%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 20 0 R 37 0 R 48 0 R 59 0 R 73 0 R 99 0 R ] /Count 7 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140728185149+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140728185149+01'00') /Title (Figures in the Landscape: Rural Society in England 1500-1700) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R 15 0 R 18 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4728 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Figures in the Landscape: Rural Society in England 1500-1700)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Figures in the Landscape)] TJ ET BT 156.344 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( brings together fifteen pieces of research by Margaret Spufford stretching across )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her distinguished career from 1962 to the present day.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 292.964 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 292.964 243.417 m 306.956 243.417 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 306.956 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As such, it reflects her broad range of interests, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the use of primary sources - particularly probate and taxation documents; the history of village communities; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and popular consumption, literacy, culture and religion. The volume provides an excellent opportunity to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(review scope, development and methodology of Spufford's work. Before embarking on this, however, a few )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(words about the presentation of the book. It must be said that the editing of Figures in the Landscape leaves )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(something to be desired. There are a number of careless mistakes, for instance two incorrect chapter titles on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the contents page - 'The Scribes of Villages' Wills' and 'A Cambridge Community' \(p.v\), and a mix up in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(references to the illustrative plates in Chapter 1 \(p.9\). More confusingly, there seems to be no overall )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(editorial policy. Some of the work has been revised, for instance, Chapter IX 'The Pedlar and the Historian'; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Chapter VII, 'Who made a will?'. The latter is an excerpt from 'Peasant inheritance customs and land )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(distribution in Cambridgeshire', but no explanation is given as to why it appears here in a truncated form - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the first footnote states the piece has not been updated, although lower down the page new references have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been clearly been added \(p.155\). Other chapters remain untouched, to the extent that they are reproduced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with their original type-face, page numbering, referencing conventions, and errors.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 430.916 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 430.916 58.089 m 444.908 58.089 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 444.908 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( One early piece on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(237)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Spufford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780860788041)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(59.50)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(376pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Ashgate)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.ashgate.com/default.aspx?page=637&calcTitle=1&title_id=3156&edition_id=3651)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Aldershot)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Whittle)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 15 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 16 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 292.9637 243.7315 306.9557 255.6115 ] >> endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 17 0 obj [6 0 R /Fit] endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 430.9157 58.4035 444.9077 70.2835 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 26 0 R 29 0 R 32 0 R 35 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 8779 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history of Chippenham, Chapter V, is provided with a postscript in the form of the four page Chapter VI )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which takes into account new evidence. The value of the book as a whole would have been greatly enhanced )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if other chapters had been treated in a similar way, or at least provided with an extra footnote listing more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recent work on topics or particular types of document. For example, the statement that 'Wills have been used )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(by historians interested in life at the village level perhaps less than any other single class of document' at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(start of Chapter II \(p.27\), may have been correct in 1971 but is hardly so now. While the innovative the plea )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for researchers to make more use of probate accounts in Chapter III could have been helpfully followed by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on a note on the progress that has been made in cataloguing and analysing these neglected documents since )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this piece was published in 1990.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The page numbering is particularly confusing, as each piece has both its original page numbers from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wherever it was first published, and new page numbers unique to this volume.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 408.632 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 408.632 640.515 m 422.624 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 422.624 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The contents page gives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(only the original page numbers, which are not a great deal of help if you want to find the location of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(particular piece in this book. And while it is good to see that the book is indexed, some of the index entries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(refer to original page numbers and some to the new ones.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 308.960 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 308.960 597.747 m 322.952 597.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 322.952 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( The categorisation of topics in the index also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems rather random: for instance details about the practice of making wills can be found under the entries )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('will-making: 157-9, 169'; 'Willingham, will-making in: 167, 169'; 'wills, made by villagers: 155-9'; and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('wills, making of: 28-9' \(pp.363-4\). Nevertheless, the book is produced on high quality paper, and sturdily )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bound. The real issue is whether it is worth purchasing at a price of 59.50, when you could photocopy the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(original versions of many of the chapters for a fraction of the price.