%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R /F4 18 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140417060653+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140417060653+01'00') /Title (The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: the Battle for Hearts and Minds) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4390 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Undermining of Austria-Hungary: the Battle for Hearts and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Minds)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In reviewing Mark Cornwall's monumental study of 'front propaganda by and against the Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy in the First World War, I feel I ought to register a certain personal interest. In the summer of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1982, when I was embarking on my own doctoral research in the Vienna archives, I ran into Roy Bridge, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leading expert in the diplomatic history of Austria-Hungary. Roy, always the soul of kindness, introduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(me to Mark, one of his postgraduate students, whom he was initiating into the mysteries of the Haus-Hof-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(und Staatsarchiv, and who was remarkable \(in my experience\) for having a working acquaintance with both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Serbo-Croat and Hungarian as well as German. For the last week or so of my stay that year, as I remember, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark and I worked alongside one another in that peaceful little backroom of the)] TJ ET BT 418.268 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Ballhaus)] TJ ET BT 463.940 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Together we also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weathered an evening in the )] TJ ET BT 171.644 180.659 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Zwlfapostelkeller)] TJ ET BT 260.984 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( with the unsinkable Dr. Bridge. The following summer, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when I next visited Vienna, Mark was still there, having spent an entire year mining the archives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interspersed with forays into Hungary and former Yugoslavia in search of additional sources. A couple of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years later I heard of Mark working under Zbynek Zeman and learning Czech into the bargain. In the course )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the last decade and a half he has consolidated his reputation with an edited collection of articles on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(break-up of the Habsburg Monarchy, and a string of solidly-crafted periodical articles on a wide range of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subjects in and about his period.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I mention all this because it is a strange sensation reviewing a book at whose inception one was, after a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fashion, present, for the current study is the product of Mark Cornwall's years of postgraduate toil in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(226)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Cornwall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(978033380452X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(501pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ian Armour)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7616 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archives of Central Europe. This is not to the book's discredit, but rather the contrary. Most transmogrified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(PhD theses, like Frankenstein's monster, show some signs of their origin, with a bolt sticking out here, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(odd bit of stitching there, and a certain jerkiness in their mode of progression. There is none of that here. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Undermining of Austria-Hungary)] TJ ET BT 216.344 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is a meticulously tidy, balanced and up-to-date piece of research, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which in fact constitutes the best proof of why doing a PhD is the ultimate training for an historian. Like all )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(former PhDs, it is enormously detailed; unlike many, the detail at no point obscures the overall story that is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being told here, or the point of it all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To cut to the chase: the subject of this book is the role played by propaganda in the demise of the Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy, specifically in the last two years of the First World War, and specifically in the form of 'front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda', that is, material aimed directly at the front-line troops of one's opponents. It is a complicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(topic, not least because the Monarchy was both a practitioner as well as a target of this type of offensive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(activity. After clearing the ground with a general discussion of propaganda, and an excellent chapter \(of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which more shortly\) on the overall challenge facing Austria-Hungary in the War, Mark deals first with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy as practitioner, in two chapters on the propaganda campaigns against tsarist \(later Bolshevik\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russia and Italy. The core of the book, however, is in the four huge chapters on the origins and course of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(campaign waged by the Italians against the Monarchy in 1917-18. There is a wrap-up chapter showing how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(things unravelled for the Monarchy, in propaganda terms, in the fall of 1918; and a conclusion in which an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempt is made to gauge the contribution front propaganda made to the final disintegration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even as bald a summary as the above must give some idea of the wealth of sources, primary and secondary, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on which this study necessarily rests. Mark has diligently trawled through the main Austrian archives, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially the War Archive, with its records from Army High Command down to regimental level. In Zagreb )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(he has consulted the Croatian State Archive, but also the Archive of the Yugoslav Academy, which houses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crucially important papers of the Yugoslav Committee, the wartime assortment of South Slav )] TJ ET BT 502.976 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(migrs)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who worked for the Habsburg Monarchy's destruction. Repositories in the Czech Republic have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pillaged for similar material, notably the papers of the Czechoslovak National Council. The Hungarian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Military History Institute and the National Military History Museum have been used, particularly the latter's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(propaganda leaflet collection. And in Britain it is hard to imagine anything of significance which has been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(left out, from the Public Record Office to the Imperial War Museum, from the Northcliffe papers in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British Library to R.W. Seton-Watson's papers in the School of Slavonic & East European Studies.