%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141002033456+01'00') /ModDate (D:20141002033456+01'00') /Title (Britain in the First Millennium) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4363 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Britain in the First Millennium)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A new series under the general editorship of Keith Robbins, with the laudable aim of locating British history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(firmly within its European context, has been launched at what it regards as the beginning - not with Britain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moving out of primitive isolation to become part of Europe, but rather with Britain emerging gradually from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prehistory. One starts to read a book that attempts to discuss Britain in the whole first millennium AD with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something of a sense of wonder that such a thing should be done at all, for the skills demanded by starting in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the late Iron Age, crossing the entire Roman Period, and then covering most of the Anglo-Saxon Period, are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many and diverse. In fact, as one might surmise from looking at the other titles in preparation for this series, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which suggest that neither the 11th century nor, bizarrely, the 1780's are going to get a look in, there is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(underlying assumption that the date-ranges are to be treated as approximations - not a difficult exercise for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the archaeologist, but hardly a familiar attitude amongst historians. Edward James's book is actually about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Roman and Anglo-Saxon Periods, AD 43-1066, not the period from AD 1-1000. The reign of Edward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Confessor is treated very briefly at the end of the book, although James does not seem consciously to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hinting that we could date the Norman Period in England from 1042.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a history book with many good things in it and about it. It was a pleasure to read, and is a book one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can recommend without hesitation to anyone looking for a serious but readily comprehensible account and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of early-medieval Britain and its Roman-period/late Iron-age background. It is written clearly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(built upon an interest in and wide-ranging knowledge of the subject that are conveyed with a careful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lightness of touch, which in turn implies a deep-seated enthusiasm for communicating an appreciation of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(225)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward James)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(340586885X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(320pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Arnold Publishing)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Hines)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7965 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history to a wide audience. The contents of the book are well balanced, not only across its wide )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological range but also in respect of the many different facets of the past, which are generally treated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with sensitivity and with a concern to remember those who are often squeezed into or even beyond the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(margins of standard history - happily without exaggeratedly trying to even the score on their behalf and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writing from silence. True to the series' aim, and true indeed to the author's own research history, the study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets the history of Britain in this period squarely and substantially in its Continental context, showing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persistent significance of extensive political ambitions and alliances, trade, and trans-regional ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(developments.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While it has been written as a critical summary, not as the mouthpiece for some radically new perspective, I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found many points in this book where facts or ideas came across with some detail or emphasis that was new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to me, and which thus cast fresh light on what might otherwise have been all too familiar ground. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selection of examples that I noted includes the contextualization of Thomas Charles-Edwards's wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(surveys of the system of hidation within a view of the basic principles of Anglo-Saxon landholding \(v. p )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(125\), and the similarly compact but comprehensive overview of coinage and commerce \(pp 194-6\). A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of the anglicization of sub-Roman kingdoms with particular reference to the British Church and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon episcopal organisation came across as a striking revelation \(v. pp 134-5\), as did James's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of the importance of education in the early Irish Church \(pp 169-70\). Different readers will of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course learn different things from this book, but altogether points such as these testify to the subtle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(integration of specific detail into a broad comparative picture that is a distinct strength that it has.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If the study has any particular interpretative line to promote, it is precisely the virtue of inclusivity - of not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taking too selective a view of the past either by neglecting detail or by excluding certain themes or areas )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from consideration. Not \(thankfully\) that the author has thus composed himself as some monstrous paragon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of reason and impeccable objectivity. Most idiosyncratic, although hardly unconventional in British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Academia, are the Guardianesque comments that intermittently add top notes of earnest pink to the brew of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(facts and interpretation. It is thus difficult, James writes, after coolly quoting Terry Pratchett, "in a post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial world with a post-fascist consciousness" to admire the Roman army rather than the Celtic warriors )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p 19\); and the political division between Northumbria and the rest of England shades over into a reference )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to William the Conqueror's brutal harrying of the North in 1069 \(so unlike his behaviour anywhere else?\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and then seamlessly on to "northern resentment at a southern-based government" that has remained in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England to the present day.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If there is a topic on which James's attitude lies open to criticism for being more significantly inappropriate, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is that of Christianity and the Church, which he regards with an antipathy reminiscent of Edward Gibbon. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Christianity is identified as the "most insidious ... aspect of Romanisation" while Roman )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imperialism is also generally regarded with distaste \(pp 38-41\), James nonetheless slips into the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconsistency as Gibbon was guilty of, in then unfavourably contrasting Christian intolerance and mysticism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(superstition\) with Roman eclecticism and reason \(p 66ff\). The general lack of authorial sympathy in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(area leads to some real misunderstandings, such as quite unnecessary vagueness about the origins and early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Christianity, a failure to include any recognition of the rise of Islam on Judaeo-Christian roots as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(related phenomenon, and a final, dismissive assumption that "for most people religion is about crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(management" \(pp 71-5\). It is not going to help any thoughtful reader to analyse and evaluate the cultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political strategies, disguises and consequences of the history of Christianity - or of any other very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(successful religion, for that matter - by putting a case that is both partial and inaccurate.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A different problem is the difficulty of dealing with technical data across the full range of cultural evidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as illustrated particularly by the inclusion of language history, where unfortunate errors are rather too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequent. Irish )] TJ ET BT 104.996 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cruithin/Cruithne)] TJ ET BT 191.684 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( [sic] is not derived from P-Celtic *)] TJ ET BT 362.000 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Pritani)] TJ ET BT 396.008 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(; indeed it is the )] TJ ET BT 475.676 121.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(p)] TJ ET BT 481.676 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(- in the root )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is the innovation from Indo-European *)] TJ ET BT 245.324 106.949 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(k)] TJ ET BT 250.652 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(w- \(p 7\). In terms of the origins of Welsh and Cornish place )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(names, it is pushing it to say that )] TJ ET BT 194.360 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(llan)] TJ ET BT 213.032 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( means 'enclosure'; and it should have been noted that Greek )] TJ ET BT 505.628 92.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kyriakon )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was borrowed as the word for 'church' into West and later North Germanic generally, not just in Old English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p 83\). We are not in a position to quantify the differences between or mutual intelligibility of various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(branches of Germanic in the Roman Period \(p 88\), while Old English in the Migration Period was the most )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8888 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dynamically innovative of the Germanic languages, not, with Frisian, a conservative relict insulated from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changes elsewhere in "Continental Germanic" \(p 109\). Forms are cited incorrectly, e.g. Old English )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cantwara)] TJ ET BT 82.028 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for )] TJ ET BT 102.020 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cantware)] TJ ET BT 149.360 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p 111\), -)] TJ ET BT 197.348 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sten)] TJ ET BT 224.684 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for -)] TJ ET BT 248.672 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(ste)] TJ ET BT 270.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or -)] TJ ET BT 290.000 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(stan)] TJ ET BT 318.008 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p 143\), or the Old Norse which is extensively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(garbled on page 237. On page 127 )] TJ ET BT 201.980 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sum geong cyninges)] TJ ET BT 301.628 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(egn)] TJ ET BT 324.956 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is at best ambiguously translated as 'a young )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(king's thegn' rather than 'a young thegn of the king', while on page 234 it does seem important that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quoted entry from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 877, )] TJ ET BT 299.648 725.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(hit gedeldon sum)] TJ ET BT 381.644 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, clearly means that the Viking army )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(divided )] TJ ET BT 73.016 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(some)] TJ ET BT 97.676 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( of the territory of Mercia up amongst themselves. On literary sources, it is not "generally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed" that the reference to Arthur in the B-text of Y )] TJ ET BT 295.172 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Gododdin)] TJ ET BT 343.172 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( post-dates the )] TJ ET BT 415.496 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Historia Brittonum)] TJ ET BT 507.176 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(p 101\), )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nor is it correct that the heroic ideal of the warrior choosing death with his lord is not expressed "one single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time" during the nine centuries between Tacitus' )] TJ ET BT 268.700 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Germania)] TJ ET BT 317.360 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( and )] TJ ET BT 340.688 668.165 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Battle of Maldon)] TJ ET BT 443.024 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. James has evidently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forgotten the familiar Cynewulf and Cyneheard story in the Chronicle.