%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818112750+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818112750+01'00') /Title (Poor Women's Lives: Gender, Work and Poverty in late-Victorian London) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4524 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Poor Women's Lives: Gender, Work and Poverty in late-Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is an excellent contribution to our historical understanding of London, of gender and of labour )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(markets. Andrew August brings together the concerns of feminist historians of the last twenty-odd years \(in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular )] TJ ET BT 83.000 323.219 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ellen Ross in Love and Toil: Motherhood in Outcast London, 1870-1918)] TJ ET BT 432.668 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, OUP 1993\) with issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised in labour history, especially by Gareth Stedman Jones \(in )] TJ ET BT 343.640 308.963 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Outcast London)] TJ ET BT 420.644 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, OUP 1971 and 'Working-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(class Culture and Working-class Politics in London, 1870-1900', in )] TJ ET BT 359.828 294.707 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Languages of Class)] TJ ET BT 454.508 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, CUP 1983\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Deploying census and other statistical material with skill and a minimum of fuss, he addresses the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specificities of local labour markets, demographies and households in the larger urban context.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August chose for his study three London neighbourhoods: Lisson Grove \(Marylebone\), Somers Town )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Euston\) and Globe Town \(Bethnal Green\). Each shared similar levels of poverty according to Booth's map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1880s London; they had distinct boundaries, usually constituted by railway, canal or main road; and for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 197.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each the invaluably-detailed manuscript books of the census enumerators were available. All were relatively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(long established \(as August shows from census data on place of birth\), with fewer migrants from other parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of England and fewer migrants from abroad than in London as a whole. Globe Town had the highest London-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(born population \(88% as against 78.6 in Somers Town, 77% in Lisson Grove, and in London overall 69.7%\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lisson Grove had the most Irish born \(4.7%; while Somers Town had 2.9%, Globe Town 0.6%; and London )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overall 2.1%\). Inhabitants not born in the UK were a tiny proportion \(1.1% in Somers Town, 0.6% in Lisson )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Grove, 0.8% in Globe Town; in London overall 2.8%\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 85.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August stresses both differences and similarities between the neighbourhoods, examining how they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 71.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developed as well as focusing on the 1880s:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(220)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monday, 1 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew August)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Associated University Presses)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anna Davin)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6848 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Each grew in response to particular market and geographic forces, and different trades were concentrated in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(each. But the general structures of the labour markets were quite similar, particularly in the pervasiveness of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casual and seasonal employment and the strict division of labour by sex. Common patterns of household )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(formation existed across all three neighbourhoods. The dynamics of women's employment and of gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations within households reveal a common way of life in the neighbourhoods and apparently throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inner-London poor areas. In all of them, tremendous burdens of work, powerfully restrictive gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies, and crushing poverty presented women with tremendous challenges, to which they responded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with energy and determination.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The larger comparative dimension is by contrast relatively undeveloped. He admits this himself when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(touching on married women's work in Bradford and the Potteries \(drawing on Karl Ittman and Richard )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whipp, though not Jacqueline Sarsby\); however in his use of work by Elizabeth Roberts and Carl Chinn, on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lancashire and Birmingham, respectively, the sense of local specificity is outweighed at times by the search )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for common patterns.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(August is clearly aware of the limitations of census data - its snapshot character, for instance, which means )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the enumeration, always in April, under-represent summer and winter work while intermittent and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(casual employment is easily missed. He notes the under-reporting of women's paid work where male heads )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of household were ignorant of it, or did not want it known that their wives worked, or did not think it would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('count'; the exclusion of domestic labour and the invisibility of prostitution, begging and theft. Nevertheless, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sensitive to such problems and using the data with care, he succeeds in drawing out convincing patterns of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment and of household formation in his three neighbourhoods.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To interpret this formidable quantitative data he turns to more qualitative material - the evidence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses to parliamentary commissions; memoirs; newspaper reports and so on - and to the work of other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social historians. Stressing the importance of understanding the 'life-course' \(or life-cycle\) of women in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relation to their employment, August adapts the categorisation of households used by Lynn Lees \()] TJ ET BT 504.296 420.