%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 22 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724011915+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724011915+01'00') /Title (When Death Do Us Part: Understanding and Interpreting the Probate Records of Early-Modern England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4140 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(When Death Do Us Part: Understanding and Interpreting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Probate Records of Early-Modern England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In 1960 I published an article on the leather industry using the probate inventories of 55 leather workers. I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(am reminded of this piece of almost forgotten biography by a contributor to this volume. I remember only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two things about the article. First, I was inordinately proud of my first venture into academic print \(no need )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for RAEs in those innocent years to spur us on; ambition was enough\). And, second, the editor of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Economic History Review)] TJ ET BT 158.660 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Charles Wilson\) asked me to remove a section discussing the provenance of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probate material, maintaining that it was by now well known. Had this book been available forty years ago )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he could not have made such a request and I probably would not have submitted the article \(ambition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(notwithstanding\), conscious of the dangers waiting to trap the unwary. Probate sources have been used, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the words of one contributor, "for 50 years to study the vast majority of the population below the level of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gentry". There are possibly two million wills surviving from early modern England. But how reliable are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they as mirrors of the lives of the "common people"?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is this question that this volume sets out to answer. The seventeen essays are arranged into three sections. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first discusses the legal processes involved in producing wills, inventories, and accounts. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section demonstrates various ways of extracting information from probate material. The third part shows )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the study of probate records can be combined with the study of other sources. There are also four )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(223)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tom Arkell)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Goose)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nesta Evans)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780904920429)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Leopard's Head Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(L.A. Clarkson)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6865 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appendices illustrating the processes of probate and the coverage of probate material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part 1 contains six essays. The first two, "The Probate Process" by Tom Arkell and "Probate 1500-1800: a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(System in Transition" by Jeff and Nancy Cox, cover much of the same ground. Probate consisted of two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stages: the proving of the will and the granting of administration to the executors. Where there was no will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the courts appointed administrators. There were, thus, potentially, several sets of records: the will, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventory, and the accounts of the executors or administrators demonstrating that they had distributed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(estate in a proper manner.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Until 1858 the administration of probate was the responsibility of the ecclesiastical courts. Arkell's essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(describes the structure of these courts. Complications arise because the church courts overlapped and had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(competing jurisdictions. There were the provincial courts of Canterbury and York, the consistory or diocesan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts, and the archdeaconry courts. There were also "peculiars" outside the control of archdeacons or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bishops. Other worthies such as the chancellors of Oxford and Cambridge universities also had authority in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some areas. The probate processes evolved over time, for example in handling the affairs of people who died )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intestate. Perhaps the most serious limitation of probate evidence, if we are interested in the economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(circumstances of the people, is that the authority of the church courts did not extend to real estate but was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confined to the moveable goods, credit, and leasehold property of the deceased.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Estimates for the number of wills surviving for the early modern period vary between three-quarters of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million and two million. The chronological coverage grew from the early sixteenth century to the 1640s, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tracking the growth of population, but declined thereafter. The geographical extent is uneven and the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spread uncertain. Whatever strengths probate evidence may possess for studying the common people, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are not a sample of the population in a statistical sense. But nor is most evidence on which historians rely. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(We are at the mercy of chance survivals and the survival of two million documents \(or even only three-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quarters of a million\) is manna from heaven to be used with caution, imagination and computer technology.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(EThe remaining four essays in Part 1 deploy these skills in various ways. Nigel Goose and Nesta Evans )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consider wills as a historical source. The survival of wills has depended on many circumstances, including )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the efficiency of administration in the first place as well as the accidents of preservation and destruction. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Will-making was an activity more of the wealthier than the very poor, more of older people contemplating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality than of younger people, and principally of men. Women who made wills were usually widows. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structure of wills generally conformed to a pattern, and they were usually written by literate neighbours )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and not by professional lawyers. There is a strong sense of community emerging from the documents as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbour turned to neighbour to draw up the document and to act as executors. The bequests included in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wills indicate the extent of local charity. There is information on occupational structure, although wills may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be less useful than probate inventories for this purpose. Although wills were the product of impending death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their value as a demographic source is disappointing. On the other hand they tell us a good deal about family )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and kinship relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ETom Arkell, explores probate inventories as a historical source. This is familiar territory since Hoskins )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(used inventories more than fifty years ago to turn the focus of agrarian history away from land holding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land use. If inventories had no other function, this would be a major achievement, but they throw light on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other trades and crafts and the occupational structure of communities. From inventories we learn much about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(early modern houses and their furnishings and about the improvements in material comfort during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Probate accounts, studied by Professor Erickson, perform a similar function to inventories, this time from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective of the executors or administrators. The accounts record medical and funeral expenses, thus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicating some of the customs attending death and burial. The testator's provisions for spouse and children )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were listed, together with the costs of administering the estate. Account also throw much light on rural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indebtedness, a subject explored in greater detail in Part II by Peter Spufford.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The final essay in Section I is Professor Overton's investigation of prices recorded in probate inventories. )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6603 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is an analysis of more than 200,000 unit prices taken from inventories from the counties of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hertfordshire, Lincolnshire, and Worcestershire. The purpose was to produce price series for several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(categories of household goods over the period 1550-1750. The value of this essay - apart from demonstrating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the benefits of computer analysis - is that it suggests that inventory prices reflected the general level of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(market prices and therefore provide a complementary series to stand beside those of Rogers, Beveridge, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(others.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Overton essay raises two general issues. The first concerns the categorisation. I do not see why it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(included in Part I \(dealing with the legal context\) and not in Part II \(examining different approaches to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of probate material\). The second is that Overton's work is familiar to experts in the field, as are several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other pieces in this collection. I am therefore left wondering about the target audience the editors had in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind. I will return to this question below.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part II commences with an ingenious investigation \(first published thirty years ago\) by Margaret Spufford )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the religious preambles to wills in Cambridgeshire. It is a beautiful piece of detective work leading to a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of conclusions. The first is that in every village there were usually two or three literate people \(the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rector, the lord of the manor, the school master, a shopkeeper, a yeoman\) capable of writing a will for a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dying neighbour. The second is that the religious preambles were not simply pious words but reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genuine beliefs. And, thirdly, that although scribes had their favoured forms of words, the true beliefs of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testator broke through.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Marsh's 'Attitudes to Will-Making' \(first published a decade ago\) is a companion piece. Indeed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it covers some of the same ground as Spufford's, including the use of scribes and the value of wills as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflections of religious beliefs. Marsh, as with so many other contributors, is extremely cautious in stating )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(his findings. "Wills are not a source into which historians can dip for swift and reliable results.")] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nesta Evan's study of occupations and status in Cambridgeshire between 1551 and 1800 brings us back to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar ground. It is a computer analysis of almost 34,000 wills lodged in the Consistory Court of Ely. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evans arranges the occupations of testators into several categories: farming; building, wood and metal; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(textiles and clothing, food and drink; and transport. Not surprisingly given the rural aspect of the region, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(farming predominated, although its share of total occupations declined over time. It is unclear whether the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decline reflected a diversification of the economy or - as Evans suggests - a change in the use of the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("labourer" as a description.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nigel Goose's essay on probate material as a source of information about fertility and mortality takes us back )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a subject he raised earlier. His sources come from three towns, Cambridge, Colchester, and Reading. His )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion is that wills are a poor source for studying levels of fertility, although no more so than parish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registers. They are, however, useful in indicating changing trends in fertility and regional differences. As for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality, better to rely on parish records than on wills.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 239.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Spufford offers a study of rural credit based on a study of probate accounts. This is a condensed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translation of an article published in French in 1994 and Professor Erickson has already anticipated its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(findings in her essay. Finally, in this section, Anne Tarver examines probate accounts in the diocese of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lichfield and Coventry in the later seventeenth century. This is another extended warning of the traps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awaiting unwary historians who choose to use probate evidence to study the common people.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 156.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part III contains five essays. The most intriguing is Edmund Weiner's 'The Language of Probate Inventories'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 142.