well as of its underlying, but not readily portrayed, unity? Certainly, listing has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for millennia been one of the tools with which the authorities have attempted to understand great cities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control them. Lists have resonance for private individuals too, serving as pathways for assimilation into city )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life, as business aids, and for the silent reinforcement, through the rehearsal of memory, of their personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identities as )] TJ ET BT 94.016 442.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(cognoscenti )] TJ ET BT 154.340 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the city. For Mr Sponge after all \(he is sadly absent from this tale: Pooter is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preferred\), ''Mogg's Ten Thousand Cab Fares, price one shilling'' provided both entertainment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consolation, especially during his thrusting but shaky enterprises away from town. Likewise, the author's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(effective use of the language of numbers connects with long-established forms of metropolitan thought and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language, as with the 207 inns, 447 taverns, 5875 beer houses, and 8659 brandy shops of early eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century London \(not to mention the barrels of porter\), or with the surreal assertion that ''Ruislip-Northwood )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leapt from 9,112 in 1920 to 47,760 in 1939''. Such approaches generate some fine passages, but whether they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(signal a coherent attempt to forge a link between language, sensibility and historical interpretation remains )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Statistics convey what readers may expect to find in the work. Just 6 per cent of the text is devoted to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first 1,500 years of London's history, from its foundation to 1540; 38 per cent to the next three hundred )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years; 31 per cent to the next fifty \(to 1890\); and 22 per cent to the last hundred years. There's a rough )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(justice in this distribution, which in part reflects the size of London and the likely total of Londoners in each )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period. Yet to devote 8 per cent to the last 60 years of the sixteenth century \(witnessed by fewer than 1 per )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cent of all Londoners who have ever lived\) reflects a romantic attachment to a view of the city's ''success'' in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ''Elizabethan Age'' which matches neither its contemporary international standing nor the realities of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(daily life. Moreover, the majority of all Londoners ever alive do not seem to get their due in the coverage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accorded to the most recent century. Still, the Green Belt, bypasses, arterial roads, industrial estates, cottage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(housing, Becontree, the Tooting Granada, J. Lyons, and the Swinging Sixties all get a mention, as do their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nineteenth-century equivalents. As one would expect, the account of social life and culture in eighteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century London, while not the longest section in the book, is one of the most coherent and satisfying. By )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contrast, the slight attention paid to the formative centuries of the city's history \(this is not, I hope, solely an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expression of the medievalist's bias\) means that some of the most important long-term forces which have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moulded the lives of its inhabitants are insufficiently delineated. These include the city's position within a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider world, especially )] TJ ET BT 149.324 88.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(vis a vis)] TJ ET BT 187.988 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Continental cities; the cyclical continuities in social function and spatial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(layout which are apparent from Roman times onwards; the crucial influence of London on the process of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation of the English state, extending over five centuries up to 1300; and the powerful impact of that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7705 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process on civic and other forms of local government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Porter's recurrent themes are readily apparent. London was, and is, a chaotic, unregulated, dangerous, and at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time spectacular, lively and stimulating place. Its fortunes have rested on trade, but the loss of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufactures has been one of the disasters of recent times \(this could have been placed in the wider context )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of London's long-term role as a centre of social, intellectual and industrial innovation\). It is famous for its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(size and for its rate of growth, especially in certain distinctive episodes when the misery of urban expansion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has attracted the moral, and occasionally morbid, interest of some, while among others it has prompted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intimations of future decay. \(Yet London is not given its due as one of the European ''shock cities'' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(earlier Middle Ages\). That growth is explained largely in terms of London's imperial role \(with little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to European connections\). Its government has rarely, if ever, been equal to its needs. The physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disconnectedness of London may at times have inhibited incipient mass or revolutionary action, and in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(''village London'' trope has become embedded in the discourse of metropolitan wholesomeness, but it is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected in chaotic administrative structures. These in turn explain why London has displayed little )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coherence as an architectural expression \(fuller consideration of the role of the Crown or state in this matter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been welcome\). The city fathers thus emerge as pig-headed and self-interested, except during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabethan Age and possibly under the Romans. Nevertheless, the remarkable effectiveness of the City )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities in certain fields of provision for the general welfare of the metropolis during the later nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century is given its due, perhaps as a lesson or even as a warning for our own times. London at present is in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bad way. The physical infrastructure decays. Porter's own students have been attacked at almost the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spot where he grew up, in the modest but ordered environment of New Cross Gate. The ''cohesiveness'' of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the population, which with the sheer wealth brought by trade perhaps made the muddle work in the past, has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now disappeared so that the city can no longer harmoniously assimilate incomers in the way that it did in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past. \(Tell that to the Jews, Flemings and Italians of the medieval city, and several immigrant groups in later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods too. In any case is that really a correct observation concerning at least some social changes in inner )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(parts of London over the last three decades, which many might find heartening?