%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 18 0 R 20 0 R ] /Count 5 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140420002322+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140420002322+01'00') /Title (Class, Ethnicity and Community in Southern Mexico: Oaxaca's Peasantries) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3944 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Class, Ethnicity and Community in Southern Mexico: Oaxaca's )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Peasantries)] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In this fascinating book, Colin Clarke draws together work from a range of disciplinary traditions to produce )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(a monograph on the southern Mexican state of Oaxaca. Known predominantly for its large indigenous )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(population and its tourist industry, Clarke uses the concept of 'peasantries' to examine the processes that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have shaped one of Mexico's economically-poorest states. In the Preface, he states that the two main themes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the book are the nature of the 'peasantry' in an increasingly capitalist world, and the process of identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and community construction \(pp. X-xi\). He claims that the first set of ideas are questions of global interest )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and concern, while the latter are "more specific to Mexico" \(p.x\). However, while the details of local )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(customs and practices are indeed locally specific, as I will highlight later the discussions of identity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(construction resonate with debates in many other parts of the world.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The state of Oaxaca may not have the large-scale industrialisation of the Mexico-US border region, the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enormous urban areas of Central and Northern Mexico, or the headline-grabbing political events of Chiapas, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but this does not mean, as Clarke points out throughout the book, that Oaxaca remains unchanged. While the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state of Oaxaca is often talked of in terms of its indigenous and colonial character, Clarke's work shows the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(238)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 December, 2001)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Colin Clarke)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780198233879)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(80.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(336pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://ukcatalogue.oup.com/product/9780198233879.do)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Katie Willis)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7087 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ways in which Oaxacan society, particularly rural society, is a twentieth-century creation, built as a result of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state intervention post-Revolution.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The ways in which Oaxaca's economy, society and politics are intertwined with national and international )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes are stressed and while it is not mentioned directly, it is clear that 'globalisation' in its many guises )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(is an ever-present concern. One the key questions implicit in the book is, therefore, what has happened to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('peasants' in an increasingly-globalised world. Cook and Binford \(1990\) covered some of these debates in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their book Obliging Need, but Clarke's work has a wider scope, in both spatial and thematic terms. Cook and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Binford focused on rural petty industry in Oaxaca's Central Valleys, while Clarke's discussion concerns the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(entire state. In addition, Clarke is concerned not only with the economic, but with broader social and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(political processes, providing an unusual insight into rural life.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke's chosen definition of 'peasants' is "small-scale farmers or artisans, whose ancestors were geared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(self-sufficiency" \(p.ix\). However, as the book progresses this definition is stretched, and the diversity of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oaxaca's rural residents is revealed. While Clarke acknowledges this in his use of the plural 'peasantries', the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(continued use of this term for the range of populations discussed is somewhat problematic. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(emphasis on change and dynamism, I am unsure as to why there is the need to hang onto this particular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(social classification for almost all rural dwellers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 532.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In Chapter 4 Clarke examines processes of commercialisation using the products of maize, mezcal and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 518.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(coffee to demonstrate the importance of differing state policies, global economic processes, and local social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 503.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(practices and environmental conditions on rural households and communities. Socio-economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 489.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(differentiation is clearly a frequent outcome of this commercialisation, and despite highlighting the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 475.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('traditional' tendency towards wealth redistribution in communities through the cargo system in Chapter 6, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 461.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(later in the book there is an acknowledgement of the decline in equilibrium-creating mechanisms. Given the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(great wealth-generating processes, particularly in the context of craft production in the Oaxaca Central )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Valleys, is the use of the term 'peasant' appropriate for these communities, or particular wealthy households?)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Another relatively recent phenomenon is that of widespread out-migration from Oaxaca state to the USA. