%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140916201045+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140916201045+01'00') /Title (Cromwell's Major-Generals: Godly Government during the English Revolution) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4505 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cromwell's Major-Generals: Godly Government during the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(English Revolution)] TJ ET BT 34.016 323.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Durston has produced here the sort of history which my generation of school students was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 308.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought up to regard as the norm, taking a celebrated episode of political and constitutional history and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 294.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(setting out to re-evaluate it by reading a broader and deeper collection of sources for it than ever before, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 280.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both local and national archives. This is the form of historiography which has been applied to past politics )] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most commonly ever since the discipline of history became professionalised. It is one which acquired a new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cutting edge in the 1970s when it became the mainstay of the revisionist movement in early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical studies. It is a straightforwardly empirical technique based on the twin assumptions that if you read )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more about something than anybody else has done, then you will know more about it than anybody else, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that if you read enough, then you are likely to solve the traditional puzzles which have hung over your )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of enquiry. Its application by a colleague as patient, reasonable and equable as Dr Durston provides a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly good test of its worth at a time when methodologies of writing history are under close scrutiny. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the opinion of this reviewer, it vindicates the first assumption, for this is certainly the best book yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(written on its subject, while throwing up a few doubts about the second.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It was a classically good subject to have chosen, being at once celebrated and neglected. Many historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have provided opinions upon it, from the seventeenth to the late twentieth century, and yet it has not hitherto )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been given any sustained treatment in its own right, based on extensive research. The opinions concerned )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall into two contrasting, while possibly compatible, groups. One has emphasised the spectacular and unique )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nature of the experiment of Cromwell's government in dividing England and Wales into regional commands )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supervised by Major-Generals supported by county committees and militias. In keeping with the dual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(232)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Christopher Durston)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(719051878X)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2014)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ronald Hutton)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7395 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(character of the Cromwellian Protectorate as a government resting upon the victories of an army of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(potential\) saints, they were expected both to ensure military security and to impose a deeper level of godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reformation upon the English and Welsh. This school of thought, which has included most leading historians )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the period between the late seventeenth and the mid-twentieth century, has differed only over the merits )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the experiment. Some \(from Echard, Hallam and Ranke, down to David Underdown and Robert Ashton\) )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have emphasised the arbitrary, despotic and unpopular nature of the Major-Generals' rule, while others \(from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Carlyle to Christopher Hill\) have been more inclined to credit them with good intentions and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(virtues. The other school has been comprised mostly of late-twentieth-century scholars, and has placed more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stress upon the brief and ineffectual nature of their administration.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(What Christopher Durston does is to prove that both traditions are correct, for the Major-Generals were at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(once important, unpopular and ineffectual. He carries out the vital work of establishing who they were and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(what they did, so well that the job will not need to be done again. They turn out to be in personal terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(impressive enough to justify the praise granted to them by some previous writers: a set of relatively young, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(energetic and dedicated men, all with distinguished records as soldiers, almost all with personal connections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to the territories which they administered, and almost all deeply committed to some form of radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestantism: classic godly governors. Only a sixth of them came from the traditional magisterial elite. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accepted picture is also reinforced in Dr Durston's analysis of the county committees on whose work they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depended, the 'commissioners for securing the peace of the Commonwealth'. Some recent work has tended )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to emphasise the presence among them of members of pre-Civil War ruling families, and of individuals with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively moderate religious views, but a closer look reveals that these were precisely the people who were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most reluctant or unwilling to do the actual work. When those who undertook the job enthusiastically are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identified, they turn out to be exactly what traditional historiography has made them: 'small cadres of godly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(zealots of generally lower social status'. There can no longer be any doubt that the rule of the Major-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generals represented the point at which the political and religious radicals who were most clearly identified )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the English Revolution of 1648-49 were given their starkest and most complete measure of control of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the localities. This is the more significant in that everything points to the fact that until its sudden downfall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the Parliament of 1656-7, the system was expected to remain a permanent feature of the Protectoral )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(government.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The other side of the equation is therefore the more significant: that the same system actually accomplished )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so little. Dr Durston proves that the only work in which the Major-Generals showed any success consisted of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(closing alehouses and cowing royalists. Even in these their achievement was severely limited. The alehouses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(returned in their old numbers as soon as the campaign against them wound down. It was true that royalist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conspiracy was effectively wiped out, as the supporters of the exiled king were submitted to punitive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(taxation and the submission of large bonds for good behaviour, while the collection and monitoring of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political intelligence reached a peak of efficiency not otherwise known in early modern England. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense, the Major-Generals gave the regime complete physical security. It is also true, however, that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(royalists were already exhausted after the complete failure of a rebellion which they had launched in early )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1655, and which had itself done much to provoke the new system of surveillance. There is no way of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrating that they would have taken a shorter time to resume plotting had the latter never been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imposed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(None of the remaining objectives of the proposed godly reforms came anything near even this partial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(success. They were supposed to include a more efficient relief of the poor. In practice this meant that a lot of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(vagrants were arrested, and then released when the county authorities could no longer afford to hold them. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(About 2% of the national clergy were replaced with allegedly more efficient or politically reliable men, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tiny proportion of the total number of ejections during the period of the civil wars and republic. The impact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the prosecution of profanity, sexual offences, traditional sports and pastimes and prohibited activities on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sunday was at best marginal. Without the whole-hearted co-operation of both the public and local office-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(holders at all levels, things could hardly be otherwise, and such co-operation was evidently lacking. Dr )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durston concludes that the expected reformation of society was 'a clear failure'. It is just as significant, as he )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(points out, that both the generals themselves and the government to whom they reported believed that they )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4623 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(had achieved great successes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This capacity for self-delusion was very clearly one feature of the Cromwellian regime, exemplified in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conviction of the Major-Generals that they would be capable of controlling fresh parliamentary elections in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such a way as to produce a national assembly which would support their work and that of the government )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behind them. Instead, even after a quarter of it had been purged, the Parliament concerned destroyed them )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and did its best to remodel the constitution to put the lid on godly reformation and republicanism together. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another ingrained aspect of the regime which is exposed by Christopher Durston's research is its curious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(combination of executive efficiency and strategic bungling. There can be no doubt that, for an early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state, the Cromwellian Protectorate could construct and operate administrations with an almost breathtaking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(skill. In this case, the regional commands were staffed, the militias raised, and the royalists taxed and bound )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(over, with remarkable speed and effectiveness. It was the planning behind the whole enterprise which was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fatally flawed: as in virtually all else that it did, the government could not get its sums right, could not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supply the support that the new apparatus required, and could not reconcile its commitment to a radical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protestant godliness with its yearning for acceptance by, if not popularity with, the bulk of the nation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As Dr Durston demonstrates, a large part of the reason for the establishment of the network of Major-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generals was that the regime could no longer pay for its own defence. The number of regular soldiers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(needed to maintain its security was too large for the existing level of taxation to support, even though that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(level was still too high for most taxpayers. Any chance of getting more money through unequivocally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional channels was blocked by the government's hitherto complete failure to work with a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament. In this situation, the idea of replacing some of the regular army with local militias of zealous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(supporters, paid from a tax on royalists which spared the rest of the population, seemed like a practicable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and morally sound way out of the problem. The trouble was that the Protector and his Council got both parts )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the equation wrong. They did not reduce the army as needed - indeed, at the end of the experiment it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bigger than before - and it turned out that the tax on royalists could never raise enough to pay for the new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(militia force. As a result, the government ended up with a bloated military establishment and even less )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adequate funding, and its financial crisis was considerably worsened. In the eyes of the present reviewer, this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fits a pattern whereby Cromwell's regime lurched from one desperate expedient to another, like a failing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gambler staking larger and larger sums upon a lucky throw; the installation of the Major-Generals makes a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(precise domestic parallel to the launching of an unprovoked attack on the Spanish colonial empire in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hare-brained belief that this war would pay for its own costs. In his own way, the Lord Protector was as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reckless an adventurer as Charles I, Charles II or James II.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7436 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even so, with all its inherent failures, the system would probably have lasted longer had not the Major-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generals themselves, unwittingly, done all that was necessary to ruin it. Dr Durston shows, better than ever )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before, how they provided a context for their own abolition by persuading the government to call a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament which turned out to be largely unsympathetic to them. Even so, the MPs ignored their existence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(until one of the most important politicians among them, closely connected in family and counsels to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Protector, called attention to it in the most crass possible manner. This was John Desborough, whose action )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in trying to bounce Parliament into recognising the tax on royalists precipitated the rejection of that tax, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(thus the breaking of the whole system. The action concerned was hardly necessary and may have been taken )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on Desborough's own blundering initiative, but it would not have proved disastrous had it not been for two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other features of this regime. One was the existence of a body of civilian advisors and courtiers, personally )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favoured by the Protector and often brought in by him, who were opposed to the army and to the godly in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both instinct and experience. It was they, and not the backwoodsmen, who drove on the attack on the tax, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and they were able to succeed because of the second feature of the Protectorate, its consistent failure to give )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the generals the support for which they asked. Dr Durston reveals how repeatedly their administrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures faltered because the central authorities displayed no interest in providing the matching actions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which were needed for completion; for example, to allocate shipping to transport imprisoned vagrants to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonies. In the same fashion, the utter lack of any official attempt to defend the Major-Generals within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Parliament gave free rein to their enemies and sealed their fate. Rarely, if ever before, have the peculiar )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(strengths and weaknesses of this regime been so starkly exposed.