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A special mention should be made while on the subject of sources, of the sheer range of published material )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consulted, whether secondary, memoir or printed primary. Many of the most valuable insights of the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are derived from recently published collections of letters, diaries and so on, as well as recent scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(monographs, many of them in Italian, Czech, Hungarian and other languages. Thus, the papers of Gaetano )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Salvemini, published in 1984, and those of Umberto Zanotti-Bianco \(1987\), have been used to good effect to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amplify the story of Italy's propaganda campaign. Equally valuable are the eight-volume memoirs of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Slovene officer-deserter turned Allied propagandist, Ljudevit Pivko, and which appeared only ten years ago. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Due account is taken of recent work in the general field of propaganda by scholars such as Ute Daniel, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wolfram Siemann, Maria Masau Dan and others. Altogether, by my reckoning Mark has utilised material in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(no fewer than nine different languages \(not eight as intimated on Macmillan's dust-jacket\). Even by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(standards of the average Austria-Hungary freak, where this sort of polyglot catholicity is always prized and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to some extent, taken for granted, such conscientiousness surely sets some kind of record.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As far as content is concerned, what specific theses emerge from this massive exercise in empirical enquiry? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Two in particular seem to me to stand out, and constitute the most original part of Mark's research. One is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the centrality, as well as the autonomy, of the Italian effort in the propaganda war against Austria-Hungary. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one of the central revelations of the book that, while the contributors to this offensive were eventually )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn from all the main Allied countries, and many of the Monarchy's own nationalities, the direction of it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was very much an Italian affair. This amounts to yet another nail in the coffin of the 'Crewe House myth', the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impression conveyed after the First World War by many of those involved in the British propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation, such as Henry Wickham Steed, that 'Northcliffe propaganda' had been the main element in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Allied effort. More the product of wishful retrospective thinking than historical reality, the Crewe House )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7779 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(myth was nevertheless accepted at face value not only by many in the West, but also by former German and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Austro-Hungarian military and political leaders. The belief in an underhand and all-pervasive Allied )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subversion, masterminded by the Northcliffe press from perfidious Albion, was for many in the defeated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(countries, Hitler included, obviously more acceptable as an explanation of their downfall. That it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted for so long in the West is attributable, as Mark Cornwall shows, in part to the unwillingness of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fascist regime in Italy to acknowledge propaganda, seen as somehow unmanly and dishonourable, as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important weapon in Italy's wartime arsenal. But it is also due to the inaccessibility, to Western scholars, of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many of the key accounts of the propaganda conducted under Italian leadership, since so much of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literature is in Polish, or Czech, or Slovene. Unlocking this treasure-trove of evidence is one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(noteworthy achievements of this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second main contribution of the book is one that the author himself puts forward with some diffidence, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but which I think is clear from the evidence offered. This is that, given certain caveats, and in a limited )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, the front propaganda against the Habsburg Monarchy worked. Of course, it took a long time for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leafleting campaigns, which is what most front propaganda amounted to, to show any obvious effects. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark is at pains to show, one of the great difficulties in measuring the effect of any propaganda, both at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time and with historical hindsight, is whether it was even read by its targets; given the questionable literacy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of many Austro-Hungarian army conscripts, this is an important qualification. Leaflets picked up were often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being harvested on the orders of commanders, anxious to limit their spread. Nor is it clear that many soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deserted to the Allies as a direct result of front propaganda, although some undoubtedly did. But the crucial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(factor, which is well brought out in this book, is that this steady, and increasingly sophisticated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychological pressure was "pushing at an open door" \(p. 439\). It is a key requirement of any propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that it should fall on ground already fertile; and in this respect the Habsburg Monarchy in 1917-18 was a rich )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(field. The multinational nature of the Monarchy meant that fighting a sustained war would always be a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strain; the worse conditions got, the more likely dissent at home, on national grounds, was to appear. One of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the most interesting aspects of this book is its demonstration of how, as political discontent in the Monarchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widened, and surfaced increasingly in a \(relatively\) open press, the propagandists in the Italian High )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Command started feeding this open criticism back to the Monarchy's troops )] TJ ET BT 400.472 413.