%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 17 0 R 19 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20141127161441+00'00') /ModDate (D:20141127161441+00'00') /Title (The Cathars: Dualist Heretics in Languedoc in the High Middle Ages) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4780 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Cathars: Dualist Heretics in Languedoc in the High Middle )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Ages)] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In recent years, it has become very much easier to teach medieval heresy at undergraduate level. In addition )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to a long-established and outstanding collection of sources \(Wakefield and Evans, )] TJ ET BT 430.616 280.451 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heresies of the High )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Middle Ages)] TJ ET BT 94.340 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\) we have been blessed, in the last five years, with two textbooks and a collection of essays on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Waldensians, three monographs on inquisition, two popular books, two textbooks and a monograph on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Cathars, full translations of two major sources related to the Albigensian Crusade, and a collection of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(translated sources relating to heresy in the East.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.640 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.640 222.033 m 276.632 222.033 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 276.632 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The most recent entrant into this thriving arena is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Barber's )] TJ ET BT 122.828 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 143.828 209.171 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cathars)] TJ ET BT 182.504 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a long-awaited textbook by an historian familiar for his past work on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Knights Templar, and for his editorship \(sadly just relinquished\) of the excellent )] TJ ET BT 422.972 194.915 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Journal of Medieval History)] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Certain topics fall in and out of favour with both the general public and academia; in the case of the Cathars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 140.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it is probably the shadow of Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's seminal )] TJ ET BT 351.812 140.147 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Montaillou: Cathars and Catholics in a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(French Village)] TJ ET BT 106.340 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1978\) that has until recently kept writers somewhat at bay from attempting to present )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible, alternative versions of this major medieval heresy. In fact, of course, Ladurie's book talked very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(little about heresy itself, and was concerned only with the early fourteenth century, when bishop Jacques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Fournier launched an inquisition against the Pyrenean peasants of Languedoc \(a more clear example of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sledgehammer and nut could hardly be found\). Until the recent flurry of titles, pretty much the only attempt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to set Catharism in perspective, for a student audience, was the central chapters in Malcolm Lambert's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(231)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wednesday, 31 October, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Malcolm Barber)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780582256615)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(298pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Longman)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Harlow)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(John Arnold)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 262.6397 222.3475 276.6317 234.2275 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 18 0 R >> endobj 18 0 obj << /Length 8441 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent )] TJ ET BT 80.336 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Heresy)] TJ ET BT 161.972 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(first published in 1977 and now approaching its third edition\). As things now )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stand, Barber's )] TJ ET BT 107.828 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars)] TJ ET BT 167.504 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( has three main competitors or confrres: the aforementioned )] TJ ET BT 463.100 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Medieval Heresy)] TJ ET BT 544.736 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lambert's )] TJ ET BT 84.500 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars)] TJ ET BT 144.176 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Michael Costen's )] TJ ET BT 255.992 767.957 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade)] TJ ET BT 458.336 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. Happily, there is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(space for all three in the field. Costen's text is more focussed on the crusade than anything else, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Lambert's is concerned with Cathars \(and other dualists\) throughout Christendom, whereas Barber has stuck )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to one region: Languedoc.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As with Barber's earlier textbook )] TJ ET BT 195.812 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Two Cities)] TJ ET BT 268.496 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(dealing with medieval Europe 1000-1300\), )] TJ ET BT 484.796 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars)] TJ ET BT 544.472 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written extremely clearly and accessibly - the )] TJ ET BT 254.960 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(sine qua)] TJ ET BT 298.292 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(non)] TJ ET BT 316.292 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( for a student audience, although achieved less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frequently by historians than one might wish. The style is relaxed, the structure of the book and its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(component parts is clear, and above all else the author does not make any unwarranted assumptions about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what students will already know: when a new topic, area, or theme appears, its context and relevance are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spelt out clearly and succinctly. Over seven chapters, Barber takes us from the origins of the Cathars, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the support enjoyed by the Cathar elite - the )] TJ ET BT 287.984 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perfecti)] TJ ET BT 324.644 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( or 'perfects' - in southern France, examining the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(structure and practices of the Cathar church and its social context, to the Roman Catholic church's reaction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(preaching, followed by crusade, followed by inquisition\) and its eventual suppression of the Cathars. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Finally, we are shown the last murmurs of the heresy as it briefly reappeared in the Pyrenean villages )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(persecuted by bishop Fournier, and the strange and resonant 'afterlife' that Catharism has enjoyed for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Occitaniste patriots, Simone Weil, and the modern southern French tourist trade.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars arose in southern France in the twelfth century, propounding a faith that posited the existence of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two gods: one good, who created the spirit, and one bad, who created all corporeal matter. In Italy, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(theology was more complicated, as certain Cathars adopted 'mitigated' dualism: that is, that the bad god as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the creation of the good god. Languedoc, however, seems to have retained absolute dualism; this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(geographical distinction is not made completely clear in Barber's text, as he relies more on the narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Italian materials for his section on Cathar theology, rather than excavating the fragments of theology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contained in inquisitorial depositions. The Cathar rejection of corporeality provided one foundation for their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faith, leading to the ritual of )] TJ ET BT 171.668 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(consolamentum)] TJ ET BT 246.992 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( that transformed a believer into one of the 'perfect', the perfects' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(abstention from meat and sex, and their belief that marriage was innately sinful \(because it pretended to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sanctify bodily relations\). The second foundation was the Cathar belief that they were the true inheritors of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early, apostolic church; from this sprang the need for the perfects to minister to their flock, to preach and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to practice poverty \(their mendicancy provided the example from whence sprang the Dominican order\). At )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their apogee, the Languedocian Cathars created a church structure, including bishops, deacons and other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(officials for different areas, and enjoyed the support \(either passive or active\) of much of the southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French nobility.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For those of us interested in the Cathars, certain key areas of debate tend to demand attention. One is the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of origins: from whence the heresy arose. A second is the matter of continuation: what allowed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heresy such success \(particularly in southern France\)? A third is decline: when and how did the orthodox )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church succeed in putting down this competitor? For all three, Barber provides sensible responses. On the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question of origins, he summarises clearly and succinctly the main arguments of the key historians, provides )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a brief overview of the pros and cons of interpreting instances of heresy prior to the mid-twelfth century as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(dualist, and argues \(I think correctly\) that heretical theologians from the East - perhaps specifically from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Constantinople - must have played an influential role in evangelising dualism in the west.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The second question - the continuation and success of Catharism - is also handled well. Previous arguments )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have suggested that Catharism essentially filled a void left by an ill-educated and lax orthodox clergy in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Languedoc, and that the social changes wrought by urban expansion formed a seedbed for new and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unorthodox ideas. Barber takes both points on board, but sounds welcome notes of caution: orthodox piety )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was also strong in Languedoc \(Cistercian, Hospitaller and Templar institutions were all founded in the area, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attracting strong support\) and the area was far from being heavily urbanised. As the author comments, 'poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clergy and urban growth made a contribution, but the interaction between heresy and society is much more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex than such simple formulae will allow. The relationship between Catharism and social structure is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not, indeed, subject to a single, monolithic explanation' [69]. Indeed, one of the particular strengths of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 35.669 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars)] TJ ET endstream endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 20 0 R >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Length 7715 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is Barber's handling of the social context for the heresy. There is very little written in English )] TJ ET BT 484.784 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on southern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French society in general, and what is provided here is extremely welcome. Particularly persuasive is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barber's agreement with historians such as Andrew Roach, Jean Duvernoy and Mark Pegg that 'the example )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(set by the lifestyle of the )] TJ ET BT 155.336 753.701 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(perfecti)] TJ ET BT 191.996 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( was more important [to their sympathisers] than dualistic belief as such' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([96].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(If I am slightly less impressed by Barber's response to the third area - suppression/decline - this is perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only because it is the area in which I have greatest interest. )] TJ ET BT 319.616 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars)] TJ ET BT 379.292 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( certainly provides a clear account of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(church reactions in the thirteenth century, narrates the events of the Albigensian Crusade \(1209-1229\), and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examines the beginnings of inquisition in Languedoc in a sensibly nuanced fashion. Most importantly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barber's section on 'decline' concludes with a smart analysis of the socio-economic change wrought by the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(longer term effects of the Crusade and the extension of French administration into the region: this, he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggests, is the final blow to Catharism - 'In fifty years the environment had been transformed, changing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cathars first from reformers to )] TJ ET BT 184.316 613.