%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R 22 0 R 24 0 R 26 0 R ] /Count 8 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140818093305+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140818093305+01'00') /Title (Cultures of Empire: Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: A Reader) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4352 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire: Colonizers in Britain and the Empire in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: A Reader)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 126.020 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is an ideal volume for advanced undergraduate and postgraduate students, along with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other scholars seeking to reflect on developments in an interdisciplinary field of inquiry that has rapidly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(evolved in little more than a decade. As a compilation of fourteen articles and book chapters published since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1989 \(most of which have appeared since the mid-1990s\), the collection testifies to the burgeoning interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(among social and cultural historians, anthropologists, and literary critics in the centrality of empire in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain's past and postcolonial present. It is now increasingly common to assert that empire was crucial to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity of colonizers as well as colonized, that Britain's domestic and overseas histories cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disentangled, and that imperial dimensions continue to be relevant in Britain as well as former colonies the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wake of widescale decolonization after the Second World War. Despite the appearance of an increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(large number of studies on these subjects, however, scholars grappling with these issues cannot forget the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 95.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(hesitancy, if not outright hostility, with which many engaged in British studies have greeted efforts to bring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(metropolitan and imperial themes together into the same field of analysis. Indeed, scepticism and rejection )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of these topics' relevance continues in many circles, making )] TJ ET BT 324.788 66.611 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 416.792 66.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( an especially welcome and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(accessible contribution to the collective endeavour to have empire taken seriously as part of British culture, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(235)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Friday, 1 February, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Editor:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415929066)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(75.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(350pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.manchesteruniversitypress.co.uk/catalogue/book.asp?id=1204081)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Manchester)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Elizabeth Buettner)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7692 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both historically and in the present.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherine Hall's introduction provides inroads into these debates and charts some of the main trajectories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within colonial and postcolonial studies. She discusses a diverse set of writers ranging from Seeley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Dilke in the Victorian era to C. L. R. James and Frantz Fanon, who in distinct ways were all key figures in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the development of concepts later taken up by scholars writing after decolonization. Hall then briefly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explores the impact of postcolonial critics such as Edward Said, feminists like Joan Scott, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poststructuralists more generally in influencing how topics connected with colonial and postcolonial culture )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have come to be approached. Widely-used concepts including 'culture' and 'difference' as well as specific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contributions made by prominent individual scholars--including those whose work is reprinted in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume but also many others--are summarised in clear language that will be readily comprehensible to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(newly initiated into this field, who may well find some studies of colonial and postcolonial topics to be off-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(putting in both their jargon and often intensive use of theory. Throughout this reader, Hall's choice of works )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(helps readers both to take various forms of theory on board and explore how a number of scholars apply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(them in more specific case studies. Part I of )] TJ ET BT 246.644 599.141 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 338.648 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is accordingly entitled 'Using Theory', )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although in truth all the pieces included in the remaining three parts also might fall under this heading to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greater or lesser degrees.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part I's articles are highly suggestive not only of prominent theoretical approaches to this field and some of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the topics that have attracted much attention to date, but also indicate some promising roads forward for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(future scholarship which are then examined more closely in some of the following chapters. Joanna de )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Groot's well known )] TJ ET BT 131.168 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [('"Sex" and "Race": The Construction of Language and Image in the Nineteenth Century')] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Nancy Leys Stepan's more recent )] TJ ET BT 217.460 487.349 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Race, Gender, Science and Citizenship')] TJ ET BT 406.664 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( set the stage for later chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which delve further into these themes in more focused studies. First published in 1989, De Groot's piece is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an appropriate beginning given its pioneering treatment of issues which are now routinely taken on board by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those working in this area. Discussing examples mainly from British and French literature, painting, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(travel writing with a focus on the Middle East, de Groot provides a means of, amongst other things, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enhancing and contesting Edward Said's arguments in Orientalism. In the nineteenth century, she )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summarises, 'representations and discourses of sexual identity and difference drew upon and contributed to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comparable discourses and representations