%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 29 0 R 76 0 R 84 0 R 95 0 R 103 0 R 148 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141226182826+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141226182826+00'00') /Title (Whitehall and the Jews, 1933-1948: British Immigration Policy, Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R 21 0 R 24 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 6039 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Whitehall and the Jews, 1933-1948: British Immigration Policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Jewish Refugees and the Holocaust)] TJ ET BT 34.016 351.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The flight of Jews out of Nazi Germany has been the subject of much attention. Virtually every country that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed the entry of Jews in the 1930s has had its experiences discussed in at least one book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 489.284 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 489.284 336.081 m 503.276 336.081 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 503.276 337.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Britain is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no exception. The historical investigation of Jewish immigration into Britain began with the opening of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government archives in the 1970s, though prior to this many contemporaries wrote their accounts of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of European Jews to Britain. As early as 1936, whilst the migration of Jews was still underway, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Bentwich published )] TJ ET BT 175.004 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Refugees)] TJ ET BT 242.324 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(from Germany, April 1933 to December 1935)] TJ ET BT 461.960 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 467.960 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 467.960 279.057 m 481.952 279.057 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 481.952 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( covering the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first wave of arrivals. He followed this up in 1956 with )] TJ ET BT 301.316 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(They Found Refuge. An Account of British Jewry's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Work for Victim of Nazi Oppression)] TJ ET BT 207.020 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 213.020 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 213.020 250.545 m 227.012 250.545 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 227.012 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an insightful work that remains relevant today. Bentwich was well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(placed to comment on the movement of Jews into Britain because of his personal involvement. Other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary works were published covering the subject. Norman Angell's and Dorothy Thompson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(You and the Refugee )] TJ ET BT 136.004 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeared as a Penguin Special in 1939. Critical of the government handling of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugee crisis, this work suggested that the refugees should be permitted to seek employment as this would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both relieve them from having to accept charity and enable them to make a contribution to the British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The internment of the refugees in 1940 prompted the publication of another Penguin critical of government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, Franois Lafitte's, )] TJ ET BT 159.164 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Internment of Aliens)] TJ ET BT 278.156 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. This book has since been reprinted, with a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction in which the author did not back down from his position of 48 years earlier.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 458.636 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 458.636 110.241 m 472.628 110.241 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 472.628 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Yvonne Kapp )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Margaret Mynatt's, )] TJ ET BT 148.820 97.379 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(British Policy and the Refugees 1933-1941)] TJ ET BT 355.136 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 358.136 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 358.136 95.985 m 372.128 95.985 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 372.128 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was written in 1940, though not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actually published until 1997. Both of these books are critical of the government's immigration policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reserving their harshest judgements of the internment of refugees as enemy aliens in 1940. The internment of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enemy aliens during World War II is a subject that has remained the most criticised of the government's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(221)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean Kelly)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 489.2837 336.3955 503.2757 348.2755 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 467.9597 279.3715 481.9517 291.2515 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 22 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 213.0197 250.8595 227.0117 262.7395 ] >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 23 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 25 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 458.6357 110.5555 472.6277 122.4355 ] >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 26 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 358.1357 96.2995 372.1277 108.1795 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 32 0 R 35 0 R 38 0 R 41 0 R 44 0 R 47 0 R 50 0 R 53 0 R 56 0 R 59 0 R 62 0 R 65 0 R 68 0 R 71 0 R 74 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 11193 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies towards Jewish refugees. The knee-jerk reaction of the government caused by the invasion scare has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been the subject of several historical studies, all of which have utilised government sources that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unavailable to Lafitte, Kapp and Mynatt.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 229.652 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 229.652 766.563 m 243.644 766.563 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first historical account of the Jewish refugees who entered Britain fleeing Nazism which utilised the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then newly-opened government records, was )] TJ ET BT 251.960 727.445 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Island Refuge)] TJ ET BT 318.284 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 324.284 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 324.284 726.051 m 338.276 726.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 338.276 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( written in 1973 by A.J. Sherman. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Republished in 1994, it remains as one of the most informative works written on the topic. Sherman charted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the formation of government policy, concluding that Britain had been lenient in permitting entry to as many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees as it did. This work was followed by Austin Stevens, )] TJ ET BT 334.316 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 355.316 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dispossessed)] TJ ET BT 419.312 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 425.312 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 425.312 683.283 m 439.304 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 439.304 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( whose treatment of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject is more journalistic than Sherman's work. Since the publication of these two works, the topic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish immigration has been studied from a variety of angles. Colin Holmes covered the rise of political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(antisemitism in his )] TJ ET BT 127.700 641.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anti-Semitism in British Society1876-1939)] TJ ET BT 332.696 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 335.696 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 335.696 640.515 m 349.688 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 349.688 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( showing the impact of antisemitism on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish refugees who arrived. This work has remained the standard account of antisemitism in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although it can also be complemented by Gisela Lebzelter's, )] TJ ET BT 325.460 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Political Anti-Semitism in England 1918-1939.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 597.921 m 54.008 597.921 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 57.008 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bernard Wasserstein's )] TJ ET BT 166.472 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the Jews of Europe,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 319.136 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 319.136 597.921 m 339.128 597.921 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 339.128 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which appeared at the same time, goes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond being merely a study of Jewish refugees who entered or attempted to enter Britain and includes an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examination of the British attitude towards European Jewry and the issue of the British mandated territory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palestine. More recently, antisemitism during the war has been covered by Tony Kushner's)] TJ ET BT 470.768 556.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Persistence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Prejudice)] TJ ET BT 80.672 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 83.672 542.117 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 83.672 540.897 m 103.664 540.897 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 103.664 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, as well as examining government sources dealing with immigration, also considers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impact of antisemitism on British society as a whole.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of Jewish immigration during the thirties has also been furthered by several other works that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserve mention. Gerhard Hirschfeld's edited work, )] TJ ET BT 284.780 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Exile in Great Britain)] TJ ET BT 389.780 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 392.780 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 392.780 486.129 m 412.772 486.129 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 412.772 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( c)] TJ ET BT 421.100 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ontains articles covering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both government policy in general and more specific case studies of particular aspects of those able to enter )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain from Nazi Germany. In addition, a conference in 1988 led to the publication of )] TJ ET BT 452.276 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Second Chance. Two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Centuries of German-speaking Jews)] TJ ET BT 208.328 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the United Kingdom)] TJ ET BT 317.996 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 320.996 444.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 320.996 443.361 m 340.988 443.361 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 340.988 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which contains many relevant papers on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-war Jewish immigration, including one by Louise London herself, in which she outlines some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments that will be found in this present study)] TJ ET BT 271.340 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 274.340 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 274.340 414.849 m 294.332 414.849 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 294.332 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marion Berghahn's work, )] TJ ET BT 419.804 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Continental Britons)] TJ ET BT 514.820 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrates on the refugees themselves and examines aspects of assimilation and acculturation. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 498.920 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 498.920 400.593 m 518.912 400.593 l S BT 518.912 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 518.912 400.593 m 538.904 400.593 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 538.904 401.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( F)] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(urthermore, Tony Kushner's 1994 study, )] TJ ET BT 231.152 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 249.152 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Holocaust and the Liberal Imagination)] TJ ET BT 437.156 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 440.156 387.557 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 440.156 386.337 m 460.148 386.337 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 460.148 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provides a summary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of not just the government attitudes towards Jewish refugees both inter and post-war, but also with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitude of the British and American governments and society towards the Holocaust. Finally, Bill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rubinstein has entered the field, with his controversial study, )] TJ ET BT 330.992 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Myth of Rescue)] TJ ET BT 425.972 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(,)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 428.972 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 428.972 343.569 m 448.964 343.569 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 448.964 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( i)] TJ ET BT 455.300 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(n which he criticises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtually all who have written on this topic, claiming that Britain was not only lenient in its attitude towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish immigrant, but also that