%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140723111749+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140723111749+01'00') /Title (The Crimes of Women in Early Modern Germany) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4299 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Crimes of Women in Early Modern Germany)] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.091 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The small states and independent cities of the old German Reich have left many archival treasure-troves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 301.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind; traditionally these had been studied in a curiously restrictive fashion, with the emphasis on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.579 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutional and legal history. More recently a new generation of social historians has been exploiting this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(material in a more imaginative and exciting style, of which Ulinka Rublack's innovative study is a fine )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(example. She has used the criminal trials of several thousand women from south-western Germany as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(basis for her book. Most of them come from Protestant territories - Wrttemberg and the three Imperial cities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Memmlingen, Esslingen, and Schwbisch Hall - but she also includes the Catholic city of Constance. One )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major crime is missing, because witchcraft has been excluded. This apparently surprising authorial decision )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is in truth a wholly reasonable one, and not just on account of the large amount of work already done on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject. Witchcraft was a crimen exceptum, handled under rather different legal rules; it also possessed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peculiar dynamic all its own. While the persecution of supposed witches clearly does have a close )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship with the use of legal systems to impose greater social discipline and discourage sin, it cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(readily equated with that wider trend. One vital difference is that witchcraft was ultimately a fantasy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however close its links to social problems, whereas the other offences for which women were prosecuted )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emerge from this account as all too grimly real, however `constructed' we may think moral deviance to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 75.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In essentials these crimes fell into two categories, theft and sexual immorality, although the latter included )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the special case of infanticide and the much rarer one of killing husbands. The court records provide a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(230)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ulinka Rublack)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198206372)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1999)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(302pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robin Briggs)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7485 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deal of information, both qualitative and quantitative, for analysis on several fronts. Ulinka Rublack is much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(too shrewd to fall into any of the obvious traps which they also present. She recognises from the start that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simply counting trials is meaningless without a recognition that \(quite apart from gaps in the record\) rates of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecution tell us very little about the `real' level of criminality, which is itself a highly questionable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept. Nor can either the statements of witnesses or the confessions of the accused be taken as wholly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reliable evidence. These worries are acknowledged through a series of subtle discussions about the various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communal filters which prevented many cases from coming to court at all, and of the procedures which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(awaited those unlucky enough to face the judges. The reader comes to appreciate very clearly how early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(modern societies functioned in complex ways which often run counter to modern expectations.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(When the majority of the population eked out a living at subsistence level there were very real difficulties in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(finding appropriate punishments for delinquency. Not only were prisons insecure death-traps, but keeping a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor person incarcerated would probably lead to a situation where they could not pay off the fees to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gaoler, so became a longer-term problem for the authorities; fines quickly ran into analogous difficulties. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The mobile poor who committed many offences were hardly much deterred by banishment, the easy option )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to which hard-pressed local authorities still resorted in most cases. The settled poor had partners and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dependants, whose precarious position would worsen sharply if an adult member of the household was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(banished or executed, another potential expense for poor relief systems. Such dilemmas are vividly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(illustrated at many points through the book. Since the typical local officials were neither fools nor heartless )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigots, they generally preferred pragmatic solutions, and were responsive to communal opinion. These )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes were perfectly compatible with an element of random savagery, in such forms as whippings, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(severed ears, and death sentences. Although the book does not attempt a statistical approach \(a perfectly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(defensible choice in view of the enormous problems it would create\), there is a plausible suggestion that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strangers and those without family support suffered disproportionately from these displays of rigour. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instruments of repression were so fragile that they positively required great flexibility in the enforcement of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rules, reflecting various balances between central authority and local feeling.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In fact death sentences for women appear to have been remarkably rare, an average of one every twenty )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(years for the towns studied here. If there were significantly more executions in the duchy of Wrttemberg, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this appears to have resulted from a much harsher seventeenth-century policy over infanticide. There was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some slight echo in Hall, but the other towns must have ignored many suspicious cases, the kind of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discrepancy familiar to any student of early modern justice. These variations will probably continue to defy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise explanation, above all because we so rarely know anything significant about cases which did not go )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to court; they remind us of just how finely balanced the choice between toleration and persecution might be. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If women were less likely to suffer the death penalty than men, this was simply because most crimes of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(violence were committed by the latter. What this study does suggest, however, is that in other respects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were harshly treated in comparison to men, with the authorities repeatedly failing to admit obvious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mitigating factors. This was especially true of sexual offences, where no-one seemed able to admit that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were regularly forced to comply with the desires of masters or family members, which they had done )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nothing to provoke. The extreme case was perhaps that of women who became pregnant by soldiers, when )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the ducal government of Wrttemberg refused to allow the latter to marry, while apparently blaming the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women for tempting them away from virtue.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Social factors also bulked very large in the background to theft, which is plausibly portrayed here as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(natural extension to the `economy of makeshifts' within which many of the population had to exist. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were some aspects, such as the taking of fodder, forest products, or fruits, which had become so general that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they usually figured only as minor offences; servants and children were often told to steal such items, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded almost as a natural right. The authorities were effectively trying to implement a new and much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stricter set of rules about ownership, which the poor naturally saw as oppressive and discriminatory. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other hand, the gangs of professional thieves, and even habitual local offenders, tended to prey on people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(who were hardly better off than themselves. Maidservants were a special category, widely distrusted and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(badly treated by their employers; this paradoxically helped to reduce the supply, so that it was relatively easy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for them to move to another position. When they were caught stealing it was usually much quicker and )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7688 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cheaper to recover as much as possible from them, then get rid of them, rather than reporting them to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(courts. They embodied a fundamental contradiction within a society which wanted the benefits of cheap )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migrant labour, yet had exaggerated fears of the threat such groups posed to social order, and was committed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a quite unrealistic ideal of a settled and immobile world. Here )] TJ ET BT 346.304 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crimes of Women)] TJ ET BT 453.296 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( can be fruitfully )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(compared with the brilliant set of essays by Norbert Schindler, Widerspenstige Leute \(1992\), which provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many other insights into the processes by which the poor \(largely masculine in this case\) were marginalized.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If one is to find a general fault with this book, it might be that Ulinka Rublack does not appear quite )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confident enough in her own analytical and explanatory powers. The casual reader will carry away a whole )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(range of striking images and stories, skilfully drawn vignettes of blighted lives, defiant self-assertion, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desperate misery. These are balanced by some thoughtful passages on the limitations of law enforcement, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and by the internal evidence from the cases themselves, which often show how long a career of deviance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(could be sustained. The material is presented in a clear and unfussy style, whose tendency to slight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understatement is beautifully calculated to bring out the inherent pathos of these cases; there is a welcome )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(absence of jargon or of superfluous theoretical padding. The scrupulous handling of difficult archival )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources will make the book a wonderful quarry for other historians, who will surely feel that they are able to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rely implicitly on the author's judgements. They will also pick up a great deal of superb detail about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday life and social relations in south-western Germany. Others may be fascinated to see how a German )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian now based in England has brought together two historiographical traditions in a most fruitful way. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(My reservation is simply that within what appears at first sight to be an outstanding regional study in social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history there is another book lurking, one which raises issues of the greatest significance for our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of the period. Although the blame may lie primarily with my own bad habits of fast reading )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and selective attention, it has taken me several attempts to get beyond the more obvious merits of this work, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(then to think about its broader implications.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The introduction and conclusion do in fact contain some highly nuanced and insightful comments; they are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however rather brief, and their tone risks downplaying them too far. This very economy means that they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would make excellent texts for seminar discussions, inviting expansion and comparison. Here Ulinka )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rublack invokes the context for the individual cases and the moralistic campaigns which occupy the bulk of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her book. She explains how the early modern period saw secular authorities extend their ambitions to control )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(everyday behaviour, moving into several areas previously left mostly to the church, and combining )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(statebuilding with an emphasis on household discipline. The outcome appears to have been an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unprecedented drive towards the legal enforcement of norms, which themselves became more demanding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and arguably less realistic. Social problems were never envisaged as proceeding from defective structures or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lite behaviour; instead they were routinely blamed on the stupidity and disobedience of the lower orders. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rationality and self-control were identified as masculine and lite virtues, opposed to the animality, lust and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unreason of which women were the ultimate embodiment. The female sex, lacking an adequate moral sense )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and incapable of sexual restraint, became the cause of immorality. Any sign of independence from single )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women might attract reprobation, while many facets of everyday feminine behaviour could be used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confirm the stereotype. At the very end attention is drawn to the major transformation which marked the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later eighteenth century, when women were recast in a passive role and male sexuality was identified as the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prime disruptive factor in society. In Wrttemberg, however, this changed view of female nature did not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extend to poor women in the textile industry, who were forbidden to marry and subjected to savage penalties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for sexual misconduct until 1871; here class seems to have replaced gender as the identifier.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While this framework is established with elegance and economy, one could still wish for a more extended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussion of these themes, and for them to be more fully integrated with the bulk of the book. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(numerous points at which change over time is demonstrated and explained, but these analyses tend to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concentrate on rather immediate and pragmatic factors. One can only sympathize with a proper scholarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reluctance to venture beyond the evidence; perhaps nothing more could have safely been done with the court )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records for the region. It is also a tribute to a book to recognise that it raises even more issues than it claims )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to solve, so it is not really a criticism to say that )] TJ ET BT 266.348 76.181 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Crimes of Women)] TJ ET BT 373.340 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( leaves me both admiring and slightly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustrated. I would like to hear much more about how the negative view of women's social role was built up )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 20 0 R ] /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 4362 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the late medieval and early modern period, which is of course a question for intellectual, legal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(religious history as well as for social history. As Ulinka Rublack shrewdly illustrates on numerous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(occasions, this was some way short of being a true consensus in any case, so the apparent inability to move )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond it raises some complex issues. Another question is that of how far the drive for moral reform was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ultimately self-defeating; did the search for a social order based on the repression of natural instinct and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individual deviance collapse into a discredited mess because of its own inner contradictions? If that was not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the case, how did these apparently self-confirming beliefs lose their appeal, when the evils they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supposed to remedy had not obviously declined? Then there is the elusive issue of how far the moral codes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were ever internalised, and by whom.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elements of possible answers to such questions may be found in more general books by such historians as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Merry Wiesner and Isobel Hull, although both adopt a cautious tone and recognise the need for more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(research. Another very proper response might be that these large issues can only be sensibly discussed on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparative basis. This study does make a contribution in that direction, because the Catholic city of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constance is shown to have followed a very similar trajectory to that taken by her Protestant neighbours. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reference is also made to James Farr's admirable study of similar processes in Burgundy, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandably there is no attempt to pursue this comparison in detail. What we now need is for others to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(follow the admirable example set by Ulinka Rublack, and to consider these difficult issues in a similarly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughtful manner. Perhaps one slightly more cheerful aspect of her generally dark picture is that the dismal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misogyny exuded by official decisions and theoretical statements alike does not seem to have truly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(undermined older local solidarities. One has the sense that repression was usually deflected towards fringe )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(groups, which could do symbolic duty for the wider sins of a whole society. In this way moral reform was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transmuted into a rather unattractive style of scapegoating, whose inadequacies became steadily more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(obvious, but whose luckless victims were treated with disproportionate cruelty. Some at least of them seem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to have felt the shame even more acutely than the physical pain, so it is some belated compensation that their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experiences have been movingly reconstructed in this excellent book.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 397.087 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 379.307 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 379.307 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/230)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 377.913 m 322.316 377.913 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 352.936 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 338.536 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1273)] TJ ET BT 34.016 324.136 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 21 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 378.2275 322.3157 390.1075 ] >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/230) >> endobj xref 0 22 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000546 00000 n 0000000628 00000 n 0000004979 00000 n 0000005088 00000 n 0000005198 00000 n 0000005307 00000 n 0000008868 00000 n 0000008996 00000 n 0000009080 00000 n 0000009145 00000 n 0000016683 00000 n 0000016748 00000 n 0000024489 00000 n 0000024573 00000 n 0000028988 00000 n 0000029116 00000 n trailer << /Size 22 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 29211 %%EOF