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This has led to interesting examples of transnational practices. As well as the ubiquitous sending of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remittances, there are also examples of overseas Oaxaqueos/as being involved in politics 'back home'. A )] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(good example is the organisation of migrants from Tlacolula in the Central Valleys that has been set up in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Los Angeles and has been involved in political lobbying in both the USA and Mexico \(p.173\). In addition, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(migration overseas is no obstacle to participation in civic duties in the home municipio. I found these )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(discussions fascinating, but that referring to such social formations as 'transnational peasantries' was )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unhelpful. From the descriptions provided, it seemed that migrants to the USA, while maintaining strong )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(links to rural Oaxaca, could not really be called 'peasants'.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 266.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The first two chapters of the book provide overviews of state-level processes in Colonial and Post-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 251.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Independence Oaxaca \(Chapter 1\) and in Post-Revolutionary Oaxaca \(Chapter 2\). Both chapters highlight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 237.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the importance of both the natural environment, and external events and processes on the development of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(state's economy and society. This provides an excellent basis for the later thematic chapters of the book. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 208.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(During the colonial period Oaxaca's economy was integrated into the global system through the production )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and trade of cochineal for example, while post-independence Oaxaca land reform and infrastructure )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(investment \(particularly in rail and the Pan-American Highway\) had far-reaching impacts on the direction )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and nature of development. Clarke also stresses the importance of federal state policies on the reconstitution )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the Oaxacan peasantries after the Revolution, particularly through the land reform process.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 125.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This broad historical sweep was, however, difficult to follow in places, largely because of the ways in which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 111.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the quantitative data are presented. In Chapter 2 Clarke is demonstrating the ways in which 'economic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(development' in the form of urbanisation and non-agricultural employment, are linked to social aspects such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 82.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as language, dress and literacy. In an attempt to show the relationships between these different variables, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke adopts 'linkage diagrams' including correlation coefficients, directions of relationships and clustering )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of variables into 'modern' and 'traditional' ways of life. These diagrams are based on census data for 1950, )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7506 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1960 and 1970 for the municipios of Oaxaca's Central Valleys. While diagrams are meant to help the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of complex processes, I found these diagrams far less helpful than the correlation tables which )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are also included. For me, the analysis of post-Revolutionary changes linked to federal and state policies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would have been better explained with greater discussion in the text, rather than the use of the confusing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagrams. Clarke's enthusiasm for, and grasp of, the complexities shines through the later chapters, so it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unfortunate that the story of the state's history is obfuscated in this chapter because of the style of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(presentation.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(While quantitative data are drawn on throughout the rest of the book, the author uses it far more effectively )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to discuss the dynamic processes in economic, social, cultural and political terms. This is especially the case )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Chapter 6, where the focus is on issues of identity among the state's population, particularly in relation to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(ethnicity. Oaxaca, like its southern neighbours, has a large percentage of indigenous-language speakers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(within its population. In this chapter, Clarke considers the concept of ethnic identity, and the identities )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(adopted by Oaxaca's 'peasants'. Using census material, personal observations and secondary sources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(particularly from anthropologists\) Clarke highlights the divisions within Oaxaca's indigenous population. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Not only are there fifteen language groups \(p.13\) reflecting a range of ethnic traditions, but 'solidarity' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group ethnic identity among groups such as the Zapotecs is rare. Physical isolation and the associated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fragmentation of political administrative units have created a pattern of place-based community identity.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(I found this discussion intriguing, not least because of the rising literature on growing 'ethnic identities' and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(co-operation through transnational political organisations. As Clarke presents it, Oaxaca's rural populations )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(identify at a very local scale and so do not necessarily regard themselves as being part of a larger ethnic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(group. This does not mean that 'ethnicity' is not an issue, indeed as highlighted at the start of Chapter 7 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(p.217\) individual communities are demanding that 'ethnicity' be recognised by state authorities, particularly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in the context of local government. Since 1995 municipios in Oaxaca have been able to run their elections )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(through a system of communal assembly of adult men, rather than through the ballot box. Over 70% of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oaxaca's municipios chose to use this usos y costumbres system in the 1995 elections \(p.168\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Clarke claims that "It is a contradiction that, as peasant communities have modernised and their youth has )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(become more fluent in Spanish, so demands for ethnic recognition have grown, stimulating demands for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(more ethnically controlled economic and social development" \(p.217\). However, I would argue that while )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this may seem a 'contradiction' if you are following a linear model of 'modernisation' where 'ethnicity' can be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regarded as 'traditional' and an 'obstacle to development', a great deal of literature, not least that relating to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('globalisation and culture', has highlighted the complexities of cultural and social responses to wider )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic and political change \(see, for example, Tomlinson, 1999\). Clarke's discussion hints at the fluidity )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of identity, but for most of the book 'identity shifts' are presented much more as a 'one-off' change. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mobilisation and interpretation of identity have been highlighted in other contexts by anthropologists such as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buechler and Buechler \(1996\) and Gill \(1994\) in Bolivia. In Clarke's book there are glimpses of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oaxaqueos/as play with their identity, as in the discussion of the Mixtec mestizos in Jamiltepec or the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(section drawing on Stephen's 1991 work on the weaving village of Teotitln del Valle. In the latter case the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(weavers have consciously constructed an ethnic identity which they can present to potential customers as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('authentic' \(p.126\). Despite examples such as these, the overall impression is one of fixity. This is, perhaps, a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reflection of the age of the studies quoted. In this chapter many of the case studies are taken from the 1960s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and 1970s, well before the recent tendency towards deconstructing concepts such as 'identity' in the social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sciences.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The issue of the age of the material is certainly something that hampers an understanding of late twentieth )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(century Oaxaca, but it is only on page 200 that Clarke explicitly recognises the limits of the data because of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(age. This is in the discussion of the civil-religious hierarchy in the Central Valleys. While understanding that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the author can only work with the material available, it would have been useful to highlight, or perhaps put )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some caveats on, the earlier conclusions relating to identity and 'traditional practices' because of the age of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the data. In particular, there is very little discussion of the effect of the 1980s debt crisis, or Mexico's 1994-5 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(peso crisis on Oaxaca's peasants. I know that this is because most of the work on these issues has been on )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oaxaca City \(see, for example, Selby et al., 1990; Murphy and Stepick, 1991\), but a more explicit )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 19 0 R >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Length 7088 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(recognition of these highly-influential 'external' events would have been useful. It would also have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interesting to follow up the analysis of Central Valley municipio data from 1990, given that there is a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed discussion \(particularly in Chapter 2\) of the 1950-1980 census material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chapter 8 on politics within Oaxaca State is an excellent chapter, although the reader certainly has to have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an understanding of the broader Mexican political system to be able to negotiate the details. As with the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('identity' chapter, the issue of scale is key to an understanding of Oaxacan politics. While 'peasants' remain )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(focused on the local, the state's economic elite attempt to maintain their power through thwarting federal )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(attempts to gain footholds in the state. In addition, urban populations, particularly students, have been )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(engaged in broader political struggles. Given the common \(although understandable\) focus on the 1968 )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(massacre at Tlatelolco, Mexico City when considering student opposition in Mexico, the discussion of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(student protest and government responses in Oaxaca in the early 1970s was welcome. In addition, the details )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of Juchitn's opposition politics and the early 1980s electoral success of leftist groups in the city, again picks )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(up on the theme of change which was highlighted at the start of the book. Opposition success was predicated )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the ability to mobilise particular forms of ethnic and regional identity in a context of extreme social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequality. However, as Clarke concludes, this was an exceptional case as "Oaxaca's peasantries are no more )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(radical now than they were prior to the Mexican Revolution" \(p.241\).)] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Continuing with the theme of 'exceptionalism', the Juchitn political opposition is clearly an example of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(unique event in Mexico at that time and Oaxaca's vast number of municipios \(570\) is indeed worthy of note, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(but in other places I was less convinced about Clarke's claims for Oaxaca's exceptionalism. For example, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oaxaca's large percentage of indigenous language speakers is unusual for Mexico, but it is not unique, or can )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(it really be claimed to be "the peculiar nature of Oaxacan society" \(p.162\). For example, according to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1990 Census, 44.2% of Yucatan's population over five spoke an indigenous language, compared to 39.1% )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(for Oaxaca, 32.2% for Quintana Roo and 26.4% for Chiapas \(INEGI, 1992, p.25\). When theorising social )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inequality in the concluding chapter, Clarke does draw on the concept of 'internal colonialism' \(p.254\) and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(stresses the similarities among the Southern Mexican states due to their ethnic and economic characteristics. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How Oaxaca differs from these states could have been drawn out further in the main body of the text if the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(claims of Oaxacan exceptionalism are to be supported.