%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R 21 0 R ] /Count 4 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140724121822+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140724121822+01'00') /Title (Disordered Lives: Eighteenth-Century Families and their Unruly Relatives) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 3862 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Disordered Lives: Eighteenth-Century Families and their Unruly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 593.937 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Relatives)] TJ ET BT 34.016 223.427 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the cities and towns of eighteenth-century Europe many families from all social classes used the resources )] TJ ET BT 34.016 209.171 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and powers of the state to forcibly incarcerate their mad, violent, or simply disorderly members. In this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.915 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(volume Lis and Soly analyse the thousands of petitions and supporting depositions created by this process in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.659 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the towns of the Austrian Netherlands. In doing so they have created what should become a classic in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.403 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(genre of 'history from below'. In it, the lives, the concerns and shear humanity of the individuals who both )] TJ ET BT 34.016 152.147 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered at the hands of their families, and who were driven to extreme action by close relatives, are brought )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.891 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(to life with verve and style. Recalcitrant sons and desperate parents, the mad, the drunk, the lascivious and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.635 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the simply inconvenient, are each illuminated with the sharp light of clear description.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 97.379 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In the process this work furthers and deepens the best intellectual tradition within social history. Both the dry )] TJ ET BT 34.016 83.123 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(inhumanity of quantitative history, and the jargon ridden excesses of discourse analysis are eschewed in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 68.867 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(favour of a straightforward approach which juxtaposes clear tables indicating statistical trends, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 54.611 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(narratives of individuals and events embedded within a thematic analysis. This approach ensures that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 563.315 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 549.059 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(24)] TJ ET BT 34.016 534.803 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 520.547 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Saturday, 1 March, 1997)] TJ ET BT 34.016 506.291 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 492.035 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Catherina Lis)] TJ ET BT 34.016 477.779 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Hugo Soly)] TJ ET BT 34.016 463.523 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 449.267 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780745615141)] TJ ET BT 34.016 435.011 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 420.755 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1996)] TJ ET BT 34.016 406.499 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 392.243 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(40.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 377.987 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 363.731 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(230pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.475 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.219 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Polity Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.963 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.707 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.polity.co.uk/book.asp?ref=9780745615141)] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.451 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.195 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Oxford)] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.939 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.683 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tim Hitchcock)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7655 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(amazing quality of the material upon which the book is based comes through. And to the extent that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disordered Lives)] TJ ET BT 117.008 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( creates a new and fuller history of plebeian people and their concerns, on the basis of a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(powerfully detailed and largely ignored set of sources, it demonstrates both how much can be done to create )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(an inclusive account of the past which recognises the real experiences of people of all sorts, and how much )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(remains as yet undone.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(But at the same time, the quality of human experience and suffering reflected in this volume forces us to ask )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(if Lis and Soly, or indeed the historical profession in general, have done enough to represent plebeian people )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on their own terms and in their full complexity. And more than this, it forces us to ask if the methodological )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and intellectual tools used in this analysis, do justice to either the sources or indeed the lives upon which it is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(based.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The analysis in )] TJ ET BT 109.676 629.909 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Disordered Lives)] TJ ET BT 192.668 629.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( demonstrates that poor people came to use the opportunity provided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 615.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(civic authorities to control individual family members more frequently as the century progressed, and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 601.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(especially after around 1770. The authors explain this phenomenon by positing a direct relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 587.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(changing economic circumstances and the decisions made by plebeian families which resulted in the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 572.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sponsored incarceration of difficult members. Lis and Soly base their analysis on the assumption that the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor families who petitioned the civic authorities to have their sons and husbands, daughters and wives )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarcerated in houses of correction did so because changing patterns of waged labour )] TJ ET BT 450.236 544.373 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(forced)] TJ ET BT 480.896 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( them to. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(authors certainly recognise the ambiguity in the power relationships they describe. They frequently allude to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the fact that the poor themselves needed to actively pursue the alternative of incarceration for it to become a )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(reality, and that this in turn suggests that it was the poor who in some ways controlled the process. More )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than this, they recognise the extent to which there was a degree of collusion between the state \(and hence )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(elite opinion\) and the poor in determining which forms of disorder should be addressed through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarceration. And yet, the family members who drew up petitions and the neighbours who gave evidence in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(support of those petitions seem too frequently to be depicted as economically rational individuals simply )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(responding to circumstances beyond their control. The reorganisation of cloth manufacture and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(increasing importance of the lace industries are continually deployed as the fundamental driving force, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(pressurising families and ensuring the existence of a continuously rising tide of individuals driven from their )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(homes for months or years, and kept in harsh and degrading conditions in a variety of institutions at the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(expense of the state.