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The importance of the work included in )] TJ ET BT 227.648 501.605 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Figures in the Landscape)] TJ ET BT 349.976 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is reflected in the fact that much of it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(already well known. Unfortunately Spufford's excellent 'Poverty Portrayed': a study of the parish of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Eccleshall in Staffordshire, the development of social statistics and the art of van Heemskerk, is not included.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 457.443 m 48.008 457.443 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.008 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( 'Poverty Portrayed' is not only original, vivid and thought-provoking but considerably more difficult to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(get hold of than many of the articles published here. Only two pieces in Figures in the Landscape are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(published for the first time. Chapter VI, as already noted, and the introductory Chapter I, titled 'The Scope of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Enquiry'. However, much of this chapter also appears as the introduction to the recent new edition of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spufford's classic book, Contrasting Communities.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 278.180 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 278.180 400.419 m 292.172 400.419 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 292.172 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Although it contains interesting reflections on her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(career, interests and methodology, it only undertakes a detailed critique of Contrasting Communities and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(does not provide an overview of the work published here, so in some ways serves rather poorly as an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(introduction to this volume.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The above are relatively minor issues, and should not be allowed to detract from the quality and importance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the work included in Figures in the Landscape. The great strength of Spufford's approach lies in the fact )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(her social history has its roots firmly in the economic soil - in differences of wealth, contrasting agricultural )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(systems and patterns of communication and marketing - while at the same time extending into the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(intellectual world of the ordinary villager. As stated in Chapter I, her interest is in 'those figures which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people the landscape, trying to get at their beliefs, thoughts, education, reading-matter, opinions, even )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(feelings', but combined with a conviction that 'rural people cannot be separated from their agricultural and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic situations and constraints' \(p.3\). In taking this approach, Spufford has often bucked the trend. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contrasting Communities)] TJ ET BT 157.700 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, a pioneering work of comparative local history which combined economic, social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and religious aspects of village life came out in 1974, at a time when the emphasis on production techniques )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and quantitative research methods meant that actual people were largely absent from agricultural history. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Small Books and Pleasant Histories)] TJ ET BT 206.684 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1981\) and )] TJ ET BT 265.004 175.973 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Reclothing of Rural England)] TJ ET BT 455.336 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(1984\) not only )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expanded our knowledge of popular culture, but also pioneered the history of popular consumption well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(before it became a fashionable topic of study. Likewise, her edited volume, )] TJ ET BT 398.276 147.461 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World of Rural Dissenters)] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1995\), was original in bringing together the methods and findings of social, cultural, religious, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic history.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 120.008 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 120.008 117.555 m 134.000 117.555 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 134.000 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( As such, each of her books constitutes a minor classic. The same can be said of some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the essays in )] TJ ET BT 110.672 104.693 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Figures in the Landscape)] TJ ET BT 233.000 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, the majority of which are closely related to the themes of her )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(books. Chapter II on 'The Scribes of Villagers Wills' for the first time warned historians to think more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(carefully about who exactly was expressing the religious sentiments recorded in wills, and demonstrated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(how the work of particular scribes could traced. Chapter X examining the 'First Steps in Literacy' used )] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 408.6317 640.8295 422.6237 652.7095 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 25 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 27 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 308.9597 598.0615 322.9517 609.9415 ] >> endobj 27 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 28 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 29 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 30 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 457.7575 48.0077 469.6375 ] >> endobj 30 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 31 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 32 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 33 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 278.1797 400.7335 292.1717 412.6135 ] >> endobj 33 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 34 0 obj [20 0 R /Fit] endobj 35 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 36 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 120.0077 117.8695 133.9997 129.7495 ] >> endobj 36 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 40 0 R 43 0 R 46 0 R ] /Contents 38 0 R >> endobj 38 0 obj << /Length 8134 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spiritual autobiographies to illuminate vividly the educational experience and opportunities of labourers, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbandmen and yeomen, something other historians had largely neglected or declared impossible due to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(lack of school records for this period. This is Spufford at her best, using the documents sensitively to reveal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(both the hidden contexts of life in early modern rural England, and the pitfalls awaiting an unsuspecting )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historian.