%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140930001237+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140930001237+01'00') /Title (The Image of Man. The Creation of Modern Masculinity) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 2608 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Image of Man. The Creation of Modern Masculinity)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George L. Mosse's book exemplifies the best in a new wave of histories focusing on masculinity in Europe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(since the second half of the eighteenth century. Not everything in this book is new, nor will many of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments be accepted without considerable debate, but whatever the final judgement, this is a sophisticated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful, and broad-ranging book which cannot be ignored by any serious student of modern gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(23)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 February, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(George L. Mosse)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780195101010)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780195126600.do?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joanna Bourke)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7274 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Primarily, it is a book about positive stereotypes. Mosse does for our understanding of modern masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what nineteenth-century phrenology claimed to do for its practitioners: that is, he provides us with a key to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interpreting the relationships that people made between surface appearances and the depths of mind and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality. Of course, Mosse does much more than this. He also maps the national variations and historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transitions of these relationships. He has done some of this before. His seminal works on nationalism, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sexuality, anti-Semitism, and warfare each deal \(in a much less systematic way\) with masculinity. Many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readers will also be familiar with his account of the 'knights of the sky', or the romantic manly ideal of aerial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combat. Nevertheless, in this book, these disparate arguments are pulled together, elaborated upon, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(moulded into a strong narrative.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 644.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse dates the birth of modern masculinity as occurring at the same time as the rise of bourgeois society, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is, between the second half of the eighteenth century and beginning of the nineteenth. It was a slow )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(process, and many of the older, aristocratic stereotypes \(such as duelling\) took a long time to die, but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eventually prevailed and the body itself \(instead of its adornments\) became the chief signifier of manliness. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The masculine body, defined largely through allusion to Greek principles of harmony, proportion, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control, not only conquered the outside world, but also reigned supreme within the individual: physical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beauty guaranteed strong willpower, moral fortitude, and martial nobility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the chief difference between modern masculinity and what went before: the modern stereotype )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasises the body. Outward appearances are used to 'read' inner secrets; through physiogamy, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance, the soul could be decoded from the body. With remarkable consistency, the 'ideal' body throughout )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this period was derived from ancient Greece. Mosse discusses a host of propagandists, but he stresses in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular the work of Johann Joachim Winckelmann \(1717?68\), an archaeologist, art historian, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(librarian. In an series of influential books, Winckelmann established the principles of Greek beauty and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(most importantly\) made these traits relevant to his society. In a society undergoing immense structural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political upheaval brought about by industrialisation, Winckelmann's ideal provided a way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reconceptualising mankind in terms of both dynamic virility and harmonising order. Movement, yes: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passion, no; or, in the words of Walter Pater, the ideal of Greek beauty was 'rest in motion'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was a difficult thing to accomplish, but men could approach the ideal through gymnastics and athletics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gymnastics could be traced to the Greeks or, more recently, to the marriage of the noble savage and Greek )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(man with eighteenth-century hygiene movements. Whatever its origins in modern society, by the nineteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, this ideal of masculinity was being militarised. For its modern promoters such as Friedrich Ludwig )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jahn, gymnastics would deliver up a Germany manhood which was eternally youthful, martially triumphant, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and pre-eminently manly. Gymnasts themselves were meant to exemplify the ideal German: they were to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selfless, chaste, fearless, and patriotic. In contrast to England, team sports were devalued: athletics held the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(key to healthy, moral bodies. This emphasis on health was also important, and gave medicine a pre-eminent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(role in the modern construction of ideal masculinity. 'A healthy body equals a healthy mind'; ugliness meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disease; shattered nerves were to blame for national degeneracy. The person who neglected his health was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(threat to the entire society. Sickness was a moral category.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By the end of the nineteenth century, the modern ideal of masculinity was firmly in place, characterised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Greek' physique, a steeling character, and nationalism. Yet, it was at this time ? from around the 1870s to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1914 ? that the stereotype was faced with its greatest threats: feminism, the literary and artistic avant garde, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socialism, and a new assurance amongst so-called sexual deviants all conspired to weaken the ideal. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Furthermore, many of these new dissenters did not hail from traditional 'outsider' groups, but from men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the middle classes and even the aristocracy who could \(or would\) not conform to the manly ideal. They )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(proved remarkably assertive and unabashed by their deviancy, flaunting it at times in a most carefree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manner. Languor, softness, and sensuality were the traits of this counter-masculinity. Effeminacy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(androgyne was uncovered within the heart of masculine society. Yet, this counter-masculinity failed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mount an effective challenge to normative masculinity. In an unfortunate turn-of-phrase, Mosse tells us that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the crisis of masculinity at the fin de siecle did not change but 'stiffened the ideal of normative manhood' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(107\). The First World War saw a resurgence in the ideal of masculinity. Aggression became praiseworthy )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 6984 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(again. Patriotism was men's life-blood. Sacrifice and honour were keywords and even poets transformed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves from milksops into 'real men'. Truly, commentator after commentators attested, the war had seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the birth of a new and more virile man.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although Mosse recognises diverse masculinities, the normative gender ideal that he identifies was widely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shared. No political movement could survive without it. The possibilities for a counter-masculinity which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embraced peace not war, solidarity rather than nationalism, did develop within socialist movements but were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(short-lived as these movements also found that they needed a masculinity stereotype which urged men to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strong, victorious, and beautiful. While in times of relative peace, the factory could be the working man's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(battlefield; when under threat, more bloody combat was demanded. To survive, socialist men had to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prepared to fight. Religion also failed to provide a consistent counter-masculinity. Evangelical Christianity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with its emphasis on man as the tender bridegroom of Christ failed to dismantle the manly ideal. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical ideal man was the patriarchal head of the family who exemplified self-control as well as gentle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(paternalism. In other words, this ideal merely smoothed the 'rough edges' of masculinity, bringing it into line )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with middle-class sensibilities. The mid-nineteenth century emergence of 'muscular Christianity' was proof )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of evangelicalism's potential to reconcile the Greek ideal of manliness with piety.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even groups shunned by this normative ideal attested to its power. For instance, a great deal of this book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the relationship between normative masculinity and sexual deviancy, particularly homosexuality. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Effeminacy scares were an habitual element of modern society. These panics ranged from the decadent crisis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the fin de siecle and the subsequent investigation of homosexuals by sexologists \(who 'needed live )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnesses'\), to their active persecution and slaughter under National Socialism. Yet, so seducing was the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype that many homosexuals embraced it: their ideal man could scarcely be distinguished from the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek counterpoint. Thus, the first and longest lived homosexual periodical in German, Der Eigene, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently lamented the effeminacy of modern society and called for a return to militant masculinity. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need for acceptance within normative society assisted in the process of enabling outsiders to internalise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(normative stereotypes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, normative masculinity depended upon outsiders to define itself. Marginalised groups \(in particular, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gypsies, vagrants, Jews, habitual criminals, the insane, and sexual deviants\) were systematically excluded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from stereotypical ideals. They became the exemplars of ugliness, lack of harmony, and effeminacy. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ugly features of the outsider were simply expressions of an inward corruption. Physiognomy reflected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(morality. This discourse was no where more powerful than in the construction of Jews who were regarded as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being incapable of manly gender identities and thus unable to form settled communities.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse's analysis is subtle. He does not equate masculinity with the exercise of 'raw power'. Few historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can equal his ability to discern what differentiates one country from another and although this book is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(primarily focused on Germany, significant appearances are made by England, Italy, France, and \(to a lesser )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent\) America. These comparisons are extremely constructive. Why were nearly all Frenchmen considered )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(honourable enough to duel, while in German only five per cent could 'give satisfaction'? Why did the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English place such great stress on 'fair play', unlike European nations? What distinguished the Italian fascist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculine ideal from its German counterpart? Is America different? Mosse provides stimulating and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(convincing answers for all questions except the latter \(which he does not ask\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book does have its weaknesses. Mosse is unsure of his audience. On the one hand, he combines )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elegance and clarity to produce a text open to any general reader. Without a hint of condescension he even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manages to tell readers what 'normative' means. On the other hand, he assumes an academic ? and a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narrowly 'history academic' ? reader by refusing to discuss certain topics on the grounds that they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(familiar through other historical texts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse is too sensitive an historian to ignore women in his portrayal. For feminists readers, there is an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasional awkward moment \(as when he writes that in France 'everyone' was allowed to duel\) but more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(generally Mosse is careful to ensure that when he writes 'man', he means it. Mosse recognises that 'Men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cannot be seen in isolation; women are always present in men's own self-image' \(p. 53\). But women are not )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7058 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(portrayed as actually contributing to the construction of the masculine ideal. This ideal, in Mosse's rendition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is created by men, for men: women are merely the mirrors within which men reflect their ideal image. Thus, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when he looks at the way masculinity was institutionalised, he discusses schools, clubs, and the military, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not the home.