%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141028064527+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141028064527+00'00') /Title (Family and Household in Medieval England) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4493 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Family and Household in Medieval England)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This title will doubtless be welcomed by those who offer undergraduate classes on the history of the family. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medievalists have been quick to respond to the impression given by Philippe Aris that medieval parents did )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not care about their children and to Lawrence Stone's argument that familial affectivity originated over the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(course of 'the early modern period' \(1500-1800\). However, as yet there has been no synthesis of such work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(akin to, say, Ralph A. Houlbrooke's )] TJ ET BT 208.496 287.579 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The English Family 1450-1700)] TJ ET BT 358.160 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Fleming's book is a very different study, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(though, with both omissions and its own merits.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The study spans five centuries: from the Norman Conquest of 1066, with its 'transformation in England's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political, legal and administrative systems' \(p. 3\) which had consequences for the family, to the 1520s, as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reformation similarly brought about important religious, ideological and administrative changes. It focuses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on England because, as Fleming rightly comments, different countries have 'their own peculiarities' \(p.3\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the wealth of work which has already been done on the English experience renders this possible. For the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(purposes of the book Fleming says he is working with Stone's definitions of 'family' and 'household': 'those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(members of the same kin who live together under one roof' and 'persons living together under the same roof'. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Kin' is defined, also in Stone's terms, as 'persons related by blood or marriage' \(p. 2\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A brief introduction sets out Fleming's broad understanding of 'family' history. The family is an institution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that has 'a reciprocal, dynamic relationship' \(p. 1\) with politics, the law, the economy, society, culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religion and technology. While some of these factors are treated in more depth than others, the end product )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is a book that perhaps focuses more on the wider context of the family than on the family itself. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 63.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument set out briefly at the end of this introduction does much to explain the subsequent foci of the book:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(227)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thursday, 1 November, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Peter Fleming)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780333693361)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Palgrave)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Basingstoke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cordelia Beattie)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7250 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 64.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('... it can be argued that the family as we know it today, in many of its most important external )] TJ ET BT 64.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attributes at least, owes more to the centuries covered in this book than to any other period. This )] TJ ET BT 64.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is particularly the case in the evolution of the process of marriage, and in the establishment of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agreed laws of inheritance, but much of the ideology of the family - concerning the importance )] TJ ET BT 64.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of consent and affection, for example - also received its definitive expression in this period.' \(p. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 674.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first of three chapters is entitled 'Marriage Making'. It is here that Fleming gets to articulate his views )] TJ ET BT 34.016 660.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the evolution of marriage and the importance of consent. The first and longest subsection is 'Marriage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Theory and Law'. This begins with a useful summary of what the medieval conception of marriage took )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from three sources: Roman law, Judaeo-Christian scriptures and the writings of the early church fathers and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Germanic customs. It then discusses the growth of clerical jurisdiction over marriage in the eleventh and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twelfth centuries, with the adoption of consent as the sole requirement for a valid marriage. Quite a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space is also devoted to outlining the various categories of impediments to marriage, to be enforced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church courts. This subsection can be viewed as typical of Fleming's style in this book: the writing is lucid )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but succinct; the different historiographic views are made evident but pointed comments reveal Fleming's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own position, and examples from primary sources are used to illustrate points in a lively and engaging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner \(sometimes translations from the Latin cited by scholars like Richard Helmholz, elsewhere from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(well-known letter collections or unpublished wills and Chancery petitions\). Saints' lives, though, are used in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a less sophisticated way as evidence of the incompatibility of family life and sainthood, rather than as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideological texts with their own agendas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other subsections in this first chapter are 'Age at First Marriage', 'Coercion and Freedom of Choice', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Marriage Strategies', 'Marriage Settlements' and 'The Ordering of Marriage'. While all these sections are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(linked by the common theme of marriage, the treatment of the material - in terms of ordering and varying )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degrees of depth - results in a chapter that does not quite cohere, which is also my assessment of the book as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a whole. The subsection 'Age at First Marriage' is brief. While it serves to introduce the concept of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(northwest European marriage pattern, thought to be applicable to England from at least the late fourteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century \(over half way through Fleming's five centuries\), many of the related issues raised here are not taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up, although they are explored later in the book, for example, the timing of inheritance \(in Chapter Three\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and family strategies \(a separate subsection\). As the book uses endnotes rather than footnotes, more explicit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cross-referencing within the text would be helpful. 