of ethnic, "racial", and cultural identity and difference' \(37\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More specifically, she argues that 'there are not only similarities but structural connections between the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(treatment of women and of non-Europeans in the language, experience, and imaginations of Western men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The structural link is constructed around the theme of domination/subordination central both to nineteenth-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century masculine identity and to the Western sense of superiority' \(38\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although they do not receive the same degree of attention, class constructs also enter her discussion, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particularly with references to how )] TJ ET BT 204.968 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(elite)] TJ ET BT 225.632 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Western men benefited most directly from cultural representations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which consolidated their power over gender, class, and ethnic 'inferiors', both within Europe and overseas. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stepan's contribution examines additional dimensions of race and gender linkages, highlighting the role of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(science in defining the 'universal individual' of liberal theory who possessed citizenship rights that derived )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the combination of being male and European. Difference from this perceived 'norm' represented )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through the physical body became a deviation from it, and both women and non-Western peoples fell into )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these 'other' categories and were denied the political rights enjoyed by European men. In short, 'the reality of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the differences embodied in the human species turned a political/ethical argument about individual rights )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into a biological argument about group difference' \(65\). Stepan connects this to the long-standing stumbling )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(block within feminism, namely, the fact that 'women continually evoke first the irrelevance, and next the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relevance, of their sex difference' \(62\). Her discussion draws brilliantly upon a tremendous range of recent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship to consider questions whose dimensions far exceed the boundaries of Britain and its empire. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, as both she and de Groot show, British, French, and other Western discourses on gender and race )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might share much in common and be mutually constitutive.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ann Laura Stoler's contribution to this volume also tackles a set of themes encompassing the culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politics of empire in a wide variety of settings, and encourages scholars to consider the extent to which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct European colonising nations and colonized arenas might be evaluated comparatively. Her chapter )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 8017 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Cultivating Bourgeois Bodies and Racial Selves' is taken from her book)] TJ ET BT 380.984 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Race and the Education of Desire: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Foucault's History of Sexuality and the Colonial Order of Things)] TJ ET BT 346.928 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1995\), which as such places great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on interweaving her interpretations of Foucault's publications and lectures with her own research )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on European colonial dynamics. With respect to Stoler's more detailed analyses of Foucault's work, readers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are advised to consult other parts of her book as well since this particular chapter does not fully indicate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(depth of her theoretical engagement with him. Still, this selection provides a good introduction to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(aspects of Stoler's work, namely her emphasis on the need to consider what 'colonial contexts afford us for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rethinking how European bourgeois culture recounted the distinctions of its sexuality' \(87\). Turning away )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(from the more common tendency to prioritise how European concerns and policies had an impact overseas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stoler first examines 'the class tensions around racial membership in the [Dutch] Indies' and then connects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these with 'the work of race in fixing bourgeois distinctions in Europe itself' \(90-91\). European bourgeois )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial, class, and sexual anxieties and identities derived from a combination of interactive metropolitan and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial experiences and understandings. Stoler focuses primarily upon Dutch \(and to a lesser degree )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(French\) examples, yet situates these within a broad range of studies on British, German, and American )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial questions. One of the most valuable aspects of Stoler's work is the encouragement it offers to other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholars to examine in greater depth how these issues took on contours specific to certain arenas. To what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent do the histories of various colonising nations overlap, and to what extent were they unique? Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 554.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to what degree were policies pursued by colonizers overseas tailored to particular settings or characteristic of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 539.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonising projects more generally? Scholars of British imperial questions can learn much from Stoler's, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 525.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stepan's, and de Groot's pieces, as they employ not only a range of theoretical approaches but also they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 511.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrate the broader perspectives deriving from engagement with cross-national, cross-colonial contexts.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ironically, even as it increasingly takes up imperial dimensions, the field of British studies remains largely )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insular in that its practitioners typically restrict themselves to considering British imperial questions and shy )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(away from comparing and contrasting these with the dynamics of other empires. Moreover, metropolitan )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain still remains the main point of departure for embarking upon the study of its empire, rather than the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reverse. The next two essays in )] TJ ET BT 186.980 428.