%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140831020430+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140831020430+01'00') /Title (England's Colonial Wars 1550-1688 / Britain's Colonial Wars 1688-1783) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3081 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(England's Colonial Wars 1550-1688 / Britain's Colonial Wars 1688-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(1783)] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial wars are defined in these two vigorously iconoclastic books as 'episodes of violence associated with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the establishment of . dominions \(usually but not always overseas\), trading supremacies on oceanic routes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and plantations or colonies; as well as the subsequent struggles between European states and their rival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects for control of or access to such imperial prizes.' For the English and British case, wars in Ireland are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most definitely included.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(224)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Lenman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(582062977X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(317pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bruce Lenman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978058242401X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(294pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 221.171 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.659 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 164.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Marshall)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7710 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Professor Lenman is in no doubt of the importance of his subject, particularly for those peoples whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(territory became an imperial prize, but he believes that much that has been written and continues to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written about colonial wars in his period is misdirected and misleading. He insists that while wars must 'be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seen in their social and economic - as well as their political - contexts', they cannot be subsumed into a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process of expansion that relentlessly and inevitably carried Britain to world domination, while at the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time shaping the culture of its peoples. 'War and its contingencies remain a force in their own right'. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(outcome of England's and Britain's colonial wars was never predictable and their consequences were rarely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what contemporaries intended. Historians must therefore subject each war to close analysis rather than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basing grand theories on unsustainable assumptions about colonial wars in general.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two types of theorising, one economic the other cultural, incur Lenman's ire in particular. He sees only a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited role for extra-European trade and wealth extraction in Britain's pre-industrial economic development. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('For a generation, no more', that is roughly from 1748 to 1776, trade with the Americas, Ireland and Asia )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was the dynamic leading sector in overseas trade. Thereafter, 'the simple fact that there were 150,000,000 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people in Europe and only 3,000,000 in the new United States helped return British manufactured exports to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more traditional European markets.' Those who see colonial wars as a central part of a state policy of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commercial expansion, largely driven by the needs of merchants, are given short shrift. The state had no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such policy and merchants had little influence over such policies as it had. Immanuel Wallerstein's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestion that the gains made by Britain in the peace of 1763 represented the 'victory of certain sections of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the world bourgeoisie, who were rooted in England, with the aid of the British state' is briskly consigned to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('historiography's rubbish bin'. They reflected a fortuitous military and naval triumph that was soon to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reversed. In another passage arguments about the importance of 'the primary extraction of surplus' receive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(similar treatment. They can only be sustained 'by a selective use of those parts of the evidence which happen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to fit the model'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(At that point Lenman couples 'post-mortem broad brush Marxism' with his other )] TJ ET BT 423.644 432.581 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(bete noir)] TJ ET BT 466.640 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, that is with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments that an English or British sense of their identity and of their culture were significantly influenced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by colonial encounters that provided the 'other', be it Celt or Chinese, against which they could be defined. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Lenman's view, 'colonial peripheries' and their peoples 'were of very little contemporary interest indeed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the core English population even if that be redefined as a literate elite'. Moreover, those who did take an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interest in such 'peripheral' peoples, be they native Americans or Irish, usually recognised both their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diversity and the ways in which they were comparable to themselves. English and Scots accepted that there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were 'many shifting identities in Ireland. The tendency of 'American historians in particular' to see Anglo-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Irish relations as a ' "four hundred years war'', at times of ' "genocidal magnitude" ' merely gives 'moral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cohesion to the fractured vision created by their own work'. The 'whole assumption that official British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in the period 1688-1783 was stamped by a particularly imperialistic outlook is itself very dubious'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not content with eliminating whole species of scholars, Lenman conducts a cull of certain specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contemporary sacred cows with the zeal of a vet from the former Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confronting a foot-and-mouth epidemic. The 'brilliant synthesis' of John Brewer's )] TJ ET BT 427.448 235.253 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Sinews of Power)] TJ ET BT 507.452 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(limited application to Britain's involvements overseas. Britain for most of the period was by no means an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('imperial state' as is implied by 'an admirable collection of essays based on a Princeton seminar', edited by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lawrence Stone and entitled )] TJ ET BT 173.984 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(An Imperial)] TJ ET BT 234.644 192.485 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(State at War)] TJ ET BT 294.644 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The Elizabethan adventurers, such as Raleigh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gilbert have been taken 'far more seriously by posterity than they deserve'. Seventeenth-century English did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not see affinities between Gaelic Irish and North American Indians. Those who denounce Edmund Spenser's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed views on the Irish are obsessed 'with their own politics and the projection of those politics into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past'. Britain's rulers did not see Ireland in clearly imperial terms until the later eighteenth century. 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whole concept of an evolving British identity based on imperial trade, imperial swagger and Protestantism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growing and evolving between 1739 and 1748 is sheer )] TJ ET BT 298.976 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(post facto)] TJ ET BT 345.980 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( constructionism by historians.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism no doubt contributed to a sense of British identity, but 'Protestants differed and belonged to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(three kingdoms and four nations'. 'To argue that the American Revolution was in some sense a religious war )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is just not convincing.')] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7237 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does Lenman restock the landscape over which he has strewn so many corpses? In the place of those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments that he has demolished he offers two of his own of great interest. In the first place, he insists on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the British state's limited capacity to wage war overseas until the very end of the eighteenth century and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moreover on its very limited interest in doing so. As a consequence, the two hundred and fifty years or so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with which his books deal are as much a record of checks and failures as of British successes. Britain could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not dominate the world outside Europe until the era of the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(triumphalist interpretation of a relentless rise of Britain to worldwide greatness is therefore entirely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misplaced.