%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 19 0 R 24 0 R 29 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140819130759+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140819130759+01'00') /Title (Smoking in British popular culture 1800-2000) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4345 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Smoking in British popular culture 1800-2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hilton has produced an extremely well written account of smoking in popular culture. It is crafted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skilfully in an attractive prose style that fully reflects the call of the editor of the Studies in Popular Culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(series for readable and accessible academic writing. In his debut monograph Hilton has established himself )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as an historian of real ability and great promise.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first task he sets himself is to delineate the bourgeois-liberal context of nineteenth century smoking. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maintains this provided the ideological architecture through which most of the important subsequent debates )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about tobacco have been constructed. In an inspired choice, he utilises Sir Arthur Conan Doyle to illustrate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this argument. Conan Doyle shared a Victorian belief that each man, at least those of the middle classes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smoked in his own individual way. This belief provided Doyle's great sleuth, Sherlock Holmes, with regular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crime-solving intelligence. Hilton also visits Victorian literary journals and magazines that featured regular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles on the history and practice of smoking. The selection and use of tobacco was represented, therein, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a form that facilitated a rationalisation of an act of masculine consumption. Tobacco was placed alongside a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of commodities, such as fine wine, tailored clothing, and mechanical gadgets, that could be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appreciated only by tasteful and rational, bourgeois male consumers. This consumption was divorced from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the supposedly passive or directed shopping habits of the female consumer. Extensive knowledge of these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`masculine' products also served to de-feminise their consumption. Thus copious articles paid homage to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual and skilful attributes associated with the male smoker.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This section of Hilton's work can be usefully juxtaposed with a growing body of historical literature that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(222)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Matthew Hilton)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780719052564)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(284pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sean O'Connell)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 17 0 R ] /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7730 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revising all-too-readily received assumptions about gender and consumption in late nineteenth and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century Britain, to produce a much more nuanced understanding of the processes involved. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are, for example, important echoes of Christopher Breward's recent study on male fashion consumption in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hilton's discussion of the bourgeois fetishisation of male smoking rituals.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.840 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.840 752.307 m 400.832 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 400.832 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( This relationship is most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious in the section dealing with the nineteenth century and the form of bourgeois-liberal masculinity that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surrounded tobacco use. We learn that this culture worshipped the cigar and the pipe at the expense of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cigarette and that the latter was commonly associated with the feminine and the foreign. The cigarette was, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(according to a number of magazine articles a `miserable apology for manly pleasure' that was suited to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`effeminate races of the Continent and the East'. The cigarette smoker was a passive consumer, whilst the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pipe or cigar aficionado was knowing and discriminating.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tracing the smoking rituals of working class men proved more elusive. They had neither the time nor the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources to fetishise their habit in literary journals. Hilton provides evidence of what appears to have been a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more communal and regionally diverse culture - focused upon the workplace and the public house - than that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practised by their bourgeois contemporaries. Initially these practices revolved around the pipes that were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(given away, in their thousands, by publicans to be filled with a variety of tobacco products that were selected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently as the result of regional or occupational factors. Mass production in the late nineteenth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provided the impulse for a growing working-class cigarette buying public. Conspicuous cigarette smoking in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the company of the street corner boys who inhabited plebeian neighbourhoods commonly marked rites of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage from working class boyhood to wage-earning manhood. Hilton concludes that the Victorian and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edwardian male working class smoker probably looked upon smoking - and what, where, when and how he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smoked - as just as an important component in self-fashioning as did his bourgeois contemporary. Thus we )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are returned to the recurring theme of the ideology of the liberal individual.