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(via)] TJ ET BT 415.136 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( leaflets in multiple )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages. It is also a truism that, for propaganda to work, there ought to be some kernel of truth, however )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(small or distorted, embedded in it. Thus, when the military and political combination of circumstances were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(just right, in the fall of 1918, the constant barrage of front propaganda acted as a catalyst in prompting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literal disintegration of the Austro-Hungarian Army. Although the vast majority of troops had obeyed orders )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and fought stubbornly for four years, there was no denying their divided loyalties. In this battle for hearts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and minds, as Mark calls it, the Monarchy was bound to end up the loser if stretched far enough.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(With regard to the substance of individual chapters, there is far more detail than can adequately be described )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even in the generous space allowed by)] TJ ET BT 218.636 287.765 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [( Reviews in)] TJ ET BT 277.640 287.765 Td /F4 12.0 Tf [(History)] TJ ET BT 314.312 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The second chapter, on "Austria-Hungary and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Control of Wartime Morale", is especially valuable as an analysis of the general dilemma facing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy. The hostilities presented the Monarchy itself with a clear opportunity to use propaganda against )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such vulnerable enemies as tsarist Russia and Italy; but the fact remained that the Monarchy was equally if )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not more vulnerable, given the existence of irredentist nation-states among its enemies, and claiming kinship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with minorities in Austria-Hungary. Even more striking, however, is the extent to which the perception of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vulnerability by authorities within the Monarchy shaped attitudes towards both the domestic population and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fighting troops. In their attempt to monitor and stamp out suspected subversion the civilian and military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authorities exacerbated the disaffection which already existed among some nationalities, and arguably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created it among other peoples where it had not hitherto been evident. Mark ably sketches the various organs )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(created in each half of the Monarchy for this surveillance, and why ultimately they were likely to fail, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially once the political situation was gradually liberalised following the accession of the Emperor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Charles. The military spin-off from this is also well told, in particular the vain attempt to counter the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disaffection of soldiers from suspect nationalities by creating an increasing number of nationally mixed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regiments, a solution which in terms of simple military efficiency was no solution at all.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The in-depth discussion of the Italian propaganda campaign \(chapters 5-8\), as mentioned, is the core of the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F4 /BaseFont /Times-BoldItalic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7567 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book. Precisely because they are so detailed, these are a bit of a stiff read, though at all times clearly written, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and mercifully free of jargon. There is in fact a great deal of interest here, from the expert analysis of Italy's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wartime policy towards Austria-Hungary through to the often blow-by-blow description of individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incidents and phases of the propaganda war. One of the factors that makes the Italian campaign so intriguing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is that, contrary to what many might imagine, the Italian government was not anxious to play the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('nationalities card' against the Habsburg Monarchy. Despite the agitation of irredentist nationalists, Italian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(policy, as enshrined in the secret Treaty of London of 1915, was essentially aimed at territorial expansion for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its own sake; embracing the principle of national self-determination would necessitate renouncing territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(much of which was inhabited by South Slavs. Mark is especially interesting on the resulting tensions in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian front propaganda. On the one hand there were a dedicated number of soldiers, politicians and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicists who perceived the utility of being able to call on all the Monarchy's nationalities to question their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allegiance to the Habsburgs. On the other hand, official Italian policy, as represented by the uneasy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(partnership of Vittorio Emanuele Orlando and Sidney Sonnino, took a long time to endorse the aspirations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even of Czechs and Slovaks and Poles, and refused to the end fully to support the creation of a Yugoslavia. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Mark shows, this did not prevent the Italian propaganda machine from recruiting personnel from almost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all the Monarchy's 'subject' nationalities, including South Slavs; but it did lead to unresolved differences and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the particular case of propaganda aimed specifically at South Slav units, left an indelible question-mark )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hanging over its effectiveness.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a book this long it would not be surprising if there were some minor errors of detail, not least in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(voluminous notes appended to each chapter; but I have to say that I spotted none, with the piffling exception )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of an article \(by Ivo Banac\), which is referred to in chapter 5 \(note 7\), but is not listed in the bibliography.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only two criticisms I can think of are also minor. Firstly: The opening chapter, "A Theory of Front )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Propaganda", strikes me as inaptly titled. If there is a theory of front propaganda being propounded here, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(even a nascent one, I don't see much evidence of it. Instead, this chapter offers, quite properly, a rationale for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the research undertaken, and a very clear historiographical rundown of the literature on this subject, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including some of the pioneering works on First World War propaganda such as that by Sanders and Taylor. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark convincingly demonstrates here the originality of his work: there simply has not been until now any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed study of either the Italian or the East European dimensions of front propaganda in this period, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reasons alluded to earlier. What is more, Mark's book usefully corrects some of the mistaken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpretations about the leading role of the British in this field of warfare perpetuated by Sanders and Taylor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves. None of this, however, constitutes a theory of front propaganda, nor is this any bad thing. Like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(all good historians, Mark has based his findings on solid, exhaustively detailed empirical research. He has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not been overwhelmed by the evidence he has amassed, but has rather sifted it and compared it with previous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(work, as one should. Whether, at some point, and on the basis of his work to date, he wants to offer us a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theory of how front propaganda works, is up to him. Personally, I think he could more profitably spend his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time doing further research of this high quality. Personally \(and to give 'history' its original meaning\), I )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prefer the story to any theory. Precisely because of the human detail offered here, this is a very absorbing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(story indeed. It deserves to reach a wider audience than Macmillan's extortionate hardback prices will )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(permit, so I devoutly hope a paperback edition is in the pipeline. Anyone interested in either the Habsburg )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Monarchy or the First World War will find this story a rewarding one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secondly, Mark has been ill-served by his publishers in one other respect, in that the quality and number of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maps allotted to a study of this nature is scandalous. Given the detailed narrative in much of the book, a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general maps of the politico-military situation, but even more a series of large-scale front-line charts, would )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have made the whole thing much easier to follow. Call me simple-minded, but I for one like to know where )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I'm going. One can do without pictures \(although the reproductions in this book of individual propaganda )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(leaflets and cartoons are an excellent bonus\), but it is infernally difficult to imagine even general historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(events without maps. All the more important, then, to supply a military study like this with the right )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(equipment.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To sum up on a more positive note: )] TJ ET BT 207.344 64.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Undermining of Austria-Hungary)] TJ ET BT 389.672 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( puts me in mind of that anecdote )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the start of C.A. Macartney's magisterial history of the Habsburg Monarchy, where he relates commenting )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 1287 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the absence of such a history to A.F. Pribram in the 1920s, and being told that 'everyone' noticed the gap, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but gave up trying it themselves because they 'didn't have eleven languages'. \(I paraphrase.\) Not only does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mark Cornwall have the answer to the Pribram test, but also he has told a complex story well, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illuminated a hitherto only dimly understood aspect of the First World War.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 708.463 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 690.683 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 690.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/226)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 689.289 m 322.316 689.289 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 664.312 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 649.912 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1265)] TJ ET BT 34.016 635.512 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 689.6035 322.3157 701.4835 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/226) >> endobj xref 0 25 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000360 00000 n 0000000397 00000 n 0000000588 00000 n 0000000670 00000 n 0000005112 00000 n 0000005221 00000 n 0000005331 00000 n 0000005440 00000 n 0000009001 00000 n 0000009129 00000 n 0000009213 00000 n 0000009278 00000 n 0000016947 00000 n 0000017012 00000 n 0000024844 00000 n 0000024959 00000 n 0000025024 00000 n 0000032644 00000 n 0000032728 00000 n 0000034068 00000 n 0000034196 00000 n trailer << /Size 25 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34291 %%EOF