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lapses of this kind in respect of basic material are worryingly familiar in studies that attempt to bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(together a diversity of evidence to write a truly cultural history of the past. We cannot say it doesn't matter to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(make mistakes, even if, as here, there may be no major consequences in any specific case. "Facts are chiels )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that winna ding, an' downa be disput," as Burns would have told you. Despite his potentially subversive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the idea that "what the historian must do is to establish what happened" as a "trap" \(p 14\), James )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaves his reader in no doubt that one must work with secure facts where right and wrong are not merely a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter of opinion. But does the difficulty of writing to equally high standards in more than one branch of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship effectively make substantial interdisciplinary scholarship impossible? The solution cannot lie in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interdisciplinary work being produced collaboratively, because if something cannot be produced by a single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind one cannot expect it to be understood by any single individual. The situation is not hopeless, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the essential answers to the problem are straightforward and practical ones. Firstly, interdisciplinary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cultural history must be preceded by multidisciplinary training - something that modular schemes of study )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are making increasingly possible at university level, although admittedly not to very advanced stages of skill )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and experience. Pragmatically, meanwhile, the call must be for rigorous checking of material for publication, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a responsibility that falls upon authors, editors and publishers alike. This has resource implications only in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terms of time and patience - which, of course, are in short supply in the modern academic system. But if one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should wish to adopt a serious political and ethical stance through the Humanities, it would not be too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pretentious to champion the general virtues of the determined pursuit of precision and quality, and to fight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the principle that second best should not do.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Edward James's )] TJ ET BT 113.492 344.789 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Britain in the First Millennium)] TJ ET BT 262.172 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is, in the end, a history book informed by archaeology and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(philology, not a work in some new scholarly genre of interdisciplinary writing. Its disciplinary niche is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirmed by the sparsity of illustrations \(six maps, plus the Kingston brooch on the cover\), and a system of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endnotes and bibliographical details apparently designed to minimise ease and speed of reference. Above all, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, it inspires me with the thought that there is now another, methodologically different book to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written both alongside and around this historical framework - one to boldly go where none has gone before )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and to break the mould of conventional periodization by considering the first millennium strictly defined, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from AD 1-1000. This would surely force us to confront the history of this huge period in startlingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different terms, compelling us to look at states of affairs, not to start comfortably with a beginning and end )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comfortably with an end; to compare late Iron-age Britain with the Britain of a few generations before the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Norman Conquest, when England was plagued by Danish attacks but able to produce huge amounts of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Danegeld; when a kingdom of Scotland was growing in size, strength and coherency; and when nothing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(terribly unusual was happening in Wales \(as usual\). Just how much real change had the millennium seen, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(one could ask, when we look at population densities, quality of life and life expectancies, the economic and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(technical conditions and the agricultural regime? How much essential difference was there between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(societies governed principally according to the interests of their particular warrior and religious elites at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(either end of the period? To adopt such an approach, which such a simple shift in the time-frame so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerfully promotes, is self-evidently to adopt a far more archaeological perspective on the first )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(millennium, refocusing on long-term processes of cultural history and their material conditions. This would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not so much bear the disconcerting implication that even such dramatic and disruptive events as the Roman, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Anglo-Saxon, Christian and Viking conquests do not really seem to have mattered all that much in this )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 2274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regard, as to show just how richly complementary a really interdisciplinary view can be.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Any serious scholarly author who is not insufferably sure of what, why and how he is going about his work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(will be visited by doubts in the course of a major book: "Should I really be doing this?". Edward James can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be proud of the skilful and sensible job he has made of the unusual challenge of writing a summary of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Britain from the Roman invasion to the eve of the Norman Period. His book rightly provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for a debate about what else could or should be done in terms of long-term perspectives on this period, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and - perhaps most importantly in practical terms - for a critical evaluation of more focused, shorter term, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(histories. The merits and success of James's book are a vindication of the choices he has made, and he has no )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(further need to explain or justify why he did things the way he did. Knowing that Edward James will now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have the opportunity to respond to these observations, I should be especially interested to learn about his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts about the project with the benefit of hindsight, and to read any suggestions he might now make )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about where this should lead in the immediate future.)] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 610.927 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 593.147 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 593.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/225)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 591.753 m 322.316 591.753 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 566.776 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 552.376 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1262)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 592.0675 322.3157 603.9475 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/225) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000534 00000 n 0000000616 00000 n 0000005031 00000 n 0000005140 00000 n 0000005250 00000 n 0000005359 00000 n 0000008920 00000 n 0000009048 00000 n 0000009132 00000 n 0000009197 00000 n 0000017215 00000 n 0000017280 00000 n 0000026221 00000 n 0000026305 00000 n 0000028632 00000 n 0000028760 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28855 %%EOF