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The anti-tobacco movement, from Victorian crusaders through to contemporary British Medical Association )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaigners, are also, Hilton concludes, best understood from the standpoint of the culture of independence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and individuality. The Victorian and Edwardian anti-tobacco movement, whose roots lay in non-conformist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion, struggled to establish its case. A major Achilles' heel proving to be the over-egged list of ailments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it ascribed to smoking. These included lip and throat cancer, deafness, blindness, alongside physical, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mental and moral paralysis. Its major success came about when its concerns chimed with the broader debate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about racial and national degeneration, which became more prevalent following the panic about the poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of many potential Boer War recruits. `Smoker's heart' was said to be the medical problem lying behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up to a third of the military rejects from Lancashire. This focused minds on the health of the nation's youth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and anti-tobacco campaigners found their pleas for legislation on juvenile smoking more readily received. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sir Benjamin Brodie, an eminent physician, argued that the racial decline of both the `Red Indians' and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`lazy and lethargic Turks' had been precipitated through smoking and that Britain's fate lay in the hands of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the nation's youth. Of course, what was really in their hands were the many cheap, mass produced cigarette )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brands that began appearing on the market in the late nineteenth century. Hilton describes 1883, when W.D. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(& H.O. Wills of Bristol began using the Bonsack machine to produce cigarettes, as the most crucial date in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history of tobacco. In making cigarettes cheaper it paved the way for a mass market. The sketchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evidence strongly suggests that there was a marked increase in the numbers of juvenile smokers in the 1880s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1890s. The resultant outcry eventually produced a legislative response in the form of the Children's Act )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 1908. The act prohibited the sale of tobacco products to youths less than sixteen years of age, although, as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundreds of thousands of `school bike-shed smokers' have discovered, it was to be one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transgressed laws of the twentieth century. However, the anti-tobacco lobby did not seek to impose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legislation on adult smokers. Sharing the bourgeois individualist ideologies of smoking's proponents, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sort to persuade individuals to give up tobacco rather to coerce them to do so.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the inter-war period anti-tobacco campaigning had waned because, Hilton argues, of `a cultural shift in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which there was a different understanding of the relationship between the product, the market and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual.' \(76\) In other words, a mass market arrived, represented by lower prices, greater consumption, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together with more sophisticated and extensive advertising and marketing. Hilton describes this lucidly and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the process again ensures that his history is not simply one about tobacco and smoking. His work will )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj [14 0 R /Fit] endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 18 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.8397 752.6215 400.8317 764.5015 ] >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inform our understanding of the impact of modernity on British society. Moreover, in tracing the evolving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nomenclature of tobacco brand names it charts the impact of British society on one modern consumer )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(industry. Thus brands drew regularly upon British heritage, military themes or other imagery that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calculated to appeal to `the mass'. The lengthy discussion on advertising and marketing of cigarettes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(represents the best exposition of these practices yet to feature in a British historical case study. From these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(foundations, Hilton produces a detailed narrative of the evolution of branding and market segmentation. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument is that cigarette manufacturers attempted to use the powerful new advertising medium to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standardise consumption. It is not explicitly acknowledged, but this was clearly a textbook attempt at a form )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consumer engineering that mirrored the production engineering that made the mass market possible in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first place. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 87.668 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 87.668 666.771 m 101.660 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 101.660 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This section is also richly illustrated and the reader is given a rare opportunity to assess the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academic commentary alongside the primary sources. Later chapters on masculinity and femininity expand )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some of these themes, discussing the relationship between different brands, gender identities and the extent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which smokers and manufacturers constructed the relationship between these. The importance of this link )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between marketing and consumer self-fashioning was highlighted by an exercise in blind product testing, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carried out after the Second World War by Mass Observation, during which many smokers failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognised their favourite brand.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The inter-war years also witnessed the democratisation of pipe use, it becoming associated with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(middlebrow, common sense masculine identity. This was seized upon and knowingly deployed, at different )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times, by politicians such as Stanley Baldwin and Harold Wilson. There is no mention, however, of a pipe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(user who was arguably even better known than these two illustrious figures. Eric Morecambe famously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smoked a pipe to heterosexualise his bedroom scenes with Ernie Wise, in which the comic duo shared a bed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for many of their TV sketches. In the process, Morecambe brought new layers of meaning to the masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the pipe.