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exiles of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Erin: Irish Migrants in Victorian London)] TJ ET BT 232.364 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Cornell UP 1979\). He designates seven family types, correlating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age of wife with number of resident offspring and whether they are employed: wife under 45, no offspring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(type 1\), 1 child less than a year old \(type 2\), offspring at home none employed \(type 3\), offspring at home )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fewer than half employed \(type 4\), offspring at home more than half employed \(type 5\); wife 45 or over, no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offspring or only one over 20 at home \(type 6\), and wife 65 or over \(type 7\). Analysis of the computerised )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census data on household and employment according to these categories then allows him to argue, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dialogue with his predecessors, that married women did not turn to paid work because of crises in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(domestic budget. Though their need for money was greatest when they had young children, this was when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were least likely to be employed, not most.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though it is impossible to know exactly what these women thought, their behaviour reflects a culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(female work in these neighbourhoods. Women simply expected to work hard throughout their lives. When it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was possible, given their domestic responsibilities, this work would be in paid employment, and their wages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly formed a welcome addition to the household budget.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At other times the economic value of their domestic labour, or its indispensability, overrode the usefulness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of any earnings. In each of his neighbourhoods the percentage of wives employed according to the 1881 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(census declined with the first child \(household type 2\): from 29.5% to 13.2% in Somers Town, 32% to only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(31.3% in Lisson Grove, and 27% to 17% in Globe Town. The figures for household type 3, with children not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employed, are 12.1%, 19.4% and 15.4%. Over the next stages, as children began to bring in a wage then )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leave, rates rise again, to fall away once more after age 65. This general pattern holds in all three )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhoods, though in Lisson Grove, where more service work was available, employment rates were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher at all ages and especially for household type 3. It seems that there older married women earned wages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while their daughters took over at home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another historical argument tackled by August is the question of women's relative power in household and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4388 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhood. Did controlling the household budget mean, as Carl Chinn has argued, that married women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(escaped their apparent subordination? While agreeing that women's neighbourhood networks and mutual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support meant that they were not helpless victims of their menfolk, August is clear that the cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expectations of gendered behaviour and relationships worked to women's great disadvantage. Their authority )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('chiefly operated in a network of women and children'. They themselves upheld 'powerful gender roles that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(required self-sacrifice and mutuality on the part of poor women', At the same time women faced an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic system which kept and exploited them as labour so cheap that their earnings had always to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplemented by men - husbands, fathers, brothers or sons.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Andrew August has produced a book which though brief rests on an immense amount of work, lightly borne. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though complex it is well organised. Each chapter is broken up into sections and subsections \(twice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however the headings are confusingly in the wrong fount - pp. 88 and 92\), and concludes with a useful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summary. There is a detailed breakdown of the kinds of work done by women in the three neighbourhoods, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with in each case a good sense of the larger chronological and labour context and neither too little detail nor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too much. Issues of birth rate, life-cycle, migration, household and employment are all held in balance. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps it would have been interesting to know more about other kinds of difference. In Lisson Grove, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, with its Irish-born population and no doubt also London-born who identified as Irish, is there any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discernible effect on ages of marriage, or fertility patterns, or employment? Globe Town was at this point )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(still very English. In other East End neighbourhoods, especially in Stepney and Whitechapel, Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration was growing - what were the consequences in terms of gender, household and employment?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The urge to ask for Andrew August's close analysis to be extended still further demonstrates the interest of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book - its approach is so fruitful that in the end one wants more. It provides a heartening demonstration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the qualitative research of recent years can be reinforced and extended by quantitative research, that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerical data need not be narrow, oversimplifying and dry, and that there is always more to be discovered. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It should be widely read by all those interested in women's history, social history, historical geography, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(labour history, and the kind of London history which brings in all such approaches.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 385.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 367.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 367.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/220)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 365.913 m 322.316 365.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 340.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 326.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1250)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 366.2275 322.3157 378.1075 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/220) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000565 00000 n 0000000647 00000 n 0000005223 00000 n 0000005332 00000 n 0000005442 00000 n 0000005551 00000 n 0000009112 00000 n 0000009240 00000 n 0000009324 00000 n 0000009389 00000 n 0000016290 00000 n 0000016374 00000 n 0000020815 00000 n 0000020943 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 21038 %%EOF