there was nothing else they or the Allies could have done to relieve the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffering of Continental Jewry. Rubinstein accuses previous authors of being ahistorical in their examination )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of inter-war Jewish migration, arguing that the Holocaust could not have been predicted and, as a result, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(receiving countries should not be criticised. It can be imagined that Rubinstein would also have problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with London's work, since she too is critical of the government's restrictive attitude towards Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration in the 1930s and 1940s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study of Jewish immigration seems to have matured from a subject that was on the periphery of even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Jewish history, into a serious topic for mainstream historians. With all of this previous work that has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been undertaken on the entry of Jewish refugees, the question of whether another book on this topic is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed, has to addressed. The simplest way to answer this query is to ask whether London's work adds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(anything new to the topic. The answer is undoubtedly 'yes'. She goes beyond the sources that previously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have been utilised, and opens up new areas of interest, as well as presenting a well-developed and supported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise London is uniquely qualified to complete a study of British immigration history. A solicitor who has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dealt with modern day refugees, she is herself a child of Jewish refugees. Her thesis, which is the basis of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this book, was completed at London University in 1992 and she has already published several articles from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 54.356 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 54.356 62.787 m 74.348 62.787 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 74.348 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London's conclusions towards British immigration policy are more critical than those of Sherman's. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Though by the second edition of his work he had examined the more recent literature critical of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 229.6517 766.8775 243.6437 778.7575 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 324.2837 726.3655 338.2757 738.2455 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 39 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 425.3117 683.5975 439.3037 695.4775 ] >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 40 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 42 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 335.6957 640.8295 349.6877 652.7095 ] >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 43 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 45 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 598.0615 54.0077 609.9415 ] >> endobj 45 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 46 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 48 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 319.1357 598.0615 339.1277 609.9415 ] >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 49 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 50 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 51 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 83.6717 541.0375 103.6637 552.9175 ] >> endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 52 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 53 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 54 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 392.7797 486.2695 412.7717 498.1495 ] >> endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 55 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 56 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 57 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 320.9957 443.5015 340.9877 455.3815 ] >> endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 58 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 60 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 274.3397 414.9895 294.3317 426.8695 ] >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 61 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 498.9197 400.7335 518.9117 412.6135 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 518.9117 400.7335 538.9037 412.6135 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 440.1557 386.4775 460.1477 398.3575 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 428.9717 343.7095 448.9637 355.5895 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj [29 0 R /Fit] endobj 74 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 75 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 54.3557 63.1015 74.3477 74.9815 ] >> endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 79 0 R 82 0 R ] /Contents 77 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Length 7831 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour of the government in dealing with Jewish refugees, he maintained, nevertheless, that Britain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generous in its attitude. The arguments presented here are diametrically opposite to this. London states that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain did not view Jewish refugees in a humanitarian light, but through the eyes of self-interest. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could have been done in trying to assist Jews fleeing from Nazi Germany and also to permit the shattered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remnants of European Jewry to enter post-Holocaust Britain.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London's work follows in the line of those more critical of Britain's role in the Holocaust, most notably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Martin Gilbert, Tony Kushner and David Cesarani.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 279.308 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(21\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 279.308 697.539 m 299.300 697.539 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 299.300 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In fact, Cesarani and Kushner are able to lay claim to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a new school of thought on Anglo-Jewish relations.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 281.324 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 281.324 683.283 m 301.316 683.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 301.316 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( In his work Kushner has advanced the argument that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's claim to be a liberal, tolerant country is not true. A form of antisemitism lies at the heart of Britain's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(liberality in that there is a desire in British society for the Jews to assimilate and, when they choose not to, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are viewed as problematic, which is an argument with which London would certainly concur. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(begins her work by stating that between 1933 and 1948 Britain held a consistent line on limiting Jewish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration \(p2\). Refugees would be assisted only if it was in the interests of Britain, a concept that holds )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(true today if the attitude taken by many towards the current issue of asylum is considered. Thus, while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain would 'tolerate' a certain amount of immigration for humanitarian reason, this 'toleration' was limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by several interlinked factors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first, was the perceived effect that this process could have on the fabric of British society. The charge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that antisemitism would increase if too many Jewish refugees were granted entry was stated throughout the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inter-war period, by both by government officials and the already-established Anglo-Jewish community. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(second factor that was cited was employment, or more precisely unemployment. For this reason, refugees )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were landed on condition that they did not seek to enter the labour market without permission from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ministry of Labour. This stipulation, however, was waived in two cases, firstly for refugees able to leave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe with their business intact and willing to establish new firms in Britain and secondly for those who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were able to enter Britain as domestic servants. Thus, on the one hand, refugees had to be able to either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(create jobs in Britain or had to demean themselves by working in low-paid, low skilled employment, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whatever their former circumstances. A third factor was that of assimilation. Foreign Jews were expected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both by the government and by the Anglo-Jewish establishment to conform to the British way of life and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(minimise their 'foreignness'. They were inundated with advice to avoid showing their alien nature, such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not speaking German in public. Fourthly, the refugees were landed on a temporary basis, on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding that they would in the future leave Britain. Whilst in reality some 40,000 remained in Britain, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this had not been the government's intention. Refuge was to be for a limited time, in the hope that most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would seek other countries in which to settle permanently. Lastly and of greatest importance, was the issue )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of finance. From the very beginnings of this movement, the Anglo-Jewish community was expected to find )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the funds that would be required to support the refugees whilst they were in Britain. Foreign Jews were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to become chargeable to state finance in any shape. Again this situation would change, as by 1939 the Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish community had exhausted its funds and came to rely upon government grants.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout her work, London shows the complexity of government policy towards refugees. She reveals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the government actually sought to avoid introducing specific legislation to limit the number of Jews that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered Britain. Whilst in the United States there was quota system that dictated how many refugees of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular nationalities could enter, in Britain's legislation remained vague on the issue of refugees. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the inter-war period immigration into Britain took place under the provisions on the 1919 Aliens )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Act and subsequent Aliens Orders. This had originated in the 1914 Aliens Act, an emergency measure that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been passed in the first few days of the First World War. Under this legislation, power to decide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration policy rested almost exclusively with the Home Secretary. After Hitler's rise to power in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germany, when it was first noted that the number of German Jews arriving in Britain had increased )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dramatically, it was decided at Cabinet level not to introduce new legislation. This situation continued until )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the introduction of visas for immigrants from Germany and Austria in 1938. These had been introduced so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the government could be more selective over who was granted entry. In the words of one official, visas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow immigrants to be selected "at leisure and in advance." [p.59] Even with visas, however, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government and, more specifically the Home Office, were reluctant to outline immigration policy. As )] TJ ET endstream endobj 78 0 obj [76 0 R /Fit] endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 279.3077 697.8535 299.2997 709.7335 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 81 0 obj [76 0 R /Fit] endobj 82 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 83 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 281.3237 683.5975 301.3157 695.4775 ] >> endobj 83 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 84 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 87 0 R 90 0 R 93 0 R ] /Contents 85 0 R >> endobj 85 0 obj << /Length 8036 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London effectively shows, the government maintained this policy of trying to avoid having a policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the period that she examines. By not having a specific policy, the government could be as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrictive or as compassionate as it \(or rather the Home Secretary\) chose to be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London's work goes beyond September 1939, when all issued visas were cancelled on the start of war. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the government's reluctance to admit Jewish refugees during the war and the consistent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government line that the rescue of Jews was not a war aim. In fact, the government maintained that the only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way to rescue European Jewry was for the Allies to win the war in the shortest possible time. This is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most contentious part of the book and the section that with which a critic such as Rubinstein, would focus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon. London has very much followed the lead of Kushner in his criticisms of British inaction when it came )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the issue of Jews during the war. Britain did not want to be seen to be fighting a war on behalf of Jewry is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the standard accusation levelled. This stance, in Kushner's view, shows the antisemitism that was an integral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(part of the British government's 'liberality'. London, too, is critical of government policy and she covers the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed schemes that were suggested to assist the Jews being persecuted in Nazi-dominated Europe. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this section does need to be contextualised more. Was it possible that anything realistic could have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done to rescue the Jews? The answer is probably 'no'. The main criticism, however, lies elsewhere. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government's largest failure was not its failure to the rescue European Jews, something that was impossible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to do. The failure was, firstly, to keep silent on what was happening in Nazi Europe. More information about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Holocaust should have been made public, along with more specific mention of the fact that the Jews )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were being persecuted and exterminated because of their race. Secondly, the government's complete denial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the rescue of Jews was impossible should not have deflected them from attempting to ascertain if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something could have been done. When opportunities did arise, the government sought to find a way to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoid doing anything to assist the Jews, rather than seeing if the opportunity could be exploited.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London's work also moves into the post-war situation. She examines the position of the refugees who had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entered prior to 1939, showing how they were eventually able to apply for naturalisation. The immigration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Jews after 1945 is also examined. It is unfortunate that this section is so short, since virtually nothing has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been written on this subject.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 169.004 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 169.004 414.675 m 188.996 414.675 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 188.996 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( London shows how the new Labour government continued the restrictive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies that had been introduced prior to the war. London and all others who write on immigration, need to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make more of this point, that the political hue of the party in power has little impact on immigration policy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which, on the whole, remains restrictive. London also compares the post-war entry of Jews with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(European Volunteer Workers \(EVW\) scheme that the government established to bring foreign labour into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British industry short of man and woman power.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 267.332 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(24\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 267.332 343.395 m 287.324 343.395 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 287.324 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her criticism is that the government sought to exclude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jews because of their Jewishness, whilst at the same time encouraging the entry of East Europeans. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, there are various problems with this claim. Firstly, the timing of the EVW scheme. It was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduced in 1947, by which time the majority of the displaced Jews in Europe had firmly decided to settle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only in Palestine and so would not have wished to enter Britain. Secondly, though London mentions the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political reasons behind the EVW scheme, namely the need to clear the displaced persons \(DPs\) from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe, she does not cover the international aspects of this situation. Britain was obliged to do something to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alleviate the post-war refugee situation in Europe, especially if it expected the United States to assist in its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solution. Furthermore, in accepting a share of the DPs, Britain was able to combine humanitarianism with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the advantage that these people could work in British industry. Thirdly, London views the scheme only on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its positive terms, rather than seeing it as an exploitation of foreign labour carried out by a government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which wanted to get British industry back onto a peacetime footing.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 359.648 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(25\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 359.648 186.579 m 379.640 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 379.640 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Finally, the government ensured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that there was a fail-safe mechanism at the centre of the EVW scheme. If the former DPs proved to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreliable, they could be deported back to Germany. It is doubtful that this would have been possible with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish immigrants, who would not have wanted to return to the country which had murdered so many of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their co-religionists.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Throughout the period that London's work covers, there is an overall consistency in government refugee )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy which can be summed up with several interlinked key themes that are used constantly by both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ministers and officials. Tradition, precedent, sovereignty, individuality and temporary were the words most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commonly used by ministers and officials when discussing Jewish immigration. Traditionally, it was stated, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 86 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 87 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 88 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 169.0037 414.9895 188.9957 426.8695 ] >> endobj 88 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 89 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 90 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 91 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 267.3317 343.7095 287.3237 355.5895 ] >> endobj 91 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 92 0 obj [84 0 R /Fit] endobj 93 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 94 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 359.6477 186.8935 379.6397 198.7735 ] >> endobj 94 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 95 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 98 0 R 101 0 R ] /Contents 96 0 R >> endobj 96 0 obj << /Length 7760 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain was not a country of immigration, though it had accepted its fair share of refugees in the past. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claimed lack of an immigration tradition meant that Britain would not be able to offer refuge to the many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees who would wish to come here. The fear of setting a precedent by relaxing immigration regulations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prompted officials to claim that any relaxation was a one-off, an exception rather than the rule. Britain had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintain its sovereignty over immigration. Though it would participate in the international efforts to solve )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the refugee problem, Britain had to maintain sovereign control over who would be granted entry. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, each case would be examined on its individual merits. Britain attempted to deal with the mass )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movement of Jews at an individual level. Though Britain did permit the entry of groups, for example the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kindertransporte, this came under the heading of precedent. Finally, since it was suggested that Britain was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not a country of immigration, the refugees would be admitted only on a temporary basis, pending their re-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emigration to a country of permanent settlement. London shows how these themes permeate the story from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1933 until 1948.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those who are knowledgeable about this topic this study contains many familiar arguments. Britain did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not do enough to save Jews from the Holocaust, more refugees could have been admitted, but governments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remained keen to exclude them because of their very Jewishness. London amasses a substantial body of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence to back-up these arguments. It is interesting to note that she has not only examined the records of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Home Office or the Foreign Office \(God save us all from studies that remain moribund within FO 371!\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but has also included many references to Treasury records, interviews and private papers of some of the key )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuals involved with Jewish immigration, adding a new light to the subject. The use of Treasury records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allows her to support her argument that, in 1933, "British policy towards the refugees revolved around the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue of finance." \(p26\) After all, it was only after the Anglo-Jewish community's promise of 1933 that any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish refugee admitted would not become a burden on the state that the government decided not to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduce further restriction on German Jews seeking to enter Britain. This situation continued from 1933 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until the end of the period examined by London and is key to an understanding of the government's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(immigration policy.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only concern with any history of immigration, including London's, is that the full story is still not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(known. Under the 1919Aliens Act, entry into Britain was in the hands of the Home Secretary. In practice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this power was devolved to the Immigration Officers working at the ports of entry, who administered the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entry of Aliens under the 1920 Aliens Order. London has certainly drawn attention to the possibility of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrepancy between policy decisions and how those decisions were actually put in to practice on a day-to-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(day basis, accepting that "The more generous aspects of the government's practice went largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unacknowledged."[p.46] This then is the crux of the problem for historians; whilst we have the records that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cover the making of high policy, the individual case files are not yet publicly available. There is hope that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of these records will become available in the future. A new class of records at the Public Record )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Office, HO 382 Aliens Department: Aliens Personnel Files, has been established and contains some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records that have already been opened, for example the case of William Joyce and that of Mikhail Borodin. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Further cases will be deposited there, both of famous individuals and "specimen file[s] to illustrate how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home Office handled various aspects of immigration control and how immigration policy was applied in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(actual cases." Apparently, the selection of pre-war files will be "generous", though this does depend on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether the person concerned is still alive.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 238.976 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(26\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 238.976 215.091 m 258.968 215.091 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 258.968 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is believed that these files have the potential to change the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study of immigration into Britain and will show that often officials looked favourably upon individual cases, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even those which, in terms of government policy and legislation, would have been unable to gain entry.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 530.948 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(27\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 530.948 186.579 m 550.940 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall this book certainly adds to the topic and should be used as an example by others seeking to write the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of groups that migrated to Britain.. London clearly argues how the government's immigration policy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was a non-policy. That legislation did not need to be amended for it to be restrictive, as the Home Secretary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(held the key to entry into Britain. Appeasement of Germany in the 1930s meant that Britain could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criticise the Nazi government for their treatment of the Jews. The unwillingness of Britain and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries to view the refugee issue as one of international concern, has been a feature of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Restrictions against immigration have increased, while efforts to solve the problems that cause )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refugees have not been undertaken. London's work undeniably supports Chaim Weizmann's contention to )] TJ ET endstream endobj 97 0 obj [95 0 R /Fit] endobj 98 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 99 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 238.9757 215.4055 258.9677 227.2855 ] >> endobj 99 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 100 0 obj [95 0 R /Fit] endobj 101 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 102 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 530.9477 186.8935 550.9397 198.7735 ] >> endobj 102 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 103 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 106 0 R 108 0 R 110 0 R 112 0 R 114 0 R 116 0 R 118 0 R 120 0 R 122 0 R 124 0 R 126 0 R 128 0 R 130 0 R 132 0 R 134 0 R 136 0 R 138 0 R 140 0 R 142 0 R 144 0 R 146 0 R ] /Contents 104 0 R >> endobj 104 0 obj << /Length 11442 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1937 Peel Commission that 'the world is divided into places where [the Jews] cannot live and places )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where they may not enter'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 161.144 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(28\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 161.144 780.819 m 181.136 780.819 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 747.315 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for instance, on the United States, David Wyman, )] TJ ET BT 328.976 716.