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 278.984 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, however, indicate alternative paths. Gyan Prakash's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chapter 'Subaltern Studies as Postcolonial Criticism' provides an excellent analysis of one of the most )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(influential recent approaches to the study of South Asia's colonial past and postcolonial present. Exploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the methodological concerns of the many scholars whose work has featured in the series of Subaltern Studies )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volumes dating from 1982, he summarises how this collective of authors 'accus[ed] colonialist, nationalist, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Marxist interpretations of robbing the common people of their agency' and 'announced a new approach )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to restore history to the subordinated' \(121\). Amongst this group are many of the best-known figures within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial and postcolonial studies such as Ranajit Guha, Gayatri Spivak, Dipesh Chakrabarty, Shahid Amin, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 314.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Partha Chatterjee, Gyandendra Pandey, and of course Prakash himself, who alongside figures like Homi )] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bhabha are among the pantheon of this interdisciplinary field. This chapter examines the wide-ranging )] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approaches that Subaltern Studies has incorporated, critiqued, and adapted to its own purposes to produce 'a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 271.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(catachrestic combination of Marxism, poststructuralism, Gramsci and Foucault, the modern West and India, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 256.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(archival research and textual criticism' \(133\). Just as importantly, it suggests how its methods and subject )] TJ ET BT 34.016 242.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(matter have had, or can have, an impact for scholars whose work concerns regions outside South Asia and, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 228.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(crucially, outside the colonized world as well. Subaltern Studies invites those examining Britain or other )] TJ ET BT 34.016 214.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Western nations to, as Chakrabarty put it, 'provincialize Europe': to turn away from using Europe as a 'silent )] TJ ET BT 34.016 199.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(referent' for evaluating other regions and to examine how understandings of 'Europe' or 'the West' have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 185.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(constituted relationally through interactions with and understandings of the 'third world' \(128, 129\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Antoinette Burton's contribution to this volume--'Who Needs the Nation?: Interrogating "British" History'--)] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reinforces this agenda by suggesting alternatives to what she calls the 'siege mentality' of mainstream British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historiography. Either the empire failed to be considered at all, or was designated as 'separate sphere' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('out there'. The current project of \(some\) historians and literary critics, on the other hand, erases false )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinctions between Home and Away 'to recast the nation as an imperialized space--a political territory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which could not, and still cannot, escape the imprint of empire' \(140\). However, many scholars, according to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Burton, still need to be wary of 'leav[ing] intact the sanctity of the nation itself as the right and proper )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of history . . . rather than insisting upon the interdependence . . . of national/imperial formations in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7814 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(any given historical moment' \(140\). Paul Gilroy's )] TJ ET BT 273.656 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The)] TJ ET BT 294.656 796.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Black Atlantic)] TJ ET BT 362.984 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1993\), for Burton as for an increasing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(number of scholars, points the way forward by depicting the nation as a porous construct, its 'borders' )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continually crossed by the migration of peoples, ideas, and goods, making it 'precarious, unmoored, and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the end, finally unrealizable' \(144\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Whether or not historians of Britain fully support Burton's arguments \(the fact that many Britons have seen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves as historical actors in national terms clearly must be taken on board even if the 'nation' as a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(concept is rightfully challenged, for instance\), her article sets the stage for the essays in Part II of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume, entitled 'The Empire and Its Others "At Home"'. Hall has chosen to begin this section with a piece )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Kathleen Wilson that falls outside the stated nineteenth- and twentieth-century chronological bounds of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reader. Yet the inclusion of 'Citizenship, Empire and Modernity in the English Provinces, c. 1720-90' is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(welcome, for Wilson cogently argues that 'the ideological legacies of eighteenth-century war, state, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(empire-building shape the ways in which nationality was understood for two centuries or more to come'. Her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis here is on how 'the forms of English identity and belonging produced by the British nation-state in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the age of its first empire' led to 'the naturalization of certain forms of identities--social, sexual, political, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(racial, and national--whose traces refuse to disappear' \(159\). Some such traces re-emerge in the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explored in another of this section's essays, Sonya Rose's 'Sex, Citizenship, and the Nation in World War II )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain'. Although Wilson and Rose consider events separated by nearly two hundred years, in some respects )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they are able to ask similar questions about how citizenship and persons deemed to fall short of its ideals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become conceptualised at given moments. Rose considers how wartime challenges allowed the relationship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between female sexual morality and citizenship to become enhanced as a public concern. Women's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour that suggested the expression of individual libidinal desire was condemned on the grounds that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reflected a lack of self-sacrifice on behalf of a supposedly unified nation under threat. Moreover, sexual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationships with soldiers were widely criticised, particularly