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(maquisards)] TJ ET BT 240.320 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and then from maquisards to fugitives' [175].)] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, the efforts of the church \(both before and after the Crusade\) are presented a little too neatly. In the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Introduction, noting the fundamental theological challenge that Catharism presented to Catholicism, Barber )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writes:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For Catholics therefore, there could be no compromise with the Cathars, manifestly working to subvert the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(faithful at the behest of the Devil; it was the responsibility of all Catholic leaders, ecclesiastical and lay, to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strive to overcome this heresy with all the strength at their command. This [.] was particularly pertinent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the reformed papacy which, since the 1050s, had been working to reassert its leadership of the universal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church. [.] Repression of Catharism was not therefore a question of choice, nor was there any option of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(toleration, for it was a positive obligation upon those charged by God to lead His Church on earth. [2])] TJ ET BT 34.016 434.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One may demur over whether there was a choice to repress: not from an ahistorical desire to condemn )] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholicism for its excesses \(it's been guilty of worse\), but because the image painted here is too univocal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and coherent. Although heresy, from c. 1000 onwards, certainly caused ecclesiastical authorities great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concern, the main feature of orthodox reactions up to the thirteenth century were their undirected and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncentralised nature; and even in the thirteenth century \(the period when that imaginary monolith ')] TJ ET BT 506.768 377.813 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church' was arguably closest to actual achievement\) both crusade and inquisition were conducted under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confused and altering conditions. It is not clear, for example, )] TJ ET BT 328.964 349.301 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(how)] TJ ET BT 348.968 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( the Crusade was supposed to succeed: that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is, the nature of the supposed enemy \(a clear band of heretical outlaws to be suppressed, or a region that was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endemically problematic and in want of governance\) changed over the course of its twenty years. So too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with inquisition: begun \(as Barber makes clear\) more as a physical search for heretics, it mutated into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something more extraordinary - a system for interrogating individual lay people about their innermost )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thoughts and beliefs. These changes are of interest, and affect our story.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(An important element leads on from this last point: the nature of the evidence upon which Barber \(and any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian dealing with the topic\) relies. Almost everything we know about Catharism comes from hostile )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sources, whether polemics written against heretical doctrine, chronicles narrating the successes of orthodoxy, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(or the complex and problematic records of inquisitors. Although Barber makes effective use of particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sets of inquisitorial depositions, he also relies fairly heavily upon narrative accounts \(chronicles and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemics\). This makes for a clear exposition; but it would be nice to have greater discussion of the problems )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with these sources. For example, Barber chooses to base his section on the 'moral and ethical teaching' of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perfects on the polemics addressed against them by writers such as Peter of Vaux-les-Cernay, Rainier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sacconi and James Capelli. What he draws out from these sources is perfectly sound, but it is a shame firstly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the details one can pick out from the less directly hostile inquisitorial depositions are not used to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supplement these overviews; and secondly that the sources themselves are not brought more closely under )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(question. That is, one might like to draw students' attention more clearly not only to the fact that these are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(polemics \(something that Barber does note in passing\), but that the way in which they think about \(and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hence present\) Catharism - as a sect, with rules, with a hierarchy, something with boundaries and structure - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is implicit in their accounts. One can contrast this image with the more fluid and heterogeneous picture of )] TJ ET endstream endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R 27 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 7428 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the heretical faith drawn from inquisitorial depositions - a picture that Barber also provides in part - but it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would be good to have the differences of viewpoint pointed out more clearly. None of this is to suggest that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barber uses his sources naively; only that the process of evaluating and questioning source materials \(many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of which are readily available in English\) might also be displayed to good pedagogic effect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Overall, however, this is an excellent starting point for teaching the Cathars to a student audience. It does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(provide quite the density of information, or as wide a synthesis of secondary material, as its main competitor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Lambert's )] TJ ET BT 88.496 698.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars)] TJ ET BT 148.172 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\); but in some ways it is all the better for that, as it provides a clearer and more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible text for new readers. It also handles the shadow of )] TJ ET BT 329.936 684.