%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141126010142+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141126010142+00'00') /Title (Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2383 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Night of Stone: Death and Memory in Russia)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.603 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`What could be more universal than death?' asks an anthropologist quoted by Merridale. [58] Death is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major aspect of the history of any society, and one which brings out its members' deepest beliefs. But in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century Russia it has been peculiarly dominant, because so many deaths have been premature or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violent. We are sometimes tempted to believe that Russians have become inured to death, feel it less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intensely than we do. Indeed this illusion has become part of a widespread myth about the `fatalism' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`passivity' of Russians.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(229)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Merridale)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9781862073740)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Granta)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Geoffrey Hosking)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7001 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merridale will not have any of this. She begins with an account of the traditional peasant culture of death, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its mixture of Orthodox and pagan elements, of the grand and macabre obsequies of official Russia, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then of the civic funerals of the intelligentsia and the revolutionaries, designed to glorify the dead as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(symbol of resistance to despotism. When the Communists came to power, they tried to change the culture of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(death, for instance by introducing crematoria and new forms of civil ceremony. But the innovations were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted only reluctantly, and when it came to the death of their own founder and leader, Lenin, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverted to the Orthodox custom of preserving relics. So at least Merridale argues, though in fact the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Orthodox never embalmed a whole corpse. That was left to secular myth-makers: the Red Square )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mausoleum is actually more reminiscent of our own relic in University College London, Jeremy Bentham. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Still, the discrepancy between Communist theory and practice was remarkable. The real problem was that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Communist religion was resolutely this-worldly and so had great difficulty in finding rituals to mark the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passage to another world. There the Orthodox believers and popular folklore had an unassailable advantage. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even today, Merridale remarks, when you talk to Russians `you will learn that death is still a bird, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extinction of a star, the flight of a winged and vulnerable soul.' [432])] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The problem was not just ideological. In the Soviet Union only certain deaths could be remembered, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then only in certain ways. The Red victims of the 1917 revolution and civil war, the glorious dead of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Great Fatherland War: for them apotheosis was guaranteed. But not for the dekulakised, the victims of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1932-4 famine, those who died of exhaustion and malnutrition in labour camps or were shot in the cellars of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Lubianka. Even the official heroes of the regime could only be commemorated in certain ways. For )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decades after 1945, memoirs about the war were either forbidden or had to be written according to certain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tightly prescribed formulae.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps the most damaging effect of this official miserliness about the past was that it forced people to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suppress their own personal memories and their own grief.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Our memories are corroborated and validated by those around us, by the narratives which fill the public )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(media and which underlie conversation. Without such validation they fragment and become insubstantial. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Kazakhstan was probably the most traumatised region of the Soviet Union during the collectivisation of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agriculture, since the process of settling nomads was superimposed on that of creating collective farms. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some thing like a third of the population died or emigrated. Yet public memory has retained very little of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this. As Merridale puts it, `The survivors scattered, changing their identities'. [199] Like the few survivors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carthage after the Romans had finished with the place. In Russia too many simply put memories behind )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them. One of Merridale's interlocutors remembered being dekulakised in childhood, her father being led )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away, her mother and brothers being locked into barracks and abandoned. Yet she was far more interested in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talking about her successes in the Komsomol and her experiences in the war, for those were memories which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had been fostered and upheld by everyone around her. [223-231])] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(So people suppressed, dismembered or distorted their memories and their grief where these did not fit the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approved image, perhaps because they were Jews, perhaps because they had been on enemy territory, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perhaps because of atrocities they had witnessed or even participated in. Recounted spontaneously, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(memories might bring trouble to themselves or to relatives. Many people had no families or trusted friends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with whom they could share memories privately, and the communal apartments of the rapidly expanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soviet cities were no places in which to unbutton oneself and expatiate frankly on one's wartime experience: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there were always people listening, ready to report to the `appropriate authorities'. So for many people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trauma and grief simply became suppressed. As the writer Varlam Shalamov once said, `A human being )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(survives by his ability to forget'. People got on with their lives: mere survival required energy and time )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough. Many of Merridale's respondents told her `We were too busy, there was no time to think about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(past.' They joined in collective, sanctioned celebrations and mourning, trying to force their own memories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and feelings into officially approved moulds, and otherwise remained silent. They preferred to see )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as heroes rather than as victims, and as part of the collective rather than as stigmatised outsiders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Those for whom the strain was too great took to drink.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6990 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clearly in such circumstances the sense of community was weakened, and the collective celebration of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(national identity became at best stunted and distorted. Neither genuine ethnic nor civic solidarity could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(flourish in such a climate. Since collective mourning is a very important component of community feeling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially after a destructive war, such distortion could only undermine social cohesion.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 715.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Forcing memory and perception could have unexpected and grotesque results. A Jewish woman Merridale )] TJ ET BT 34.016 701.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talked to, whose parents had been murdered by the Germans during the war, said in all seriousness: `I know )] TJ ET BT 34.016 686.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now that the Jews were responsible for killing Jesus Christ. And their religion says you must take an eye for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 672.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an eye. That is why I am an Orthodox now.' [323-4])] TJ ET BT 34.016 646.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nadezhda Mandelstam, the widow of the poet, once remarked that `In our sort of life people had to shut their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 632.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eyes to their surroundings. [That] is not easy and requires a great effort... Soviet citizens have achieved a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 617.