those with men of colour who were either )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American or colonial servicemen based on Britain, since these 'jeopardized Briton's sense of themselves as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(white. The specter of "half-caste" babies threatened to blur the racial lineaments of white British national )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identity and make the new black presence a permanent "social problem" rather than a temporary wartime )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inconvenience or one limited to the colonies and to a few port areas in the metropole' \(254\). In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse, the nation was perceived to be threatened by the coming together of an 'internal other'--British )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women whose sexual actions fell short of ideals of citizenship and femininity--and an external one in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(form of foreign or colonial men who were 'racially' distinct \(269\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The remaining three articles in Part II are primarily devoted to literary, travel, and historical writing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(consumed by the British reading public. Two contributions--John Barrell's 'Death on the Nile: Fantasy and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Literature of Tourism, 1840-60' and Luke Gibbons' 'Race Against Time: Racial Discourse and Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(History'--concern peoples and places fitting uncomfortably within delineations of both the British empire )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and racial categories. Ireland--long part of the Britain yet simultaneously a colony in many respects--was a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(widely radicalised terrain as well. As Gibbons summarises, 'the "otherness" and alien character of Irish )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(experience was all the more disconcerting because it did not lend itself to visible racial divisions', or, in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words of Homi Bhabha, 'epidermal schema' \(208, 220\). Still, the 'racial mode' became commonly employed, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deriving from a range of analogies to that compared the Irish to peoples of African descent but even more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly to native Americans. Racialised Irish stereotypes, moreover, came to be used not only by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britons like Carlyle seeking to justify conquest and subordination, but also by Irish nationalists, revivalists, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and revisionist academics to alternatively denigrate or valorise Ireland. Flexible and unsettling racial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ideologies are equally apparent in Barrell's work, which assesses how travel accounts by both Britons and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Americans expressed concerns about the identity of Arabs and/or the modern Egyptians. These writers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflected uncertainties within Western scientific, ethnographic, and philological debates about the extent of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the similarities between the inhabitants of mid-nineteenth-century Egypt and those of northern European )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(origin. Questions such as 'Are the modern Egyptians white or black? Human or animal? . . . The same or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different? . . . Were the Semitic and the Indo-European languages unrelated? And if so were Semitic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(languages, as some suggested, of African origin?' all posited the extent to which these writers shared )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(common ground with the modern Egyptians, who represented a borderline, liminal, and 'hybrid or mongrel )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(race' \(200-201\). For those who wanted Egyptians to be securely 'other' and inferior, potential resemblances )] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 7581 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rendered their own identities and claims insecure. British and American accounts overlapped in many )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(respects, yet Barrell also considers how they took on specific contours that derived from the distinct histories )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of imperialism, racism, and slavery in these nations \(190\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Barrell examines tourist accounts written by both men and women, but does not explicitly highlight the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extent to which gender determined how Britons and Americans evaluated Egypt's inhabitants. Janaki Nair, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(however, foregrounds gender in her contribution to this volume, 'Uncovering the Zenana: Visions of Indian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Womanhood in Englishwomen's Writings, 1813-1940'. First published in 1990, Nair's piece, like de Groot's, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(alludes to many themes within the space of a few pages that later scholars have pursued in far greater detail. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Nair considers how the zenana \(the separate women's quarters in some Hindu and Muslim homes\) both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(literally and figuratively became the 'principal space . . . from which Englishwomen could produce new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('knowledge' of the colonized', given their privileged access as women to areas off limits to colonising men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(226\). She provides a discourse analysis of their writings about Indian women that charts how these changed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(during the era in question. Aside from its clearly conveyed and convincing arguments about the meanings of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(selected texts, one of this article's strongest aspects is its careful delineation of the conditions structuring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how these women's writings have been read in recent decades. Some liberal feminist historians working in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 1980s sought to demonstrate that Englishwomen also played their own part in imperial ventures, areas of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(endeavour traditionally marked as 'masculine'. A substantial portion of their recovery work, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(uncritically celebrated Englishwomen in India as hard working, well-intentioned, and self-sacrificing, taking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(its place within cultural productions of Raj nostalgia popular in Britain after the end of empire. This )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(approach, Nair asserts, not only pays insufficient attention to Englishwomen's diverse roles in and attitudes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(towards India, but also obscures their privileged position within the colonial power structure. In sum, their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(writings need to be assessed in ways that surpass attempts to rectify their supposedly 'unhonoured and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unsung' lives overseas \(228\). Nair's excellent and multifaceted analysis serves as a reminder of the extent to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which postcolonial British concerns continue to shape how