'Marriage Strategies', about how marriages might be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arranged to suit wider family interests, focuses on the gentry and the mercantile elite. It is not clear, though, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(why it could not have been merged with the previous section, 'Coercion and Freedom of Choice', which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considers how much independence peasants and townspeople, as well as the gentry, had to select partners. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some books subheadings allow the reader to pick and choose what they want to read about. In this one they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(often serve to aid the reader by breaking up the text, but I would caution that it is not always a book that one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can just dip into \(a problem, perhaps, if the key audience is an undergraduate one\). The fifth subsection, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Marriage Settlements', is more technical. It does not just discuss dowries, dower and jointure, but is one of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the clearest explications I have read of legal customs surrounding property, such as enfeoffment to uses. 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ordering of Marriage', the last section of this chapter, is about the ritual of the marriage ceremony, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beginning with the church line but moving on to 'clandestine marriages'. While this subsection is full of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting examples, it might be confusing for the reader uninitiated in the laws on medieval marriage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fleming appears both to set up a disjunction between church ceremonies and 'irregular unions' \(p. 46\), and to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argue that informal exchanges of vows might be the first stage in a marriage 'process' that ends in church )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(solemnisation. The latter is also a view put forward in the book's conclusion but it might have been more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helpful earlier in this subsection.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second chapter is entitled 'Family Life' and is the one that most closely focuses on the 'family', working )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the definition 'those members of the same kin who live together under one roof'. It is also the shortest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter. It again has six subsections: 'Husbands and Wives'; 'Parents and Children'; 'Family Size'; 'Leaving )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Home'; 'Servants', and 'Kinship'. Not only does Fleming start with the married couple, he starts with )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7535 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emotions. As he himself states, there are problems in finding such evidence for this period. He therefore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discusses in turn the literature of courtly love, religious writings on sexual intercourse and love \(it is here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that he argues the importance of affection\), the Paston letters, the writings of Christine de Pisan, advice )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books for the elite and wills. The section then looks back to arranged marriages \(Chapter One\) and forward )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the buying and selling of wardships \(Chapter Three\), before discussing marital violence, celibacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adultery. This variety of material and topics is covered in less than seven pages \(whereas 'Wardship', a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrower subject, gets more than eight pages in the next chapter\). The following subsection, 'Parents and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Children' is similar: Fleming swiftly moves through different ages of responsibility, childbirth and baptism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nursing, acquisition of gender roles, parental discipline, affection and distrust. It is in the three paragraphs on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gender roles that we get one of the book's few references to the household economy. The account, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argues that girls spent more time in the home environment in contrast with the males who worked in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fields, is heavily dependent on Barbara Hanawalt's interpretation of coroners' rolls which has not gone )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unchallenged. While Fleming admits that 'much more could be said about the household as an economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unit' \(p. 3\), which he excuses with reference to lack of space, some consideration of the household economy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might have enabled Fleming to offer a fuller picture of the relations between husbands and wives. While )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(affection, sex, the law and property were doubtless important elements in marriage, so too would have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the day-to-day tasks which both performed, either separately or together.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third section in this chapter, entitled 'Family Size', begins with a consideration of the evidence for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(size of households but moves on to life expectancy, contraception and abortion. It is only at the end of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsection that Fleming returns to the difference between 'family' and 'household' which he articulated in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Introduction. A 'household' could include persons other than kin such as servants and lodgers. This serves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a link to the next two subsections, although it is not clear why the two pages on 'Leaving Home' are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(separated from the three and a half that follow entitled 'Servants'. The latter section is worth reading for what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it has to say on aristocratic service, although the compression of views on urban service lead to the following )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('non sequitur': 'In towns at least most of these female servants, particularly from the mid-fifteenth century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were probably employed as unskilled general domestics rather than as workers in crafts or trades. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater opportunities for employment may in turn have presented young women with a more attractive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alternative to marriage.' P. J. P. Goldberg, who Fleming cites, rather argues that it was before women were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(forced out of skilled artisan work that employment as a servant - where one might learn such skills - was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attractive option. The second chapter then ends with the brief subsection, 'Kinship', which treats relevant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vocabulary, extended families, kin conflicts, and gender and status differences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The third and final chapter is called 'The Dissolution of Marriage and its Consequences'. This is perhaps a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strange choice of title as it only relates to the first two of five subsections: the brief 'Annulment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Separation', which refers back to canonical impediments, and 'Widows and Widowers', the longest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subsection in the book. The latter inevitably deals more with widows than widowers. Initially the emphasis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is on law and property. Dower disputes with sons or stepsons, for example, are used to illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problems widows had in gaining property rather than for what they reveal about familial relationships. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Again, though, Fleming is very good at explaining clearly legal customs and processes. The debate about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(whether widowhood brought about more 'freedom' for women - while considering, for example, work and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(guilds - is marred by virtue of being compared with the sketchy picture of married life discussed above. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rest of this chapter concerns 'Wardship', 'Inheritance' and 'Retirement'. In all three the focus is on property. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wardship is brought about by the death of a father, which is perhaps why this section follows that on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widowhood although it has clearer links to the sections dealing with parent-child relations and arranged )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(marriages. 'Inheritance' also follows from a death but the emphasis here is on inheritance systems. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Retirement' has an old-age link but is about whether children took responsibility for looking after their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elderly parents, a topic touched on in 'Leaving Home' \(Chapter Two\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A brief conclusion does not bring these disparate topics together but does outline Fleming's key beliefs, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although not all are ones fully explicated within the study. Indeed, the book ends with a call to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('attempting to write the history of family relations, approaching the most private and intangible of human )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences' to 'always remember that what they are working with are the shadows left by real flesh and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3930 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(blood human beings' \(p. 127\). I do not dispute this sentiment, and Fleming does gesture elsewhere in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(study to the emotions that might lie behind people's actions, but I do not think that this is where the strength )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book lies. Chapter Two, where the personnel of the family or household and their relationships are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly dealt with, is the sketchiest part of the book. Fleming seems at his most confident and assured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when dealing with the 'external attributes': laws concerning marriage, property and inheritance and how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wider kin group and ideas of lineage might impact on these. It is his situating of the family within a political )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and legal context which makes the study a significant one. Discussions of gentle and noble families often )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have a similar emphasis, but in this book Fleming attempts to put the experiences of all levels of medieval )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(society within such a frame.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The information given in Chapter Two can be supplemented with previous publications that consider aspects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the life-cycle and family life in medieval England, many of which originated from a women's history )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspective. This study, though, offers - not only to the student but also to those working on aspects of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(medieval family from a social history perspective - a broader frame of reference which does much to wrest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the family from the confines of the home. Much of my criticism has been with the lay out and structuring of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the book. The 'life-cycle' approach, heralded on the back of the book, is not sustained but only because this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not seem to be Fleming's key interest. There is doubtless a need for this broader study if we want )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(students to understand many of the ways in which the medieval family differs from the modern. Indeed, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heartening to realise that those who work on the history of the medieval family are no longer constrained by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the need to respond to modernist representations of the medieval family as 'other' but can feel free to explore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the period's distinctive elements as Fleming admirably does in this book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The only typographical error found was on p. 69 in the clause 'sodomy \(defined as any form of penetration )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other than virginal\)'; the latter word should doubtless read 'vaginal'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 427.855 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 410.075 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 410.075 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/227)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 408.681 m 322.316 408.681 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 383.704 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 369.304 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1267)] TJ ET BT 34.016 354.904 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 408.9955 322.3157 420.8755 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/227) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000543 00000 n 0000000625 00000 n 0000005170 00000 n 0000005279 00000 n 0000005389 00000 n 0000005498 00000 n 0000009059 00000 n 0000009187 00000 n 0000009271 00000 n 0000009336 00000 n 0000016639 00000 n 0000016704 00000 n 0000024292 00000 n 0000024376 00000 n 0000028359 00000 n 0000028487 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 28582 %%EOF