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Paper Walls. America and the Refugee crisis, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1938-1941)] TJ ET BT 116.012 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press \(1968\) and Henry L. Feingold, )] TJ ET BT 487.304 702.437 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Politics of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Rescue: The Roosevelt Administration and the Holocaust, 1938-1945)] TJ ET BT 396.656 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, New Brunswick, New Jersey: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tutgers University Press \(1970\); on the Netherlands, Bob Moore, )] TJ ET BT 381.644 673.925 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees from Nazi Germany in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 659.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Netherlands, 1933-1940,)] TJ ET BT 183.680 659.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Dordrecht; Boston; Lancaster: Nijhoff \(1986\); on France, Vicki Caron, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 645.413 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Uneasy Asylum: France and the Jewish Refugee Crisis, 1933-1942)] TJ ET BT 385.640 645.413 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Stanford: Stanford University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 631.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press \(1999\); on Canada see Irving Abella and Harold Troper, )] TJ ET BT 365.612 631.157 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(None is too Many: Canada and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 616.901 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jews of Europe 1933-1948)] TJ ET BT 193.004 616.901 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Toronto: Lester and Orpen Dennys \(1982\); on Australia see Michael )] TJ ET BT 64.016 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Blakeney, )] TJ ET BT 115.340 602.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Australia and the Jewish Refugees, 1933-1948)] TJ ET BT 338.660 602.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Sydney: Croom Helm \(1985\), on Brazil see, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jeffrey Lesser, )] TJ ET BT 137.648 588.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Welcoming the Undesirables)] TJ ET BT 276.296 588.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Berkeley; Los Angeles; London: University of California )] TJ ET BT 64.016 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press \(1995\); and on India, Anil Bhatti and Johannes H. Voigt \(eds.\), )] TJ ET BT 398.648 574.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Exile in India 1933-1945)] TJ ET BT 554.636 574.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New Delhi: Max Mueller Bhavan \(1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 263.312 559.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 263.312 558.483 m 317.300 558.483 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 545.626 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Allen & Unwin \(1936\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.340 545.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.340 544.227 m 274.328 544.227 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 531.370 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: The Cresset Press \(1956\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 230.996 531.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 230.996 529.971 m 284.984 529.971 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 517.114 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Libris \(1988, first published by Penguin Books, 1940\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 370.352 517.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 370.352 515.715 m 424.340 515.715 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 502.858 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Frank Cass \(1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.340 502.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.340 501.459 m 253.328 501.459 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 488.602 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 488.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See Peter and Leni Gillman, )] TJ ET BT 202.664 488.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('Collar the Lot': How Britain Interned and Expelled its Wartime Refugees)] TJ ET BT 64.016 474.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London: Quartet Books \(1980\); Ronald Stent, )] TJ ET BT 293.012 474.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(A Bespattered Page? The Internment of 'His Majesty's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Most Loyal Enemy Aliens')] TJ ET BT 189.572 460.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( , London: Deutsch \(1980\); David Cesarani and Tony Kushner, )] TJ ET BT 495.524 460.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The )] TJ ET BT 64.016 445.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Internment of Aliens in Twentieth Century Britain)] TJ ET BT 303.356 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London: Frank Cass \(1993\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 444.680 445.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 444.680 444.435 m 498.668 444.435 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 431.578 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Frank Cass \(2nd edition, 1994, first published, 1973\). )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 367.676 431.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 367.676 430.179 m 421.664 430.179 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 417.322 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London: Barrie and Jenkins \(1975\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.996 417.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.996 416.097 m 290.312 416.097 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 403.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(London: Edward Arnold \(1979\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 220.016 403.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 220.016 401.841 m 273.332 401.841 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 388.810 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Macmillan \(1978\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.672 388.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.672 387.411 m 257.660 387.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 374.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 374.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Leicester University Press \(2nd edition, 1999, first published by Oxford University Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1979\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 95.012 360.