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In relation to my own research interests, I was disappointed to see that there were no entries for 'women' or )] TJ ET BT 34.016 361.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('gender' in the index. Given the nature of the gender division of labour in Oaxaca \(see, for example, Stephen )] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1991\) and the ways in which ethnic and gender identities combine \(see, for example, Chias 1973 on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Isthmus Zapotecs\) a more specific recognition of gender debates would have been expected. However, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(throughout the book there is some recognition of the impact of capitalist penetration on the nature of gender )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relations, particularly in the field of artisan craft production, and women's involvement in formal politics. In )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the latter case Clarke highlights how the adoption of 'traditional' forms of politics through the usos y )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(costumbres system has sidelined women. The gendered nature of community construction is hinted at in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(conclusion \(p.256\), but this could have been developed further.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The book is well produced and has over 40 figures and tables. Apart from the rather confusing linkage )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(diagrams discussed above, these figures, many of which are maps, complement the text and really highlight )] TJ ET BT 34.016 206.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the spatial distribution of social, political and economic and natural features. While not advocating an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 192.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(environmental deterministic approach, it is clear that the physical environment has been a crucial factor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 178.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(framing Oaxaca's development. There are also 15 photographs illustrating the variety of landscapes and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 163.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(human activities in the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(For any reader interested in rural Mexico, Colin Clarke has done a great service in bringing together such a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wide range of material to highlight the development of a particular state. While the insistence on the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(category of 'peasant' may not be appropriate in all cases, the book provides a detailed and thought-provoking )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(insight into how national and international economic and political processes have been filtered through the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(local Oaxacan context. Such empirically-rich overviews are crucial for an understanding of current global )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(processes, and the debates regarding the historical basis of 'globalisation'.)] TJ ET endstream endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 22 0 R ] /Contents 21 0 R >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Length 2613 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 784.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(References:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 758.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Buechler, Hanes and Buechler, Judith-Maria \(1996\) The World of Sofa Velasquez: The Autobiography of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 743.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Bolivian Market Vendor New York: Columbia University Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 717.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Chias, Beverly \(1973\) The Isthmus Zapotecs: Women's Roles in Cultural Context London: Holt, Rinehart )] TJ ET BT 34.016 703.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Winston.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 677.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cook, Scott and Binford, Leigh \(1990\) Obliging Need: Rural Petty Industry in Mexican Capitalism Austin: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 662.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(University of Texas Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 636.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Gill, Lesley \(1994\) Precarious Dependencies: Gender, Class and Domestic Service in Bolivia New York: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 622.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Columbia University Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(INEGI \(1992\) Estados Unidos Mexicanos: Perfil Sociodemograpfico. XI Censo General de Poblacion y )] TJ ET BT 34.016 581.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Vivienda 1990 Mexico D.F.: INEGI.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 555.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Murphy, Arthur and Stepick, Alex \(1991\) Social Inequality in Oaxaca: A History of Resistance and Change )] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Philadelphia: Temple University Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Selby, Henry A., Murphy, Arthur D. and Lorenzen, Stephen A. \(1990\) The Mexican Urban Household: )] TJ ET BT 34.016 500.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Organizing for Self-Defense Austin: University of Texas Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 474.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Stephen, Lynn \(1991\) Zapotec Women Austin: University of Texas Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 448.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tomlinson, John \(1999\) Globalization and Culture Chicago University Press.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 422.117 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 407.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 403.135 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 385.355 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 385.355 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/238)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 383.961 m 322.316 383.961 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 358.984 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.584 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1948)] TJ ET BT 34.016 330.184 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 22 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 23 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 384.2755 322.3157 396.1555 ] >> endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/238) >> endobj xref 0 24 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000349 00000 n 0000000386 00000 n 0000000581 00000 n 0000000663 00000 n 0000004659 00000 n 0000004768 00000 n 0000004878 00000 n 0000004987 00000 n 0000008548 00000 n 0000008676 00000 n 0000008760 00000 n 0000008825 00000 n 0000015965 00000 n 0000016030 00000 n 0000023589 00000 n 0000023654 00000 n 0000030795 00000 n 0000030879 00000 n 0000033545 00000 n 0000033673 00000 n trailer << /Size 24 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 33768 %%EOF