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Although)] TJ ET BT 79.352 713.189 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [( Figures in the Landscape)] TJ ET BT 204.680 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( is arranged thematically, bringing her separately printed essays together )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this way, demonstrates the development and maturing of Spufford's work, while also suggesting she is not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(totally unaffected by current trends. Her early work from the 1960s in Chapters IV, V and XII is high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality, but straightforward, local history. Pieces written in the 1980s and early 1990s: Chapter XIII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Puritanism and Social Control', Chapter XIV 'Can we count the "Godly"?', Chapter III 'The Limitations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the Probate Inventory', Chapter IX 'The Pedlar and the Historian' and Chapter VIII 'Families, Will Witnesses )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Economic Structure', all reflect the more polemical social history of that period. Chapter XI 'Women )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(teaching Reading' and 'The Importance of the Lord's Supper', both from the 1990s are perhaps influenced by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the stronger concern for gender and careful text analysis that marked historical research in that decade; )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(although Chapter X 'First Steps to Literacy', first published in 1979, employed much the same approach - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasising its pioneering nature.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(A less flattering consequence of placing Spufford's separately published work back-to-back is to reveal the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(degree of cross-over in the material used in these articles and her other books. There is no reason why )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians should not use the same source material to explore different themes, and plagiarise their own work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to present different arguments to different audiences. However, when such pieces are presented together, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reader can begin to feel a little short changed. For instance, Chapters VIII and IX use many of the same )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(examples word for word )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 154.652 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 154.652 471.699 m 168.644 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 168.644 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, while Chapters X and XI reproduce quotations and remarks )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 463.580 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 463.580 471.699 m 477.572 471.699 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 477.572 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, and Chapter X )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is itself in a large part the same as Chapter 2 of )] TJ ET BT 262.640 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Small Books and Pleasant Histories.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 438.308 458.837 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(\(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 438.308 457.617 m 458.300 457.617 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More serious is direct contradiction between chapters. This is most obvious in the case of chapters III and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(IV; but a similar problem emerges with regard to the validity of single village studies, criticised in chapters )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(XIII and XIV, and utilised in chapters VII and VIII, as is discussed in more detail below. Chapter III 'The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Limitations of the Probate Inventory' is an important piece pointing out how misleading the wealth totals in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(probate inventories can be, as they not only exclude real property but also the debts owed by the deceased. It )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demonstrates that the latter problem can be corrected by examining probate accounts, where they survive. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The piece concludes that 'the sum which appears at the foot of the probate inventory cannot be taken to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicate any individual's real net wealth, even in an approximate manner not only because it does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(include, as we all know, real estate, but because it carries no clue to the extent of his indebtedness' \(p.79\). )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Immediately following, Chapter IV 'The Significance of the Cambridgeshire Hearth Tax', first published )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many years before, demonstrates that number of hearths assessed in that tax correlates with wealth as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recorded in sum total in probate inventories. One of these arguments must be wrong: either the sum of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealth recorded in probate inventories does bear a relationship to real wealth, or the correlation between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inventories and the Hearth Tax is spurious. It cannot be argued both ways. It seems likely that indebtedness )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is related to the value of moveable property recorded in the inventory, as the ability to borrow depended on a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(person's reputation and visible wealth. But this relationship, like that of size of house and number of hearths )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to real wealth, was a weak one, rather than direct and inevitable. Some editorial comment from Spufford on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this matter would have been helpful, given her expertise on the study of both types of document.