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Montaillou)] TJ ET BT 383.276 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( well, by ignoring most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(characters who so charmed Le Roy Ladurie in favour of a few more pertinent witnesses from the Fournier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(register who provide key details about Catharism \(as opposed to sex and society\) in the early fourteenth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century. Also worthy of note are the helpful tables, maps and 'Further Reading' sections that bring the book )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to its conclusion. The newest entrant to the Cathar arena is a most welcome combatant.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 592.755 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 562.138 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(General collection of sources: Walter L. Wakefield and Austin P. Evans, )] TJ ET BT 415.940 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Heresies o)] TJ ET BT 466.928 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(f )] TJ ET BT 473.924 562.133 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(the High Middle )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ages)] TJ ET BT 87.344 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, 2nd edition \(Columbia University Press, 1993\). Waldensians: Gabriel Audisio, )] TJ ET BT 474.656 547.877 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Waldensian )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Dissent: Persecution and Survival, c. 1170-c. 1570)] TJ ET BT 308.984 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Cambridge University Press, 1999\), Euan L. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cameron, )] TJ ET BT 114.008 519.365 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Waldenses: Rejections of Holy Church in Medieval Europe)] TJ ET BT 398.300 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Blackwell, 2000\), Peter Biller, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Waldenses,)] TJ ET BT 142.340 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1170-1530 )] TJ ET BT 197.336 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Variorum, 2001\). Inquisition: James B. Given, )] TJ ET BT 427.988 505.109 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inquisition and Medieval)] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Society: Power, Discipline and Resistance in Languedoc )] TJ ET BT 339.320 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cornell University Press, 1997\), Alan )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friedlander, )] TJ ET BT 125.336 476.597 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Hammer of the Inquisitors: Brother Bernard Dlicieux and the Struggle against the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inquisition in Fourteenth-Century France )] TJ ET BT 268.004 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Brill, 2000\), John H. Arnold, )] TJ ET BT 414.332 462.341 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Inquisition and Power: )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Catharism and the Confessing Subject in Medieval Languedoc)] TJ ET BT 364.340 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Pennsylvania Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001\). Cathars: Ren Weiss, )] TJ ET BT 203.996 433.829 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Yellow Cross: The Story of the Last Cathars, 1290-1329)] TJ ET BT 495.356 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Viking, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000\), Stephen O'Shea, )] TJ ET BT 179.828 419.573 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Perfect Heresy: The Revolutionary Life and Death of the Medieval )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cathars)] TJ ET BT 102.692 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Walker & Co., 2000\), Michael Costen,)] TJ ET BT 296.000 405.317 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( The Cathars and the Albigensian Crusade)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Manchester University Press, 1997\), Malcolm Lambert, )] TJ ET BT 338.972 391.061 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Cathars)] TJ ET BT 398.648 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Oxford University Press, )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1998\), Mark Pegg, )] TJ ET BT 157.004 376.805 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Corruption of Angels: The Great Inquisition of 1245-1246)] TJ ET BT 458.348 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Princeton )] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University Press, 2001\). Albigensian Crusade: Janet Shirley, trans., )] TJ ET BT 390.320 362.549 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Song of the Cathar Wars)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Ashgate, 1996\), W. A. Sibly and M. D. Sibly, trans., )] TJ ET BT 323.000 348.293 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Peter of Vaux-de-Cernay: The History of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Albigensian Crusade)] TJ ET BT 165.020 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Boydell and Brewer, 1998\). Eastern sources: Janet and Bernard Hamilton, ed. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trans., )] TJ ET BT 116.672 319.781 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Christian Dualist Heresies in the Byzantine World c. 650-c.1450)] TJ ET BT 427.328 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Manchester University )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Press, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 126.344 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 126.344 304.131 m 180.332 304.131 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I am grateful to John Arnold for his thoughtful and empathetic review of my book which I am pleased to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 265.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accept.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 238.757 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 224.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(H-Net Reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php)] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 208.851 m 240.992 208.851 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 243.992 210.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 205.519 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 187.739 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 187.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/231)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 186.345 m 322.316 186.345 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 161.368 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 146.968 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1275)] TJ ET BT 34.016 132.568 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5235)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 126.3437 304.4455 180.3317 316.3255 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 209.1655 240.9917 221.0455 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.php?id=5235) >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 28 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 186.6595 322.3157 198.5395 ] >> endobj 28 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/231) >> endobj xref 0 29 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000569 00000 n 0000000658 00000 n 0000005490 00000 n 0000005599 00000 n 0000005709 00000 n 0000005818 00000 n 0000009379 00000 n 0000009507 00000 n 0000009591 00000 n 0000009620 00000 n 0000009748 00000 n 0000009784 00000 n 0000009849 00000 n 0000018343 00000 n 0000018408 00000 n 0000026176 00000 n 0000026274 00000 n 0000033755 00000 n 0000033883 00000 n 0000033938 00000 n 0000034065 00000 n 0000034165 00000 n 0000034293 00000 n trailer << /Size 29 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 34388 %%EOF