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Unlike the pipe the cigar was not democratised during the twentieth century. Its use was only sanctioned at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times when display and flamboyancy were accepted - such as Christmas. Only the socially exalted could get )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away with regular cigar smoking, others risked being perceived as uncultured and nouveau rich. Thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(infamous cigar users include the illegal street bookmaker Sam Grundy from Walter Greenwood's novel Love )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the Dole and Arthur Daley from the TV serial Minder.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The history of the female smoker is one of changing conceptions of respectability and the role of commerce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this transformation. The cigarette became important in the signification of new public expressions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(womanhood: a process that gained in pace during the Edwardian and inter-war decades. Hilton explains that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this is only explainable in the context of changing employment patterns. Like working-class male smokers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(less is known about female smoking practices than is the case for bourgeois pipe, cigar and cigarette )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aficionados. It is only possible to speculate as to the extent of female smoking in the early-to mid-nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. By the end of that century a critique of women as smokers was being paraded that will be familiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to historians who have worked on any number of aspects of `modern' women's behaviour, whether it be the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of sewing machines, cinema going, motoring or political involvement. Rhetoric about female smokers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highlighted its dangers for both individual women and for the nation's health as a whole. Criticisms focused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on factors such as the potential damage to female reproductive capacity and the biological and cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`blurring' of the sexes. Rhetoric like this ensured that Victorian and Edwardian cigarette manufacturers were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wary of directing advertising directly at the female consumer. Hilton maintains that the impact of the two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(world wars and cinema ensured that this conservative marketing strategy was supplanted by increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to stimulate product differentiation and demand based upon gender. There was, however, a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal of androgynity about many popular brands such as Craven `A' or Weights. As the twentieth century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ticked on both genders were also experiencing increasing, if uneven, forms of leisure and disposable income. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These factors were important in making the cigarette a ubiquitous aspect of public life: by 1948 82 per cent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of males and 41 per cent of females were smokers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final section of the book deals with the health scares that haunted smokers and tobacco manufacturers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alike in the second half of the twentieth century. Hilton succinctly explains the technical and scientific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments, which for so long allowed both groups to cast doubts on the smoking-cancer link. He maintains )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj [19 0 R /Fit] endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 87.6677 667.0855 101.6597 678.9655 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 27 0 R ] /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7198 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that whilst manufacturers challenged the growing medical evidence about the link between cancer and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tobacco, the `key to understanding the history of post-war smoking is the survival of the liberal notions of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the smoking individual within a broad popular culture that contested the ability of the state to intervene in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lifestyle decisions [7]. So despite what was becoming increasingly clear about the nature of addiction and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inability of smokers to quit, it was the masculine culture of tobacco, established by Victorian bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(smokers, that formed the backdrop to the reception of health scares surrounding smoking from the 1950s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(onwards. A factor highlighted by other writers on the post-war tobacco industry is that of the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importance and influence of the industry, but Hilton makes less of this in detailing successive governments' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policies on advertising and health promotion.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 251.336 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 251.336 681.027 m 265.328 681.027 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 265.328 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( More space and, one senses, more faith is placed in what he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(calls the `more ideological' factor that formed the culture of the independent, liberal individual', as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(configured around the use of tobacco. To test this theory an analysis of several newspapers and their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responses at significant moments during the smoking and health debate are analysed and this makes for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enlightening reading. Early reports on smoking and cancer were met by comprehensive coverage in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Guardian, fears about share prices in the Express \(which was followed up by a persistent scepticism towards )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the medical establishment\) and reports that the Russians were developing a cancer-free cigarette in the News )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the World. All of which underlines the claim that public awareness of the scientific debate was at best )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uneven. In such a climate it is easy to follow Hilton's argument about the continuing importance of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bourgeois liberal culture of smoking, in which everyone was prepared to take personal responsibility for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their actions and all seemed to have a healthy, octogenarian, life-long smoker for a grandparent. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we are presented with interesting quotations on addiction, which have important and largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unacknowledged consequences for Hiltons's argument. One medical journal, cited in the text, is compelling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 497.