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Reading a single book or article by Margaret Spufford one if occasionally struck by a certain quirkiness or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stubbornness of argument; but reading her collected work gathered together in this volume suggests that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(there is perhaps more of a pattern to this quirkiness. Her research is at its best when illuminating a neglected )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(issue, or making sensible points that others have overlooked. Her work on the scribes of wills in Chapter II, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on changing patterns of landholding between the 16th and early 18th centuries in Chapter V, on pedlars and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their customers in Chapter IX, on learning and literacy among ordinary people in Chapters X and XI, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(broad social spread of particular religious beliefs in parts of Chapters XIII and XIV, all fall into this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category. Her work is least effective when tackling or espousing more complex arguments: Chapter VIII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Families, Will Witnesses, and Economic Structures' and Chapter XIII 'Puritanism and social control' are the )] TJ ET endstream endobj 39 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 41 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 154.6517 472.0135 168.6437 483.8935 ] >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 42 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 43 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 44 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 463.5797 472.0135 477.5717 483.8935 ] >> endobj 44 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 45 0 obj [37 0 R /Fit] endobj 46 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 47 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 438.3077 457.7575 458.2997 469.6375 ] >> endobj 47 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 48 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 51 0 R 54 0 R 57 0 R ] /Contents 49 0 R >> endobj 49 0 obj << /Length 8091 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(most acute examples of this problem. Chapter VIII presents an argument that social co-operation existed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within the village despite economic differences in terms of wealth between labourers and yeomen - such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(people witnessed each others wills, and bequests were made from well off to poorer kin \(e.g. pp.176-7\); )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(while Chapter XIII argues that the concern of village elites about social control, and especially for punishing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those who had sex outside marriage, was not specific to the late 16th and early 17th century, but had also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(existed in early 14th century, and had little to do with religious beliefs \(e.g. pp.310-11\). Both arguments are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important, and in my view, almost certainly correct. However, the way in which the argument is structured )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the evidence laid out does not do a great deal to support these important ideas.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As noted in Chapter I, Spufford has 'omitted popular politics and crime' from her agenda \(p.4\). Nor has she, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to my knowledge, examined the mechanisms of poor relief and the repercussions these had on village society.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.016 640.515 m 54.008 640.515 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 54.008 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Her work on landholding either plays down the conflicting interests between landlord and tenants or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(avoids the issue altogether.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 164.000 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 164.000 626.259 m 183.992 626.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 183.992 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Thus if there is a significant gap in Spufford's vision of village society, it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the failure to discuss the tension, disputes, and conflict that existed there. There is nothing wrong with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historians restricting themselves to certain sets of topics, and Spufford's sphere of research is admirably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide. But it does become problematic when the topics one has excluded play an important part in the issues )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(being examined. Chapter VIII's argument that seventeenth century village life was characterised by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic polarisation but social co-operation cannot be made effectively without also looking for evidence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social and economic conflict, or considering the possibility that such conflict might exist alongside co-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(operation and interaction. Nor is the meaning of the interaction between villagers of different status groups )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(considered fully. For instance, what do bequests mean in social terms? To take an example not used by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spufford, just because an employer leaves a bequest to a servant \(quite a common eventuality in 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century wills\), it surely does not mean they share all their interests and values, although it could be taken as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an indication of a generally good working relationship. Similarly, when kin of different levels of wealth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(witnessed each other's wills, or leave each other bequests, it does not mean they had a wholly harmonious )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and supportive relationship. Nor does shared religious belief mean that other values are necessarily shared.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Some central points of the argument constructed in Chapter XIII 'Puritanism and Social Control' are also )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(susceptible to straightforward criticisms. The statements that 14th century manorial jurors who reported )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fellow villagers for fornication and illegitimate births, 'were the exact equivalents of their 16th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(counterparts' \(p.303\), who reported women to the church courts for the same offences; and that 'what can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(certainly be established is that there was no new social division in the villages of late 16th century England )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between officeholders and the poor they were willing to present' \(p.310\), are both highly questionable. To be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sure, in both time periods village elites were showing concern about the sexual behaviour of poorer villagers. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(However, they were not 'exact equivalents': the different institutional contexts within which they operated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(need to be considered. In the medieval case, servile tenants sat on the manorial jury and presented the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(offences of fellow villagers. Sitting on the jury and presenting offences were both compulsory to their terms )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of tenure. Fines went to the manorial lord, and failure to present offences was regarded as withholding )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(revenue from the lord. Thus, the fines tell us very little about the relationship between villagers. In the very )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late 16th and the early 17th century when wealthy villagers chose to present cases to the church courts, they )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(did so partly because illegitimate children and single mothers were seen as likely to drain the village poor )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(rates, which the wealthy villagers had to pay. So while the economic background of low wages and high )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(land values, and type of social control enforced, may have been the same, but the cause and circumstances )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were very different.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 128.972 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 128.972 186.579 m 148.964 186.579 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 148.964 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Nor can we agree that the social divisions of the late 16th century were well )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(established. The differences of wealth and status between jurors and poorer tenants in the early 14th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(were not as great as between yeomen and the landless cottagers in many late 16th century villages. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(importantly, in the intervening period, the 15th and early 16th centuries, differences of wealth and status had )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(been less marked than in either of the periods chosen for examination in Chapter XIII: thus the degree to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which wealth was polarised within village society was a relatively new situation in many late 16th century )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(villages.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters VIII and XIII, along with Chapter XIV 'Can we count the "Godly"?' are also marred by a confusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stance on the value of local studies to historical understanding. Local history is, of course, a method that )] TJ ET endstream endobj 50 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 51 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 52 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 34.0157 640.8295 54.0077 652.7095 ] >> endobj 52 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 53 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 54 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 55 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 163.9997 626.5735 183.9917 638.4535 ] >> endobj 55 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 56 0 obj [48 0 R /Fit] endobj 57 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 58 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 128.9717 186.8935 148.9637 198.7735 ] >> endobj 58 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 59 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 62 0 R 65 0 R 68 0 R 71 0 R ] /Contents 60 0 R >> endobj 60 0 obj << /Length 8136 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spufford utilised to great effect in Contrasting Communities, and is well represented in this volume in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapters II, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII and XII. Yet Spufford has a nagging concern for how the problem of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typicality is handled. She has harsh words for the other great village study of 17th century England, Keith )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Wrightson and David Levine's Poverty and Piety in an English Village: Terling 1525-1700.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 473.144 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 473.144 752.307 m 493.136 752.307 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 493.136 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Chapter XIII )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(cites Wrightson and Levine's description of how increased differences in wealth within the village of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Terling, Essex, were accompanied by and correlated with, differences in religious belief and social attitudes. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spufford notes that 'The unwary student draws from it the implications, that were not necessarily in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(protagonists' minds' that this was generally the case in English villages of this period \(pp.296-7\). Similarly, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Chapter XIV she worries that 'it is altogether to easy now for the student to cite Terling or Earl's Colne as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [("typical" examples of religious indifference by the laity, when due consideration shows they were probably )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(highly abnormal' \(p.317\). If inclined to argue along these lines, however, we might equally point out that a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student \(or any other reader\) might mistakenly think other villages, such as those studied by Spufford, were )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(typical.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter VII 'Who made a will' and Chapter VIII both rely heavily on documents, most particular wills, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(drawn from one village, Willingham.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 212.660 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 212.660 583.491 m 232.652 583.491 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 232.652 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Chapter VII seeks to overturn the common assumption that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wealthier villagers were more likely to make wills than the landless or smallholders, arguing that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decision to make a will was primarily determined by the presence of minor children, and to a lesser extent by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the possession of fragmented landholdings. It does indeed appear to be the case that in Willingham the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relatively poor and landless left wills more often than those with significant arable landholdings - the half )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yardlanders. However, no attempt is made in the chapter to assess the typicality of the situation in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willingham. This is not a minor matter. Historians of 16th century rural England rely on wills as one of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(richest sources for revealing inheritance patterns and family relationships: it is important to know what )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social biases surviving wills are subject to. My own work on patterns of will-making in six parishes in 16th )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Norfolk, cross-referenced with the tax returns of the 1520s and manorial records, suggest that while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the relatively poor and nearly landless did make wills, only a small proportion of this group did so: will-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(making was much more common among the more wealthy in village society - in other words, wealth was an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(important factor. It can also be observed that that patterns of will-making, in terms of frequency, inheritance )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(patterns and treatment of land vary a great deal from village to village, and indeed from family to family. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(One cannot generalise about these issues from the wills of a single village.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 391.628 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 391.628 383.907 m 411.620 383.907 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 411.620 385.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( It is certainly interesting that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 371.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(so many of the landless and smallholders made wills in Willingham: it would be pertinent to know whether )] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this was because the extensive common resources available to the inhabitants of this fenland village meant )] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they were not as poor as the landless in other types of villages.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 334.304 342.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 334.304 341.139 m 354.296 341.139 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 316.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(As already discussed, Chapter VIII examines the social interaction between different wealth groups within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 302.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(village society, and uses Willingham as the main example. Yet we must ask again, how typical is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 287.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willingham? It is acknowledged that Willingham 'egalitarian' compared to other villages of the same date )] TJ ET BT 34.016 273.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(such as Chippenham or Terling \(p.166\); and also that it had a distinctive pattern of land distribution - while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other villages saw an increase in farm size and a decrease in the number of farms in the 17th century, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Willingham experienced fragmentation with an increasing number of small landholdings \(pp.173-4\). But at )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the same time Spufford appears to want to use Willingham as an example to reform our picture of social ties )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in villages across England at this date. From what is known about landholding patterns in early modern )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(England, engrossment, the enlargement of farms, was the norm: Willingham was unusual. Matters are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(confused by the fact that despite being 'egalitarian', the chapter also describes wealth in Willingham as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('polarised' \(e.g. p.174\). The evidence does suggests that their were significant differences of wealth between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(households in Willingham, but not polarisation - a word which means the division of society into two )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(extremes, the poor and the wealthy, with few falling into middling categories. Again, Willingham is unusual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in this respect.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of typicality should not necessarily make local village studies problematic, and certainly does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 90.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(render then worthless. On the contrary, local history can illuminate important economic and social changes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 76.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(with more accuracy and insight than many large-scale studies. But as Spufford herself points out, for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 61.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(instance in Chapter I, we have to be careful to set these villages in context. And while no village is typical, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 61 0 obj [59 0 R /Fit] endobj 62 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 63 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 473.1437 752.6215 493.1357 764.5015 ] >> endobj 63 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 64 0 obj [59 0 R /Fit] endobj 65 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 66 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 212.6597 583.8055 232.6517 595.6855 ] >> endobj 66 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 67 0 obj [59 0 R /Fit] endobj 68 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 69 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 391.6277 384.2215 411.6197 396.1015 ] >> endobj 69 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 70 0 obj [59 0 R /Fit] endobj 71 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 72 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 334.3037 341.4535 354.2957 353.3335 ] >> endobj 72 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 73 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 75 0 R 77 0 R 79 0 R 81 0 R 83 0 R 85 0 R 87 0 R 89 0 R 91 0 R 93 0 R 95 0 R 97 0 R ] /Contents 74 0 R >> endobj 74 0 obj << /Length 9216 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we can generalise about types of villages. Her current research project, described in that chapter, to ensure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that at least one Hearth Tax return for each county is in print, to map the returns, and to compare them with )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Joan Thirsk's agricultural regions \(pp.18-9\), will go a long way towards providing this context for the late )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17th century.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Despite the reservations voiced in this review, it is beyond doubt that the work of Margaret Spufford has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(greatly furthered our understanding of life in rural early modern England. Whether you choose to go for the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('cheap print' option of photocopying her articles, or exercise 'conspicuous consumption' by splashing out )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(59.50 on this book, her work should be read. It is essential to any historian or student interested in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ordinary people in early modern England and the ordinary communities they inhabited and travelled )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(between: the 'figures in the landscape', as she evocatively puts it.