India's colonial past is imagined, both by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(academics as well as wider audiences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Part III of )] TJ ET BT 84.332 416.069 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 176.336 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( turns to 'The Empire and Its Others "Away"'. All three articles effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problematise one-dimensional portrayals of colonizers and their interactions with the colonized, contributing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(nuanced discussions of the particularities of colonial endeavours that took on specific dimensions according )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to their location, time, and the individuals and groups participating in them. Elizabeth Vibert examines men )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working in north-western North American in the first half of the nineteenth century in 'Real Men Hunt )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buffalo: Masculinity, Race and Class in British Fur Traders' Narratives'. She considers the class-based and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insecure forms of masculinity not only in the British traders' self-representations but also in their portrayals )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of different sectors of indigenous society they encountered. They contrasted industrious, brave and manly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Plateau buffalo hunters with fishing tribes they described as 'lazy and indolent to an extreme' \(282\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Depictions of 'the Indian' were thus never uniform; nor were they static. Vibert illustrates how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interactions between British men and native American peoples, and their descriptions of them, changed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(tandem with the shift from trading activity to settlement in the region. British traders constituted the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('advance guard of colonialism'. During the earlier part of the period discussed here, 'they did not compete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with Aboriginal people for land and resources; rather, they were dependent on them for access to those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(resources' and also commonly married or co-habitated with indigenous women. 'Not until the fur trade gave )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(way the settlement frontier', Vibert summarises, 'would material competition lead to a hardening of colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discourse and a systematic refiguring of the Indian hunter as wasteful brute' \(290\). In addition, settlement )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(brought increased numbers of European women, and marriage with them became an additional marker of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(British manhood. Even when the dimensions and priorities of the colonial encounter had altered, however, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(these early traders' accounts long retained their influence and served as key 'ethnographic' records of native )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(American societies and 'anticipated generations of popular iconography' \(282\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The next two chapters also evoke the diversity within colonial endeavours and outlooks by considering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arenas in which white settlers of British territories assumed powerful roles in other imperial arenas outside )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their own. Australian Methodist missionaries in the western Solomon Islands and white officials in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ovamboland area of South West Africa--which came to be 'indirectly' ruled by the Union of South Africa in )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 23 0 R >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Length 7653 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the early twentieth century--both constitute forms of colonial activity twice-removed from Britain, yet still )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fall within its imperial rubrics. Nicholas Thomas' 'Colonial Conversions: Difference, Hierarchy, and History )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Early Twentieth-Century Evangelical Propaganda' is in many respects one of the strongest pieces in this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume. He uses the example of the western Solomon Islands near the turn of the century to illustrate the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many forms colonising projects took, differing not only by their location and time period but also within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distinct settings at a given moment. Thomas contrasts the outlooks and goals of missionaries with those of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secular colonizers, considering how evangelical attitudes shared more in common with the French ideology )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of assimilation than with the assumptions of local colonial administrators in how they evaluated the Pacific )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islanders' potential to evolve away from 'savagery'. Australian Methodist missionaries saw barbarism as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasingly part of the Islanders' past, highlighting their own role in laying the groundwork for social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(growth and positive transformation. Thomas perceptively analyses how forms of missionary propaganda--)] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including film, 'before' and 'after' photographs, and written accounts--were used to illustrate how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Islanders had changed, supposedly as a result of the missionaries' diverse activities. This case study suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways scholars can evaluate conflicts and diversity inherent in colonising projects elsewhere and benefit from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(using a comparative approach within as well as across colonial arenas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thomas foregrounds the value of analysing visual as well as textual evidence as sources of ethnographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('knowledge' about colonial culture, as does Patricia Hayes in her article '"Cocky" Hahn and the "Black )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Venus": The Making of a Native Commissioner in South West Africa, 1915-46'. Hayes looks closely at two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelated ways in which white South African administrators of the newly-acquired territory of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ovamboland enhanced their power over the population they governed: compiling information about the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ovambo and frequent recourse to physical violence. As the Native Commissioner in this area between 1920 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an 1946, Carl Hugo Linsingen Hahn--also known as 'Cocky' Hahn--played a leading role in these assertions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of control. Hayes explores how allegations made against Hahn by other white administrators led to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investigations into his brutality, yet his ultimate exoneration made it far less likely that colonial practices and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(misdeeds in Ovamboland would be questioned. Hahn's activities cast a long shadow over the region, both in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the form of the photographic and written images he left behind as well as in the sanctioned use of force. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hayes evaluates Hahn's legacy, moreover, by exploring how his sanitised image becomes disrupted when the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(oral recollections of the Ovambo, recorded in the 1970s, are taken into account. Oral evidence enables the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(gendered nature of administration and violence to be reconsidered in new ways, an endeavour that is even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more urgent given their lengthy history.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The articles included in Parts II and III of this volume, then, collectively offer readers many positive )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples of how scholars can fruitfully weave together theoretical concepts with archival material to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subtle and complex assessments of colonial culture; how specific case studies can add to broader )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understandings of colonial dynamics when compared and contrasted with other settings; and how the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial and postcolonial eras connect easily be disentangled. Although it is impossible to do justice to every )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial arena overseas and facet of Britain's empire 'at home' between the covers of one volume, Hall's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(choices here accurately suggest the range of possibilities that scholars from several disciplines are currently )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pursuing and indicate what kinds of new work can be done to expand upon this. How, then, might this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commendable collection be improved? First, in a reader whose title purports to encompass 'colonizers in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Britain and the empire in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries', far more attention needed to be paid to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(period after the First World War. Of the articles discussed thus far about the colonial era itself, only Nair's, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Rose's, and Hayes' contributions effectively cover the period between the 1920s and 1940s. Most of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(articles focus on the period between c. 1840 and 1910, a chronological emphasis mirrored in the scholarship )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(done on imperial topics not included here. Hall's inclusion of Wilson's work on the eighteenth century also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(falls outside the stated bounds of this book, yet in a positive sense. Although space restrictions undoubtedly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(played a role in determining how much attention various periods could receive here, one solution both to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(potential which including the 1700s reveals and the problem posed by under-representing the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century would have been to make this a two-volume reader. This would have enabled Hall to place Wilson's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 88.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(excellent study alongside other articles concerning different themes in a similar period, and follow them up )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with the nineteenth-century topics in ways that illustrate the continuities between these eras. The second )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.669 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume could then have been fully devoted to the uneven and incomplete transition from the colonial to the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 25 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Length 7416 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonial across the twentieth century, and included a far wider range of work not only on the period )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ending with the Second World War but also on the cultural issues connected with widescale decolonization )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(culminating in the 1950s and 1960s.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Even more crucially, a second volume might have done more justice to the postcolonial era itself, perhaps )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(including contributions by those working in fields such as film studies as well as by historians, literary )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(critics, and anthropologists who focus on more recent events. Analyses of the colonial heritage as it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continues to exist in artefacts, places, and in the realm of memory \(and forgetting\) would provide many new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(perspectives for readers to take on board. As this reader now stands, although several contributors to earlier )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sections--particularly Hayes and Nair--make careful reference to the links between the colonial and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonial eras, only one article is included in Part IV, which concerns 'Legacies of Empire'. Given that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many parts of the British empire have been formally 'postcolonial' for decades or over half a century, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of emphasis on this is unfortunate. Regrettably, the one piece in Part IV, M. Jacqui Alexander's 'Not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Just \(Any\) Body Can Be a Citizen: The Politics of Law, Sexuality and Postcoloniality in Trinidad and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tobago and the Bahamas', is in this reviewer's opinion the weakest in this volume by far. Its problems stem )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(not from the important subject matter it considers, highlighting the ongoing presence of colonial practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and ideologies in parts of the Caribbean to consider topics ranging from the location of citizenship within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(heterosexuality and especially heteromasculinity \(361\), the criminalisation of gays and lesbians, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(postcolonial state's reliance on revenue from \(sex\) tourism, and, more generally, the ways in which 'the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of decolonization \(the dismantling of the economic, political, psychic and sexual knowledges and practices )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that accompanied the first 500 years of conquest\) has been disrupted' \(374-75\). Rather, the difficulty here )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lies in Alexander's unsustained, meandering, and random treatment of these often vaguely explained issues, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her undersubstantiation of many claims, and the use of language that obscures many of her central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assertions. For instance, her treatment of colonial conditions, which continue to have an impact, is simplistic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lumps together many features that undoubtedly changed a great deal over 'the first 500 years of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conquest'. A typical passage illustrating this lack of attention to historical specifics conveyed in