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth had no 'programme' for the conquest of Ireland before the 1590s and in any case she was 'probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too mean to make the necessary resources available for such a policy, even if she had them in the first place'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Her policies were 'an appalling failure rooted in ignorance and folly'. The 'English nation' conspicuously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(failed to become 'an Atlantic imperial people' in the wars of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. The colonies would not combine for their own defence and left it to metropolitan Britain reluctantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to shoulder more and more of the burden. In the War of the Austrian Succession the British were beaten off )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by the Spanish in the Caribbean, thrashed on the continent by the French and humiliated at home by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jacobites. The Seven Years War brought great victories, but it left the British monarchy 'grossly over-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extended' and harassed by 'often incompatible and demands, ambitions and points of view'. In particular, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war had unleashed an expansive imperialism in the thirteen colonies. 'It was becoming clear that settler and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan versions of imperialism in North America were so incompatible that only force could move the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument out of impasse.' Force was indeed to be used and Britain was to lose the thirteen colonies. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scepticism is very salutary.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenman breaks many lances against current theories about British identities, but he is deeply interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the problem and has challenging arguments to propound. Again, he is warily sceptical. He does not believe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that colonial wars consolidated either an English or a British identity. They had precisely the opposite effect. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(They led to two great 'fracturings of the Englishry' and did not create much in the way of Britishness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compensate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The alienation of the Old English of Ireland in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and the revolt of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English in North America in the later eighteenth century constituted the fracturings of the English. Lenman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explains how the future Jesuit Edmund Campion identified in 1571 with ' "our English in Ireland" ', that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the Catholic Old English of Ireland, and hoped 'to strengthen English culture in Ireland'. His hopes were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to be frustrated by the Elizabethan government, which unleashed waves of ruthless adventurers on Ireland. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These New English rationalised their expropriations in the name of Protestantism and sought to turn the Old )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English into rebels. An alliance between the Gaels and the Old English in the name of a common 'Irishness' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based on religion had no deep historic roots. It was the achievement of English policy from the later )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sixteenth century. In the 1640s and 1650s the Old English did indeed lead a 'Catholic proto-nationalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alliance'. Defeated, they finally merged into a 'Catholic nationalist community'. The New English were the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victors, but the British state showed little inclination to bind them into a national community. They were to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(take up 'a principled hostility to the domination of the composite monarchy by London' as a consequence.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For all the waves of new immigrants during the eighteenth century, the elites in the thirteen colonies of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(North America were essentially English in outlook. These communities had never been ruled effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from London and Lenman believes that 'the substance of independence . was probably inevitable by 1760'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Americans had already developed 'a frightening appetite for further territorial aggrandisement', which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(exacerbated problems of rule. The 'ideological and tactical inflexibility of the Westminster system', however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ensured that independence came when it did and that it would constitute full sovereignty wrung from Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by war. Until it was far too late, the British government clung to a 'frequently reiterated political theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which reserved for it a mystical seamless sovereignty'. As in their dealings with the Old English of Ireland, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowly based regime in London had pursued narrowly conceived objectives in its American policy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus the English underwent 'the second great schism in their corporate identity' brought about by colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(war. This did, however, clear the way for the English to embrace Britishness with the Scots. That concept, in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3166 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenman's view, only began to have real force in the late eighteenth century. By then the Scots were willing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to 'add Britishness to their multiple identities, something most American English colonists never really did.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is hard to imagine any reader of these books who will not find his or her views challenged by Lenman's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(robust and splendidly unpredictable views. For instance, his dislike of the ignorance and arrogance, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly about notions of sovereignty, of the London political elite at any time is well known to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(aficionados)] TJ ET BT 90.020 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of Lenman's work. It is a revelation to discover how much he dislikes the founding fathers of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American Republic, who 'devised a self-righteous civic religion' as their ideology and 'in the name of liberty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(went in for ruthless populist suppression of dissenting voices'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 658.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers must perhaps be prepared for other challenges. The reasons for the scale on which some episodes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are treated by comparison with others are not always obvious. Why, for instance, is there so little on the War )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the American Revolution outside North America? Reading these books is rather like listening to Bruce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lenman in person in full flow as a raconteur or in making contributions to conference discussions. An )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extraordinarily quick and fertile mind is drawing on a vast stock of erudition. As Boswell said of Burke, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can foam like Niagara. The less nimble witted may feel that they are going over the falls in a barrel and may )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have real difficulties in teasing out the structure of the argument or in recognising the force of some of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allusions. They should persevere.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 513.391 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 495.611 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 495.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/224-0)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 494.217 m 332.312 494.217 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 469.240 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 454.840 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1258)] TJ ET BT 34.016 440.440 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1260)] TJ ET BT 34.016 426.040 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([3] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 494.5315 332.3117 506.4115 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/224-0) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000572 00000 n 0000000654 00000 n 0000003787 00000 n 0000003896 00000 n 0000004006 00000 n 0000004115 00000 n 0000007676 00000 n 0000007804 00000 n 0000007888 00000 n 0000007953 00000 n 0000015716 00000 n 0000015781 00000 n 0000023071 00000 n 0000023155 00000 n 0000026374 00000 n 0000026502 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 26599 %%EOF