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this respect:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The tendency to adjust one's beliefs so as to exonerate one's own behaviour is shown not only in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution of attitudes to the cigarette smoking-lung cancer hypothesis, but also in the common view that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only heavy smoking is dangerous, with heavy smoking being defined as a level of consumption one step )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(higher than one's own [227].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Seen through the prism of quotations like this the medical and biological nature of addiction is difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconcile with arguments about a liberal, individual `ideology' of tobacco use. More discussion was required )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on this topic, which is the weak link in the monograph. Perhaps this is because of the nature of the evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deployed to chart smoker's experiences of tobacco. It is acknowledged in one endnote that only a dedicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral history project is likely to uncover fully the female material experiences of cigarettes. Certainly there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are many areas where it seems likely that an ethnographic approach might have produced rewarding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives. This study is immensely strong in its study of representations of smoking, but is less solid in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(analysing everyday cigarette use from the school bike sheds through to failed efforts to quit the habit and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond, and, in too many cases, to the cancer ward. Ethnographic material is supplied through the amazingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fruitful archives of Mass Observation, but the ability of that organisation to let real people `speak for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves' has been seriously questioned by scores of social historians. Mass Observation did let people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speak for themselves in formats that were too frequently de-contextualised. The final section on femininity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(raised a number of important issues which underline Hilton's acknowledgement of the need for an oral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history in this area. All too briefly the possible use of cigarettes by women to cope with a number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(negative feelings is discussed. This is potentially of great importance when taken together with the changing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender dynamic of the smoking population: between 1948 and 1990 the proportion of adult males smoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fell from 82% to 38%, whilst the proportion of women only fell from 41% to 31%. There is an extremely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important story still to be told here.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This final point does not undermine what is clearly a fine piece of historical scholarship. The range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources employed here is significant from advertisements and trade periodicals, through to novels and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medical literature. Moreover they are used intelligently and their limitations are frequently acknowledged in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what is a confident and healthily self-reflexive monograph.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj [24 0 R /Fit] endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 251.3357 681.3415 265.3277 693.2215 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 31 0 R 33 0 R 35 0 R 37 0 R ] /Contents 30 0 R >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Length 2261 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 775.827 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 745.210 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 745.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Breward, The hidden consumer: masculinities, fashion and city life 1860-1914 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester University Press, 1999\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 242.984 730.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 242.984 729.555 m 296.972 729.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 716.698 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 716.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For a discussion of consumer engineering see Kenon Brezeale, `In spite of women: Esquire magazine )] TJ ET BT 64.016 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the construction of the male consumer', Signs, 20 \(1994\), 1-22.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 386.804 702.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 386.804 701.043 m 440.792 701.043 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 688.186 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 688.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Taylor, Smoke ring: the politics of tobacco \(Bodley Head, 1984\). Mervyn Read, The politics of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tobacco: policy networks and the cigarette industry \(Avebury, 1996\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 395.288 673.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 395.288 672.531 m 449.276 672.531 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 64.016 647.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is pleased to accept the review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 609.413 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 595.157 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 590.431 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 572.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 572.651 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/222)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 571.257 m 322.316 571.257 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 546.280 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 531.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1254)] TJ ET BT 34.016 517.480 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 242.9837 729.8695 296.9717 741.7495 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 16 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 386.8037 701.3575 440.7917 713.2375 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 21 0 R >> endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 395.2877 672.8455 449.2757 684.7255 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 26 0 R >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 38 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 571.5715 322.3157 583.4515 ] >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/222) >> endobj xref 0 39 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000554 00000 n 0000000636 00000 n 0000005033 00000 n 0000005142 00000 n 0000005252 00000 n 0000005361 00000 n 0000008922 00000 n 0000009050 00000 n 0000009134 00000 n 0000009218 00000 n 0000017001 00000 n 0000017031 00000 n 0000017159 00000 n 0000017195 00000 n 0000017279 00000 n 0000024817 00000 n 0000024847 00000 n 0000024974 00000 n 0000025010 00000 n 0000025094 00000 n 0000032345 00000 n 0000032375 00000 n 0000032503 00000 n 0000032539 00000 n 0000032644 00000 n 0000034958 00000 n 0000035086 00000 n 0000035141 00000 n 0000035269 00000 n 0000035324 00000 n 0000035452 00000 n 0000035507 00000 n 0000035635 00000 n trailer << /Size 39 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 35730 %%EOF