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(high degree of mental blindness, with devastating consequences for their whole psychological make-up.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 603.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([248] Merridale raises the possibility that Russians are all suffering from mental illness, something like `post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 589.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(traumatic stress disorder' She rejects it, though: she believes that forms of suffering are tailored by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 575.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culture in which they operate, and so also are the narratives fashioned to explain that suffering. Our western )] TJ ET BT 34.016 560.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives are moulded by a specific culture of personhood, in which the freedom and creativity of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 546.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual are seen as possessing supreme value. By contrast, Russian victimhood and suffering are moulded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the experience of lasting aspiration to universal empire. `To speak as a former Soviet citizen and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Russian is to speak.... from a culture of endurance and heroism; it is to use the language of historical destiny, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to talk \(however ironically\) of the audacity involved in leading the collective struggle for human liberation.' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([416] That is why Merridale's respondents insisted that they could not afford the luxury of grieving and that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(psychotherapy was pointless self-indulgence. `Dear girl, this isn't your England!... Of course it was terrible, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but we had to rebuild our town. We were carrying everything ourselves, there was no other way. We had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defeated the Fascists, and now we were building socialism, right there in Kiev.' [417] Collectivism and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common purpose, even just waving the red flag, really did help, though they did not assuage all suffering, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and some individuals could never fit into them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is for the same reason that many people suppressed their suspicions and doubts during the terror of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1930s. The idealist young Komsomol activist Lev Kopelev did not believe Bukharin or Trotsky were foreign )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(agents; he knew there was something wrong about the purges. But he supported Stalin, for `We were a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(besieged fortress; we had to be united, knowing neither vacillation nor doubt.' [256])] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sometimes even community was not enough. The greatest imperative of all was sheer survival, in a milieu )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(where human beings were constantly at risk. A realist in a terrible world, a Russian could learn to steal, lie )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and kill `despite his poetry and the letters in the pocket of his soldier's coat'. Russians also learned to hang on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to whatever they could for spiritual strength: thoughts of family, of homeland, of God. The war generated a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious revival so strong that the atheist regime had to compromise with it. Even non-Russians were caught )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up in the Russian-led fight to defend the homeland.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 225.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book raises fundamental questions about oral history, indeed about any attempt to penetrate to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 211.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality of what people from a different culture and a different time think and feel. Merridale was fearless in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 196.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioning her interlocutors. Or at least, if she was not fearless, she pressed on in spite of her fears. She )] TJ ET BT 34.016 182.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broached issues which I, in more than thirty years of talking to Russians, have tended to leave unspoken, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fear of stirring precisely the traumas she needed to revive to do her self-appointed job. She admits that some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(found her questions intrusive. They thought she had come to ask about `repressions' - a Russian word )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(denoting a terrible reality of arrests and executions, but by now tamed and domesticated into everyone's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted vocabulary - but actually they found she had come to talk about death. She often found she had to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talk about all kinds of unexpected and irrelevant matters in order to retain her respondents' willingness to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(talk about what really concerned her. The result is a richly woven tapestry which conveys more of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complexity of Soviet and post-Soviet life than even the book's title would lead us to expect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book is a courageous exercise in trying to penetrate the mental and spiritual world of another people )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R 22 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 3602 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the most terrible ordeals of their history, while also endeavouring to retain some detachment and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(balance. Merridale does not always achieve both at the same time. As she confesses at the very end, `I do not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(think I have come home'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I have only one or two complaints. Writing of the famine of 1891 Merridale claims that `upwards of thirty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(million' peasants starved [69]. This is presumably a misprint, but even three million would be higher than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(usual estimates of mortality. The evocation of Tsarist Russia's `death row, where "hundreds and more than )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundreds" daily awaited execution' [86] is inappropriate. `Death row' is a product of a quite different culture. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tsarist Russia did not have a death penalty, let alone the protracted legal wrangling which condemns )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hundreds of American prisoners to long waits for execution. Mass judicial execution in Russia was carried )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(out only for a few months in 1906-7, under Stolypin, and was usually administered summarily, after a brief )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(court-martial hearing. At other times, Russia's harsh penal system caused many deaths, but in casual, extra-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(legal fashion. Brutal undoubtedly, but in a wholly different way from the USA.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These points are not insignificant in a book about death. They pale, however, beside the achievement. This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a revealing and challenging work which forces us to reconsider fundamental issues of death, memory and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way we understand the past. The research project which generated it was courageous and humane, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(result throws a profound and searching light on the spiritual condition of the Russian people over several )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tumultuous decades. The book is, moreover, written in a compassionate, undogmatic and jargon-free style, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appropriate to its purpose, which makes it a pleasure to read.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Google Books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://books.google.co.uk/books)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 473.955 m 188.360 473.955 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 191.360 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 470.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 452.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 452.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/229)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 451.449 m 322.316 451.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 426.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1271)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m6TWAAAAMAAJ&sitesec=reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 474.2695 188.3597 486.1495 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m6TWAAAAMAAJ&sitesec=reviews) >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 451.7635 322.3157 463.6435 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/229) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000545 00000 n 0000000627 00000 n 0000003062 00000 n 0000003171 00000 n 0000003281 00000 n 0000003390 00000 n 0000006951 00000 n 0000007079 00000 n 0000007163 00000 n 0000007228 00000 n 0000014282 00000 n 0000014347 00000 n 0000021390 00000 n 0000021481 00000 n 0000025136 00000 n 0000025263 00000 n 0000025378 00000 n 0000025506 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 25601 %%EOF