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This uses the science of phonology to explore the extent of "standard English spelling", the existence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 127.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regional dialects, the word stock, and grammar. Probate inventories provide a corpus of non-literary texts, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 113.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and as such "testify to the language of ordinary people".)] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This theme is explored further in Barrie Trinder's contribution that examines words used in Shropshire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventories to describe material possessions or to lump them into categories. Thus, a "maid" in a non-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 58.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(animate sense could be anything from a clothes horse to a hook for holding a frying pan. There were dozens )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 6224 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of words for weights and measures: pounds, stones, strikes, bushels, loads, and many others. Here is a world )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rich in language as well as in material goods. Christine North's study of the probate inventories of merchants )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and retailers in seventeenth-century Cornwall pursues a similar theme. She analyses the goods listed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traders' inventories \(111 documents between 1601 and 1649\) and discovers a miscellaneous collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(possessions, many of them helpfully defined in a glossary. But her interest is less with vocabulary than in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguing that Cornwall, for all its geographical remoteness, was not an economic backwater. Its long coastline )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and many small ports provided it with links to the word beyond the Tamar.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mary Hodges explores the world of widows in the Oxfordshire towns of Thame and Woodstock. This essay )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is the product of the labour of dedicated local historians prepared to spend hours in painstaking documentary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research untroubled by the breathless urgency of the RAE. Widows were a busy group pursuing their late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands' trade and lending money. It was often easier for widows to survive as money lenders than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manufacturers and merchants. This is a most useful study, but why it in the section entitled 'Probate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Inventories Plus' I cannot make out.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There are no such doubts with Bernard Jennings discussion of economic activity in early-modern Yorkshire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(He combines probate evidence with leases, parish registers, manorial court rolls, and other sources to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construct a lively but tantalisingly short account of the regional economy. Jennings' research tool is not a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(computer but imagination, which he uses to good effect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I mentioned earlier that several of the essays in this collection have been published before in one form or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(another. Scholars familiar with probate evidence may wonder whether they want to buy this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(although it is not expensive by today's standard\). Historians with only a fleeting knowledge of probate )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(documents will find the collection valuable, although a greater degree of editorial discipline would have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhanced its usefulness. The repetitions are irritating and even confusing at times. The collection needs an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to guide the innocent.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, it is unfair to finish on a carping note. Wills, inventories, and accounts get us close to the everyday )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lives of the population of early-modern England below the gentry. Great history it was once said \(I forget by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whom\) is not written from laundry lists. Perhaps not, although much depends on one's definition of great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history. If your taste runs to political or constitutional or diplomatic history, laundry lists may not be of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much use. But if we are interested in the lives of people in their routine business of getting and spending, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(living and dying, then probate material - if not laundry lists - are the thing.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This volume leaves me with four abiding impressions. The first is that Englishmen before 1500 and 1800 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were very like us in the store that they put on material possessions. Secondly, they were a neighbourly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people; there is \(and was\) such a thing as society\). Thirdly, they were religious, not in the sense of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proselytising and preaching, but in the belief that their souls were the property of the Almighty but their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(goods and chattels were their own to bequeath to their kin. And, finally, it was a bureaucratic society. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of probate generated a demand for tons of paper, gallons of ink, the quills of goodness knows how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many geese, and pins more than enough to keep Adam Smith happy for pages. Documents were written and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(copied and copied again without the benefit of carbon paper, typewriters, or word processors. Papers piled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up in presses, attics, cellars, and offices. If two million wills have survived, how many were there to start )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with? We should be grateful for the efforts of the contributors to this volume for introducing us to this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mountain of information and helping us to burrow through it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 135.247 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 117.467 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 117.467 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/223)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 116.073 m 322.316 116.073 l S endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 116.3875 322.3157 128.2675 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/223) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 306 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 784.354 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 769.954 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1256)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000607 00000 n 0000000689 00000 n 0000004881 00000 n 0000004990 00000 n 0000005100 00000 n 0000005209 00000 n 0000008770 00000 n 0000008898 00000 n 0000008982 00000 n 0000009047 00000 n 0000015965 00000 n 0000016030 00000 n 0000022686 00000 n 0000022770 00000 n 0000029047 00000 n 0000029175 00000 n 0000029270 00000 n 0000029335 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29693 %%EOF