\). At this point the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reaches the height of passion for which it has become famous, not least for its account of the vindictive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onslaught which central government has made on Londoners. The direct parallel \(for this reviewer\) is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps to be found in King Henry III's actions against the citizens. Instead Porter obliquely signals his later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onslaught on the Iron Lady and her boys in his account of the Reformation in London as ''an asset-stripping )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exercise unleashed by a destitute and opportunist regime''. At moments like these style, interpretation, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemic combine to striking effect. In the context of late twentieth-century metropolitan politics, the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has certainly struck home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leaving aside for the moment the question of whether historical understanding is ever more influential than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the recycling of myth in forming public policy, let us consider the work as an historical explanation or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrative. The problem here, as with the metropolis itself, is the incoherence of the foundations. With its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(episodic approach the book does not manage to transcend the established and often self-contained )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiographical assumptions of its several parts. Thus in the end, despite perceptive insights in accounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular scenes, Porter's overview provides little new understanding of continuities and change in the life )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of London over its long history. He perhaps attempts to mention too much and pauses for informed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection too seldom. Moreover, his characterisations are slightly off the mark too often - as in describing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the city's street pattern as being purely haphazard in origin, or in casually identifying a city property boom as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being primarily an outcome of the dissolution of the monasteries - to serve as a stimulus to creative thinking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about London. Moreover, the vulgar Whiggery \(he comes down hard on vulgar Marxism\) which informs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of the tale, especially concerning the expansion of the city and its services, does not help. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent as much as in the shaky context provided for the ''continued'' growth of London in the sixteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, as in the surprising assertions concerning the supposed origin of retail shops and shopping in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth. At such moments he implicitly takes a modernist line. Yet at others he pursues a romantic or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nostalgic path which resembles Stow's conservatively selective view of changes in the city during his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifetime. As with aspects of the prose style, the purpose of that tension between seemingly opposing views is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(difficult to resolve. Could it be an attempt to represent the genuine confusion and paradoxes of life and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thought in the metropolis? Or is it simply the outcome of following the assumptions of those historians )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7838 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whose work he has used? A good example is to be found in the treatment of the secular spaces of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolis and their social use from the seventeenth century onwards. His fine account emphasises the way )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which their character as male preserves perdured to the very end of the nineteenth century. Yet in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualizing those forms of collective life, and the culture of sociability and hedonism which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accompanied them, he contrasts their secularity with the life centred on parish, ward and guild which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposedly a feature of pre-Reformation London. Here surely he is the prisoner of interpretations purveyed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by late nineteenth- and late twentieth-century historians whose concern to explain urban society has focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on an often unselfconscious, but nonetheless highly-politicised, conservative idea of community. Certainly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval Londoners enjoyed more churches per head than their eighteenth-century successors, yet to a large )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree that reflected not a fundamental dissimilarity in religious provision, but rather the peculiarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unregulated circumstances of one of London's early phases of growth, with its somewhat Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proliferation of chapels and meeting houses. Moreover, the particular view of medieval London society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evident in Porter's account is shaped by the survival of institutions and the records they have transmitted for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians to study. Outside those institutions and their records, there is sufficient incidental evidence to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate that in London sport, street encounters, drinking places \(with which the medieval city was, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proportion, as well provided as in later times\), and fast-food stores defined spaces which were quite as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(significant for social and collective action as in New Cross Gate today.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(No theoretical framework informs this )] TJ ET BT 221.648 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(social)] TJ ET BT 250.316 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( history of London. That need not be a bad thing, and with its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on stories of people, places, perceptions and attitudes this is certainly a social history. Early on, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, the author gives a hostage to fortune by revealing that he has ''sought to probe the play of built )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environment with inhabitants'', while in almost the same breath he dismisses the )] TJ ET BT 421.316 499.