%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140416061358+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140416061358+01'00') /Title (The Death of Christian Britain: Understanding secularisation 1800-2000) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3679 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Death of Christian Britain: Understanding secularisation 1800-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite a certain academic heaviness, with no fewer than fifty-seven pages of notes, bibliography and index, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and despite an occasionally disagreeable academic vocabulary, of which more anon, this book has a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pleasantly simple knock-down argument, that Christianity in Britain enjoyed a long nineteenth century of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(prosperity, between 1800 and 1960, and only began to go into terminal decline in the early 1960s. Indeed the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(first page declares that this happened `really quite suddenly in 1963', irresistibly suggesting the famous verse )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by Philip Larkin:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 168.544 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sexual intercourse began )] TJ ET BT 34.016 154.144 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In nineteen sixty-three . )] TJ ET BT 34.016 139.744 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Between the end of the Chatterley ban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.459 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(And the Beatles' first LP.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 99.203 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown's thesis is directed partly against Christian optimists, especially of the liberal kind, who consider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 84.947 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent social and religious change as being for the good of Christianity. It also, however, has as its target the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 70.691 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians and sociologists who believe that the decay of Christianity in Britain has a much longer history, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 56.435 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(going back to the eighteenth or nineteenth century, and that the recent movement towards secularity has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(236)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Callum Brown)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780415241847)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(272pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Routledge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.routledge.com/books/The-Death-of-Christian-Britain-second-edition-isbn9780415471336)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(London and New York)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sheridan Gilley)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 6994 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(merely been its acceleration. Brown conceives the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century, 1800-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960, as the era of an ascendant puritan Protestant Evangelicalism, stronger among women than among men. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Secularisation consists in good part in the abandonment by women of these religious values, but it is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(secularisation that is no older than the contraceptive pill.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Brown derives the idea of secularisation from the collection and study of religious statistics by Evangelical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(movements and individuals like the early Methodists and Thomas Chalmers. The figures which they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(assembled of converts and church members created `the myth of the unholy city' which was taken up by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Marxists, sociologists and historians as the history of secularisation. Statistical enquiry, however, dispenses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with large areas of religion which are not simply quantifiable. Brown sets out instead the idea of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(`discursive Christianity' or `Christian discourse' which defined the `protocols' of ordinary personal belief and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour in terms of the Protestant conversionism of Evangelical Christianity, and which determined the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary Briton's definition of the self and its history. This makes much of Brown's work read as an account )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the rise and decline of Evangelicalism, not as an ecclesiastical movement but as a body of opinions and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attitudes, which were reflected and expressed in popular literature and oral testimony about the detail of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary lives and about how religion helped or failed to make sense of them.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is the great delight of the book, its pleasure in the riches of the literature of propaganda and personal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(testimony about the role of religion. The chief characteristic of this literature was that women were regarded )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as innately pious, and men as naturally irreligious. Men were inclined to drunkenness, smoking, gambling, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lust and sport on Sundays, so that religion itself was a profoundly gendered thing, recommending the female )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(values and virtues of chastity, modesty, temperance, sobriety, thrift, Sabbath observance and good house )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(keeping to a partly or mostly anarchic male population. Even in its decline between the wars, when an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly female religiosity was transformed into a more secular domesticity as a `cult of contentment', there )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(was still a Christian discipline required of women. In the era before 1960, this `discourse' was dominant far )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(beyond the world of militant or conventional churchgoers. Brown's conclusion is that the term secularisation )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(should be ditched to describe the period until 1960, because the general `discourse' of Britain, the ideological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(system in terms of which women made sense of themselves, and through them, the `discourse' of a great )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many men, was still a Christian one.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is one of the artless elements of the book that Brown sets out the materials for an older, alternative view, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which saw secularisation in terms of urbanisation or social class. Yet the easy judgement that religious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(behaviour was a bourgeois rather than a proletarian matter, or a rural rather than a city one, breaks down )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upon a closer analysis of ecclesiastical statistics. Recent study indicates a much higher level of urban )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class participation in religious institutions than has hitherto been suspected, a majority of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(churchgoers being working class between 1800 and the 1960s, even if these were mostly from the skilled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working class or were women. Statistics for church membership in Britain peaked in 1904-1905, but those )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for the later high level of 1959 were not far below them, and the 1940s and early 1950s actually witnessed a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(major church revival.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Church attendance fell more sharply than church membership or affiliation in the first half of the twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century, but Brown is striving to show that in the end, the hegemony of an idea is not simply demonstrable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by statistics, but exists in the form of a more intangible ethos and atmosphere, and is no less real for all that. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In his view, secularisation is chiefly a matter of the transformation of the mores of women, and that suggests )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the changes of the 1960s were more of degree than of kind; or perhaps, were of so great a degree that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they constituted a degree of kind.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I would subscribe to the latter version of Brown's thesis. This sort of change had been seen before, but it was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a new scale, and it happened now to the female population who had been most affected by religion in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(general and who constituted the mass of churchgoers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is a nice paradox about Brown's argument. A conventional feminist might regard the Churches, which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were nearly all led and conducted by men, as an instrument of control of passive and virtuous women. There )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are some hints of this in what Brown writes about feminine domesticity, but generally, he regards the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 2774 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Evangelical ethic as the means by which women feminised the general culture and tried to curb male vice. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(There is, however, a considerable lacuna in his work, in that Catholics are treated simply as a species of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conversionist Protestants, which would have astonished both Protestants and Catholics. In fact, practising )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catholics rather better exemplify some of Brown's themes than practising Protestants: they were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(predominantly working class and female, and their Church continued to grow until the late 1950s. Again, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there seems to me to be little attempt to relate these changes to the wider breakdown in the stable )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(communities which had been gradually civilised and christianised after the Industrial Revolution, and which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(began to disappear with the Blitz and the post-war reconstruction and dispersal of working class )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(neighbourhoods, and then the marginalisation and decline of heavy industry, while in a work which depends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so much upon understanding women, there is no entry in the Index for contraception.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In spite of my irritation with Brown's highfalutin' language of `discourses' and `discursiveness', which could )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(be put in simpler English, this is one of the most entertaining, moving and stimulating works which I have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(read upon its subject, modern British Christianity. It has the ring of authenticity to me, coinciding, as its )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(author also says about himself, with my own memories of the world I knew when I was young.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 553.903 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 536.123 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 536.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/236)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 534.729 m 322.316 534.729 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 509.752 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 495.352 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1939)] TJ ET BT 34.016 480.952 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 535.0435 322.3157 546.9235 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/236) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000566 00000 n 0000000648 00000 n 0000004379 00000 n 0000004488 00000 n 0000004598 00000 n 0000004707 00000 n 0000008268 00000 n 0000008396 00000 n 0000008480 00000 n 0000008545 00000 n 0000015592 00000 n 0000015676 00000 n 0000018503 00000 n 0000018631 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 18726 %%EOF