obtuse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(language reads as follows:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colonial rule simultaneously involved racializing and sexualizing the population, which also meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(naturalizing whiteness. There could really be no psycho-social codices of sexuality that were not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(simultaneously raced. In general terms, these codices functioned as mythic meta-systems fixing polarities, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contradictions and fictions while masked as truth about character. "Laws for the governing of Negroes, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mulattos and Indians" made it possible for white masculinity to stand outside the law. As the invisible )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(subject of the law, he was neither prosecuted nor persecuted within it. Since it was lawful to reinforce the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ontological paradox of slave as chattel, Elizabethan statutes of rape operated to legitimize violent colonial )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(masculinity which was never called rape, yet criminalized black masculinity for rape. This would solidify )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the cult of true womanhood and its correlates, the white Madonna \(untouchable\) and the Black whore )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(promiscuous\). \(365\))] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Readers may well choose to accept these basic premises, but they need to do so based on wider knowledge )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(acquired elsewhere. Believing many of Alexander's claims, as they are presented here, entails a leap of faith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and a readiness to give credence to statements that unfortunately resemble stereotypical, one-dimensional )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(truisms that thorough scholarship should be striving to dissemble. In light of the clear wording, historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(specificity, and theoretical sophistication of the other articles included in )] TJ ET BT 386.300 190.229 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Cultures of Empire)] TJ ET BT 478.304 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, it is to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lamented that this volume concludes with an article that may well confirm many of the prejudices about )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(colonial and postcolonial studies that persist among scholars hesitant to accept the relevance of both the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issues its practitioners examine and the approaches they employ. If those working within these fields want )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their subject matter and methodologies to gain a wider and more appreciative audience, they might consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(advice offered by one of the foremost historians of the American West, Patricia Nelson Limerick. Deploring )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the 'long, tangled, obscure, jargonized, polysyllabic' sentences which are standard fare in academic writing--)] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and, one might add, particularly within colonial and postcolonial scholarship--Limerick urges writers to ask )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(themselves the following questions:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Does this have to be a closed communication, shutting out all but the specialists willing to fight their way )] TJ ET endstream endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 29 0 R 31 0 R 33 0 R ] /Contents 27 0 R >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Length 2947 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through thickets of academic jargon? Or can this be an open communication, engaging specialists with new )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information and new thinking, but also offering an invitation to non-specialists to learn from [this work], to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(grasp its importance, and, by extension, to find concrete reasons to see value in the work of the university?')] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 752.307 m 48.008 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is to be hoped that those turning to this volume will be inspired to take the field's claims more seriously )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(after reading the admirable work included in Parts I to III, and that those actively engaged in making their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(own contributions will recognise that it is counterproductive merely to preach to the converted in language )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that is impenetrable to outsiders. Moreover, this reader's weakness with regard to the space it devotes to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth-century topics, and particularly to the decades after the Second World War, should act as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inducement to other scholars to pursue new research that helps correct this imbalance.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Patricia Nelson Limerick, 'Dancing with Professors: The Trouble with Academic Prose', in )] TJ ET BT 502.940 590.645 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Something )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(in the Soil: Legacies and Reckonings in the New West)] TJ ET BT 322.328 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(New York and London: W. W. Norton, 2000\), )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(337, 340.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 109.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 109.016 560.739 m 163.004 560.739 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 535.877 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 521.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 516.895 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 499.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 499.115 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/235)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 497.721 m 322.316 497.721 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 472.744 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.344 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1775)] TJ ET BT 34.016 443.944 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 28 0 obj [26 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 752.6215 48.0077 764.5015 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 32 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 109.0157 561.0535 163.0037 572.9335 ] >> endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 28 0 R >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 34 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 498.0355 322.3157 509.9155 ] >> endobj 34 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/235) >> endobj xref 0 35 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000370 00000 n 0000000407 00000 n 0000000640 00000 n 0000000722 00000 n 0000005126 00000 n 0000005235 00000 n 0000005345 00000 n 0000005454 00000 n 0000009015 00000 n 0000009143 00000 n 0000009227 00000 n 0000009292 00000 n 0000017037 00000 n 0000017102 00000 n 0000025172 00000 n 0000025237 00000 n 0000033104 00000 n 0000033169 00000 n 0000040803 00000 n 0000040868 00000 n 0000048574 00000 n 0000048639 00000 n 0000056108 00000 n 0000056206 00000 n 0000059206 00000 n 0000059236 00000 n 0000059362 00000 n 0000059398 00000 n 0000059526 00000 n 0000059581 00000 n 0000059709 00000 n trailer << /Size 35 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 59804 %%EOF