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 621.267 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 590.650 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 590.645 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The papers included in the volume are as follows: Chapter I 'The Scope of the Enquiry'; Chapter II )] TJ ET BT 64.016 576.389 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('The Scribes of Villagers' Wills in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries and Their Influence'; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 562.133 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter III 'The Limitations of the Probate Inventory'; Chapter IV 'The Significance of the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 547.877 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridgeshire Hearth Tax'; Chapter V 'A Cambridgeshire Community: Chippenham from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 533.621 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Settlement to Enclosure'; Chapter VI 'Isaac Archer's Chippenham, and Chippenham Hall: a Postscript'; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 519.365 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter VII 'Who made a Will in Village Society'; Chapter VIII 'Families, Will Witnesses, and )] TJ ET BT 64.016 505.109 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Economic Structure in the Fens and on the Chalk: Sixteenth- and Seventeenth-Century Willingham )] TJ ET BT 64.016 490.853 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Chippenham'; Chapter IX 'The Pedlar and the Historian: Seventeenth-Century Communications'; )] TJ ET BT 64.016 476.597 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter X 'First Steps in Literacy: the Reading and Writing Experiences of the Humblest Seventeenth-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 462.341 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Century Spiritual Autobiographers'; Chapter XI 'Women teaching Reading to Poor Children in the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 448.085 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries'; Chapter XII 'The Dissenting Churches in Cambridgeshire from )] TJ ET BT 64.016 433.829 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1660-1700'; Chapter XIII 'Puritanism and Social Control'; Chapter XIV 'Can we count the "Godly" )] TJ ET BT 64.016 419.573 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and the "Conformable" in the Seventeenth Century?'; and Chapter XV 'The Importance of the Lord's )] TJ ET BT 64.016 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Supper to the Seventeenth-Century Dissenters'.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 290.480 405.317 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 290.480 403.923 m 344.468 403.923 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 391.066 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 391.061 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance the two men are assigned to the wrong village \(p.40\); the citation of Bruce M.S. )] TJ ET BT 64.016 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Campbell as MS Campbell' \(p.303\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 236.840 376.805 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(2\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 236.840 375.411 m 290.828 375.411 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 362.554 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(3.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(References in this review article are to the new numbers in the book.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 393.608 362.549 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(3\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 393.608 361.155 m 447.596 361.155 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 348.298 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(4.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 348.293 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(See for example the entry for James Fretwell, where references to Chapter X are a mixture of the old )] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and new numbering.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 162.332 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(4\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 162.332 332.643 m 216.320 332.643 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 319.786 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(5.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Spufford, 'Poverty Portrayed: Gregory King and the Parish of Eccleshall' in Margaret )] TJ ET BT 64.016 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spufford and James Went, )] TJ ET BT 194.324 305.525 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty Portrayed)] TJ ET BT 283.304 305.525 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(, published by the Centre for Local History, Keele )] TJ ET BT 64.016 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University, Keele, Staffordshire ST5 5BG as volume 7 Staffordshire Studies \(1995\) pp.1-70.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 508.964 291.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to )] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 508.964 289.875 m 548.960 289.875 l S BT 64.016 277.013 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(5\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 64.016 275.619 m 78.008 275.619 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 262.762 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(6.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 262.757 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Spufford, )] TJ ET BT 159.656 262.757 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Contrasting Communities: English Villagers in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 248.501 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Centuries)] TJ ET BT 110.684 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(Sutton Publishing Ltd, Stroud, 2000\) pp.xviii-xxix.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 363.380 248.501 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(6\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 363.380 247.107 m 417.368 247.107 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 234.250 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(7.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 234.245 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Margaret Spufford, )] TJ ET BT 159.656 234.245 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Small Books and Pleasant Histories: Popular Fiction and its Readership in )] TJ ET BT 64.016 219.989 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Seventeenth-Century England)] TJ ET BT 207.656 219.989 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(University of Georgia Press; Athens, Georgia, 1981\). Margaret )] TJ ET BT 64.016 205.733 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Spufford, )] TJ ET BT 112.676 205.733 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Great Reclothing of Rural England: Petty Chapmen and their Wares in the Seventeenth )] TJ ET BT 64.016 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Century)] TJ ET BT 102.680 191.477 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(The Hambledon Press, London, 1984\). Margaret Spufford ed. )] TJ ET BT 408.956 191.477 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The World of Rural Dissenters )] TJ ET BT 64.016 177.221 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(1520-1725 )] TJ ET BT 119.012 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1995\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 354.656 177.221 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(7\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 354.656 175.827 m 408.644 175.827 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 162.970 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(8.