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Survey of London)] TJ ET BT 505.976 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( as all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(''architraves and architects'', thereby revealing that he cannot have given much attention to its publications )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over the last thirty years. Yet while this history is lavish in naming the abundant streets, alleys, rookeries, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(squares, parks and suburbs of London, its treatment of buildings is restricted to their role as delimiters of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space or as easy subjects for trite phrase-making. Its assessment of architecture and of the historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meanings which can be drawn from it is decidedly weak. Thus both the first Royal Exchange and Selfridges, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two powerful symbols of the impact of more dynamic cities on London's commercial life, are mentioned, yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the way in which their fabrics represented and drew Londoners into the worlds of Antwerp on the one hand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Chicago and New York is not brought out. Likewise, the contrast crudely drawn between Inigo Jones's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(''exquisite classicism'' and the ''fussy, irregular vernacular of the Elizabethan era'' is both unsatisfactory as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(description and fails to do justice to the Antwerp mannerist style which informed many buildings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth-century London. Such passages sit unhappily with judgements elsewhere in the book and leave it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unclear as to whether the author is expressing a preference for the absolutist harmonies of classicism over )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the haphazard and humane diversity of London or whether he is trying to argue, as one well might, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(architecture of London embodies the contradictions in its social and political life between inherent confusion )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the occasional desire of prescriptive regimes to impose order. The crude account of Somerset House, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, suggests that such points may not have occurred to him. Other judgements of the building of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London are also weak. Thus, to describe the rebuilding of London after the Second World War as ''an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(opportunity missed'' may be an acceptable judgement, if perhaps unfair to the financial and intellectual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exhaustion of those years, but to describe the rebuilding after the Great Fire in the same terms is both naive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and banal, for the protagonists in that episode proved remarkably astute in their assessment of the city's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essential character and needs and of the possibilities for its physical improvement. Glib misjudgement is also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparent in the ''half cock modernism'' attributed to the buildings of the Festival of Britain. Surely, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 171.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embodied far more complex social programmes and ideals, including as a direct model the spirit of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 157.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(World's Fair of 1939?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As befits a book made up of those stories of London commonly told to and by those born during the 1940s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in its later pages Americanization, for good or ill, comes to be a key theme. It is handled in such general )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms, however, that the account of the 1950s lacks the bite that it might have gained from a more direct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assessment of the impact on London of the vibrant New York culture of the later '40s. We are swept straight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the 1951 Festival and the ''New Elizabethans'' to Carnaby Street and Liverpool pop. A more sensitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and enquiring account of the ordered, repressed, backward-looking, yet increasingly tense culture and social )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2948 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(life of the metropolis during the '50s would have given some thought to the world of Ronnie Scott whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trans-Atlantic pilgrimages, like those of several London painters had a remarkable, if indirect, effect on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives of many younger Londoners.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes described as an ''important'' book, ''Porter's London'' is certainly a lively and substantial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entertainment. But it is too much the prisoner of the inward-looking historiographies of each period and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theme tackled, and of its own frenetic pace, to be a convincing new interpretation or overview of the history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of London. Rather, its importance may be political. Whichever conservative party gains power in the next )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(election, it seems that something will be done about the ''problem of London''. In his concluding pages Porter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propounds the view that the social and physical dysfunction of the metropolis has at last grown too great for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its anomalous system of government. He may well be right, and politicians may turn to his words for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guidance. They will find there a clear and affectionate appreciation of the general qualities of London and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong condemnation of the way in which its inhabitants have been treated during recent years, but not a well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argued set of connections between London's historical experience and the problems and options which now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(face the metropolis and its rulers, whoever they may be. In the stories of this social history those who wield )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(power will be able to identify precedents and interpretations capable of being deployed to support ''solutions'' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of almost any political hue. Perhaps that risk will stimulate historians more closely to examine the tales of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(old London.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 539.647 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 521.867 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 521.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/22)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 520.473 m 316.316 520.473 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 495.496 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 481.096 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/229)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 520.7875 316.3157 532.6675 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/22) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000004713 00000 n 0000004822 00000 n 0000004932 00000 n 0000005041 00000 n 0000008602 00000 n 0000008730 00000 n 0000008814 00000 n 0000008879 00000 n 0000016881 00000 n 0000016946 00000 n 0000024704 00000 n 0000024769 00000 n 0000032660 00000 n 0000032744 00000 n 0000035745 00000 n 0000035873 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35967 %%EOF