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 95.012 358.899 m 155.000 358.899 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 346.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(12.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester: Manchester University Press \(1989\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 302.300 346.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 302.300 344.643 m 362.288 344.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 331.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leamington Spa \(1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 181.004 331.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 181.004 330.387 m 240.992 330.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 317.530 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edited by Werner Mosse, Tbingen: J.C.B. Mohr \(Paul Siebeck\), \(1991\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 415.640 317.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 415.640 316.131 m 475.628 316.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 303.274 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 303.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise London, 'British Immigration Control Procedures and Jewish Refugees, 1933-1939' in Ibid., )] TJ ET BT 64.016 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pp.485-517.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 122.012 289.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 122.012 287.619 m 182.000 287.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 274.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Macmillan \(1984\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.672 274.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.672 273.363 m 257.660 273.363 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 260.506 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson \(1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 260.324 260.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 260.324 259.107 m 320.312 259.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 246.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(18.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford: Blackwell \(1994\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 191.660 246.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(18\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 191.660 244.851 m 251.648 244.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 231.994 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(19.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Routledge \(1997\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 195.008 231.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(19\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 195.008 230.595 m 254.996 230.595 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 217.738 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(20.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 217.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Louise Anne London, 'British Immigration Control Procedures and Jewish Refugees, 1933-1942' )] TJ ET BT 64.016 203.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of London \(1992\). Her previously published articles include the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 189.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one already cited from Second Chance \(see footnote 15 above\); 'British Government Policy and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 174.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jewish Refugees 1933-45', Patterns of Prejudice vol.23, no.4 \(1989\) pp26-43, 'Jewish Refugees, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 160.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Jewry and British Government Policy, 1930-1940' in David Cesarani, )] TJ ET BT 435.140 160.709 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Making of Modern)] TJ ET BT 64.016 146.453 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Jewry)] TJ ET BT 125.336 146.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Oxford: Basil Blackwell \(1990\) pp163-190, 'British Reactions to the Jewish Flight from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 132.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Europe' in Peter Catterall and Catherine Morris \(eds.\),)] TJ ET BT 323.792 132.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Britain and the Threat to Stability in Europe )] TJ ET BT 64.016 117.941 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1918-45)] TJ ET BT 104.012 117.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, Leicester: Leicester University Press \(1993\) pp.57-73; 'Refugee Agencies and Their Work, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 103.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1933-39', The Journal of Holocaust Education vol.4, no.1 \(Summer, 1995\) pp.3-17; 'Whitehall and the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Refugees: The 1930s and the 1990s', Patterns of Prejudice vol.34 no.3 \(2000\) pp.17-26.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 484.460 89.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(20\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 484.460 88.035 m 544.448 88.035 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 75.178 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(21.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 75.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See, for example, Martin Gilbert, )] TJ ET BT 226.652 75.173 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Auschwitz and the Allies)] TJ ET BT 344.324 75.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, London: Mandarin \(1991\); Tony Kushner, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 60.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Holocaust and the Liberal Imagination, idem. , 'The British and the Shoah', Patterns of Prejudice )] TJ ET endstream endobj 105 0 obj [103 0 R /Fit] endobj 106 0 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The University also has the Parkes )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Library, a growing archive collection on Anglo-Jewry and regular seminars are held on Jewish history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(22\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 695.283 m 124.004 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only real examination has been carried out by Tony Kushner in his article, 'Holocaust Survivors in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain: An Overview and Research Agenda', The Journal of Holocaust Education, vol.4, no.2, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Winter 1995\) pp.147-66, and in his book with Katherine Knox, )] TJ ET BT 374.312 653.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees in an Age of Genocide)] TJ ET BT 527.948 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: Frank Cass \(1999\), though it is also mentioned as a side issue in David Cesarani, )] TJ ET BT 498.656 639.653 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Justice )] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Delayed.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 107.000 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(23\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 107.000 624.177 m 166.316 624.177 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 611.146 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For the EVW scheme see Diana Kay and Robert Miles, )] TJ ET BT 332.960 611.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Refugees or Migrant Workers?, )] TJ ET BT 487.940 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge \(1992\); J.A. 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