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 162.965 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compare comments on Pepys p.165 and p.213, Frances Wolfreson p.166 and p.213-4, and Neville )] TJ ET BT 64.016 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Butler p.165 and p.214.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 177.344 148.709 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(8\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 177.344 147.315 m 231.332 147.315 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 48.816 134.458 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For instance, compare pp.222-3 with pp.255-7, p.229 with 257, p.231 with p.260.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 455.324 134.453 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(9\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 455.324 133.059 m 509.312 133.059 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 120.202 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(10.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 120.197 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Compare pp.222-8 in this volume with pp.24-9 in )] TJ ET BT 305.348 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Small Books and Pleasant Histories.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 481.016 120.197 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(10\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 481.016 118.977 m 540.332 118.977 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 105.946 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(11.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 105.941 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For an example of the importance of poor relief to 17th century village society see for example Steve )] TJ ET BT 64.016 91.685 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hindle 'Exclusion Crises: Poverty, Migration and Parochial Responsibility in English Rural )] TJ ET BT 64.016 77.429 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Communities, c.1560-1660' , Rural History 7:2 \(1996\) pp.125-49 and Steve Hindle 'Power, Poor )] TJ ET BT 64.016 63.173 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Relief, and Social Relations in Holland Fen, c.1600-1800' , The Historical Journal 41:1 \(1998\) pp.67-)] TJ ET BT 64.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(96.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 79.016 48.917 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(11\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 79.016 47.523 m 139.004 47.523 l S endstream endobj 75 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 76 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 290.4797 404.2375 344.4677 416.1175 ] >> endobj 76 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 14 0 R >> endobj 77 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 78 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 236.8397 375.7255 290.8277 387.6055 ] >> endobj 78 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 17 0 R >> endobj 79 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 80 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 393.6077 361.4695 447.5957 373.3495 ] >> endobj 80 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 22 0 R >> endobj 81 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 82 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 162.3317 332.9575 216.3197 344.8375 ] >> 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[(p.131 \(an unfree tenant dispossessed on a freeholding in 1526\), pp.135-6 \(demesne lessee )] TJ ET BT 64.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(overstocking the common in 1544\), p.136 \(manorial lord enclosing common fen in 1565\), p.146 \(the )] TJ ET BT 64.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor claiming rights of turbary in the fen in 1830\). However, the causes and consequences of these )] TJ ET BT 64.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(disputes are not explored.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 187.328 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(12\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 187.328 738.051 m 247.316 738.051 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 725.194 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(13.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronology, geographical distribution, and types of courts used, with regard to the regulation of )] TJ ET BT 64.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social and sexual behaviour have now been thoroughly examined in Marjorie McIntosh's )] TJ ET BT 493.436 710.933 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Controlling )] TJ ET BT 64.016 696.677 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Misbehaviour in England, 1370-1600 )] TJ ET BT 247.676 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1998\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 483.320 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(13\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 483.320 695.283 m 543.308 695.283 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 682.426 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(14.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Keith Wrightson and David Levine, )] TJ ET BT 239.324 682.421 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Poverty and Piety in an English Village: Terling, 1525-1700)] TJ ET BT 64.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1995\), first published 1979.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 364.316 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(14\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 364.316 666.771 m 424.304 666.771 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 653.914 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(15.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter VIII also uses the example of Chippenham, although the documents from that village are not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(really adequate for the type of detailed analysis attempted \(see pp.166-7 and pp.179-80\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 488.924 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(15\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 488.924 638.259 m 548.912 638.259 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 625.402 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(16.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Jane Whittle, )] TJ ET BT 130.340 625.397 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(The Development of Agrarian Capitalism: Land and Labour in Norfolk 1440-1580 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2000\).)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 262.316 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(16\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 262.316 609.747 m 322.304 609.747 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 42.816 596.890 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(17.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is important to note that Spufford compares the 49 wills she studies with patterns of landholding, not )] TJ ET BT 64.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(records of moveable wealth.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 199.976 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(17\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 199.976 581.235 m 259.964 581.235 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 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