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse exaggerates the difference between the physical movements in Germany and Britain. He is, of course, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(correct to point out the much greater importance of team sports in Britain, but ignores the fact that, outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the public schools and state education in wealthier areas, the chances of a playing field were remote and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gymnastics was the main form of public exercise. Furthermore, the story Mosse tells of the increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militarisation of gymnastics in Europe was matched in Britain as well. From the turn of the century, military )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions such as the army and the War Office began explicitly intervening into physical training regimes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Britain's schools until, by the 1920s, over one-third of physical instructors in schools were ex-army or ex-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(navy instructors.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is when Mosse turns to fascism that he will generate the most controversy. According to Mosse, fascism )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revealed the 'awesome possibilities inherent in modern masculinity' \(p. 180\). The body was firmly fused )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the will and the mind, and countertypes absolutely excluded from the community. Fascism was not the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inevitable outcome of normative masculinity, but was latent in it. Racism was the stimulus that turned these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(latent possibilities into a murderous reality. One cannot help but be shocked at the immensity of such an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(argument, and impressed with it. The dark heart of modern masculinity is exposed as fascistic.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The least satisfactory chapter is the final one. It leaps from fascism to contemporary society with only patchy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reference to the decades in between. Furthermore, unlike his cynical descriptions of earlier movements, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse seems to have suddenly become optimistic: modern feminism and, even more importantly, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(questioning of men from within the dominant gender role pose a new and significant threat to the masculine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stereotype. Whereas in earlier decades, the threat to masculinity came from intellectuals and other educated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(men, now popular culture itself began questioning the ideal. Drugs, sexual experimentation, popular music )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and dance, and a new emphasis on personal identity are portrayed as freeing men from many of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(restrictive aspects of earlier ideals. Mosse hopes that the current challenge will soften normative masculinity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and allow greater flexibility. Mosse is cautious in his argument, and he qualifies many of his statements, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the extent to which such rebellions threatened the stereotype is, I believe, still exaggerated. The cultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(shifts that Mosse identifies are limited to a fairly short period in the life-cycle, they are held predominantly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by a specific socio-economic class, and only a small minority of men maintain it as a longer-term rejection. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mosse does admit that popular culture is as capable of embracing a skinhead as Boy George; but where does )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this leave us? His argument that, since the Second World War, youth culture has celebrated the outsider, is to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mistake the surface for the depths. Public reactions to gay subcultures, immigrants, Jews, and those whose )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bodies do not conform with the Greek stereotype provide us little to be optimistic about. Mosse admits that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the question is not so much whether the youth culture will break the back of normative masculinity, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rather how far it will make it bend. However, as his book shows very clearly, much more politically, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(socially, and economically powerful forces in the past have made it bend scarcely at all \(or for very short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(periods\): what evidence is there that a divided, transitional youth culture will fare any better? This entire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book attests to 'the great capacity of normative society for co-optation' \(p. 191\). Many readers will also have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trouble sharing his analysis of the modern fitness movement: ask any \(male\) body builder in any of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fitness clubs in London, and I suspect that very few would declare an interest in androgyny as against the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Greek ideal. Bodybuilding continues to be obsessed with the desire to 'pass the test of manhood through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquiring a properly structured body'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, although Mosse links normative masculinity with the horrors of National Socialism, he does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(satisfactorily explain why there was no major backlash against it after the Second World War. Why not? If )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stereotype that Mosse so brilliantly exposes was to a large extent to blame for the persecution of Jews, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gypsies, homosexuals, and other outsider groups, why did these people not attack it more strongly? This is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the history he has not told, and so I await the next volume.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 711 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 777.487 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 759.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 759.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/23)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 758.313 m 316.316 758.313 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 733.336 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 718.936 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/235)] TJ ET BT 34.016 704.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 758.6275 316.3157 770.5075 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/23) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000562 00000 n 0000000644 00000 n 0000003304 00000 n 0000003413 00000 n 0000003523 00000 n 0000003632 00000 n 0000007193 00000 n 0000007321 00000 n 0000007405 00000 n 0000007470 00000 n 0000014797 00000 n 0000014862 00000 n 0000021899 00000 n 0000021964 00000 n 0000029075 00000 n 0000029159 00000 n 0000029922 00000 n 0000030050 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30144 %%EOF