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(All this adds up to a considerable achievement on the part of this book, and if doubts linger over some of its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suggestions, as stated above, then they are inherent in the nature of the material. Like most political and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative historians, Christopher Durston has a much more straightforward job in determining the what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the how than the why. One of the biggest factors in the failure of the Major-Generals consists of their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of popularity, manifested in their own reports concerning their reception and their decisive rejection by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the electorate, despite all their efforts to pack a Parliament. Dr Durston considers two traditional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanations, that they were hated either as soldiers or as agents of a legally dubious governmental )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(centralisation, and while admitting some force to them rejects them in favour of a third. This is to emphasise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their status as the allies and patrons of local cadres of godly Protestant fundamentalists; in common parlance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical puritans. In this reading, it was the inherent anti-puritanism of the English and Welsh, as powerful at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(times if less celebrated than their anti-Catholicism, which made the generals most obnoxious to them. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is nothing that can be faulted in such a suggestion; but nor is it actually demonstrated, and it probably cannot )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be. The great problem in evaluating public responses to the Major-Generals is that the latter possessed so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many qualities likely to give widespread offence, consisting of all those mentioned above, that together they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(made up a package of irredeemable unacceptability. The recorded expressions of local opinion are too few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and too general to make possible any convincing analysis of the component parts of that assemblage. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian in this situation is not a chemist capable of making a forensic study, but a cook attempting to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unscramble eggs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The same sort of difficulty is encountered in attempting to uncover the role played in all these events by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oliver Cromwell himself. The portrayal of the Protector made in this book is possibly the most negative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published by any academic historian during the last fifty years, and the more striking in that Christopher )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Durston himself goes out of his way to extenuate rather than criticise Cromwell. The latter's admirers, who )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have included most historians of the period during the twentieth century, have always been rather )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(embarrassed by his apparent role in the fall of the Major-Generals. A good case has been made that, having )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(realised how little support they had achieved in even a purged Parliament, the Protector decided to collude )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the attack on their system in order to ingratiate himself with the MPs and obtain the financial and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constitutional support which he needed. Dr Durston argues instead that he remained aloof and perplexed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the whole debate, exhibiting throughout what is called here his 'characteristic dithering and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evasiveness' in political affairs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Was the great Protector really so completely bemused? At the opening of the attack on Desborough's bill, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(speech was made against it by an obscure cousin of Cromwell. The latter immediately received him warmly )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 3529 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and presented him with a rich cloak and gloves, which he showed off in Parliament as a sign of his powerful )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relative's favour. Dr Durston suggests that Cromwell simply did not realise the likely effect of his action, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reading which credits him with breathtaking naivet. Had so ruthless and decisive a soldier turned into such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a helpless politician? It is possible, but it may also be noted that one of Cromwell's main traits as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commander had been his preference for oblique attacks, striking an enemy in the rear or flank. It may well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be that his approach to politics was equally slippery, and that he was deliberately playing off the Major-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Generals against their critics in Parliament and standing back to see who proved the stronger. After all, those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics were led by people to whom Oliver himself had given favour as advisers and servants, as part of his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consistent policy of balancing groups in his court and council in such a way that they had nothing in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common save loyalty to himself. As things stand, Dr Durston defends him from the charge of being a fox by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making him out to be a goose. The bottom line of this affair is certainly that Cromwell made no effort to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support men who had been his loyal servants and had laboured hard for ends which he was supposed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ardently to endorse. Ultimately, we cannot know why he did not, because we cannot make windows into his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mind, any more than we can into those of the general public whom he ruled.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These issues can be raised so clearly because Christopher Durston does his work so well. By writing a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masterpiece of old-fashioned political history, he shows what it can achieve, and what it cannot. As in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(case of predecessors in this tradition such as Austin Woolrych, writing on neighbouring parts of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period, one has an impression that in places it is at last being worked down to the bedrock.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The author is grateful to Ronald Hutton for his generous review and will not be responding further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 470.623 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 452.843 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 452.843 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/232)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 451.449 m 322.316 451.449 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 426.472 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 412.072 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1277)] TJ ET BT 34.016 397.672 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 451.7635 322.3157 463.6435 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/232) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000583 00000 n 0000000665 00000 n 0000005222 00000 n 0000005331 00000 n 0000005441 00000 n 0000005550 00000 n 0000009111 00000 n 0000009239 00000 n 0000009323 00000 n 0000009388 00000 n 0000016836 00000 n 0000016901 00000 n 0000021577 00000 n 0000021642 00000 n 0000029131 00000 n 0000029215 00000 n 0000032797 00000 n 0000032925 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33020 %%EOF