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 347.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The difficulty is that the very richness of the source material - the quality of human experience it contains - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 332.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(seems to demand a more nuanced and humanistic explanation. We are, for example, given detailed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(information demonstrating that most plebeian people imprisoned at the request of their parents were men in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their early twenties. Lis and Soly explain this by reference to the dehumanising conditions increasingly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(suffered by young men given over to the meagre care of the )] TJ ET BT 323.936 290.021 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(kelderboer)] TJ ET BT 375.920 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \(cellar-farmers\) of the cotton )] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(spinning industry, and the late age at marriage imposed on these same men as a result of financial insecurity. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This analysis is almost certainly true, and is strongly supported by the fact that the largest group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(incarcerated young men were accused of being ?work shy?. It is at the same time an explanation which, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(many ways, hides more than it reveals. The behaviour of the parents and children involved needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(imbedded in a more complex understanding of the youth culture created by these young men, and the nature )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the expectations which parents brought to their own roles. In a brilliant section on youth gangs and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(criminality, the authors demonstrate that they have the material with which to create such an explanation, but )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they never really relate the two phenomenon. Too often the culture and decisions of plebeian people are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 161.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(described as the unproblematic response to circumstances beyond their own control. In this instance, an )] TJ ET BT 34.016 147.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(appeal to economic rationalism allows Lis and Soly to skate over the occasionally unpalatable and always )] TJ ET BT 34.016 133.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(politically problematic views, beliefs and decisions of the poor, in favour of a view which sees them as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 118.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(victims of their social circumstances. In the process the subjects of this book, the violent husbands and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 104.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(wives, brutal parents and uncontrollable adolescents, alcoholics and libertines are made less than they were.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(In a similar way, the explanations deduced for the behaviour of the participants in the next largest group of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(commitments - that of husbands by wives - is equally frustrating. Again the changing character of male )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(employment, and the growing demand for female employees in the lace industry are pointed to as an )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 19 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 7405 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explanation of the marked preponderance of husbands committed for domestic violence, and drunkenness, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(laziness and general fecklessness. And while economic change is certainly a major context for this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(phenomenon, it again does not explain why, within a strongly patriarchal society, relatively large numbers of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(women were given and took the authority and support of the state in order to control their disorderly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(husbands. Nor does it explain the internal power relationships within the household that allowed women to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use these opportunities as effectively as they seem to have done.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(To take just one instance of the kind of phenomenon which need explaining in a more complex way, one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(might consider the high proportion of cases of domestic violence reflected in the petitions which involved )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(apparently symbolic attacks on the marriage bed. Lis and Soly tantalisingly note this phenomenon and in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(passing give a bemused explanation, but even on the surface it seems to represent a much more complex set )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of assumptions than the authors are willing to entertain. Some deeper explanation is needed to allow us to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understand why a worker from eighteenth-century Brabant should choose to use the bed as a symbol of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(household and marriage, instead of the more usual crockery and kitchen implements. What is needed is some )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sense of the changing content of plebeian culture which does not assume that culture is simply responding to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economic change.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 558.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(These comments are almost certainly unfair. I am sure that the authors of this book would concur in my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 544.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(desire for a more complex history of the lives and beliefs of working people, and would point out the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fearsomely difficult task involved in creating such a history for even a relatively small area and period. The )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(problem is that by bringing to our attention such a tremendous source of information, Lis and Soly have left )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(this reader acutely aware of how much we currently do not understand about the actions and motivations of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(working people. By bringing to our attention the tremendously rich details included in this material, one?s )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical appetite is whetted rather than satisfied.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 446.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(More than this, by attempting to fit the complexity of real lives and painful decisions within an essentially )] TJ ET BT 34.016 432.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(materialist and rationalist analysis of historical change, the inadequacy of such an approach is highlighted. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 418.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(By choosing to emphasise the economic context at the expense of the cultural, Lis and Soly make all too )] TJ ET BT 34.016 404.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(clear the need to move beyond the assumptions of materialism as reflected in both Marxism and right-wing )] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(economics, towards something that more clearly reflects the complexities of the power relationships within )] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which all decision making occurs.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 349.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(It is clear from the text that the authors are aware of the deeply problematic nature of the relationships and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 335.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(decisions they describe, and of the relative inadequacies of a materialist analysis to explain them, and yet )] TJ ET BT 34.016 320.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(they do not make sufficient use of the alternative approaches which are currently available. Feminist )] TJ ET BT 34.016 306.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(scholarship, in particular, and here one thinks of work such as Laura Gowing?s recent analysis of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 292.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(essentially similar content of English Consistory Court records, has provided at least one model of how )] TJ ET BT 34.016 278.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(detailed family and neighbourhood relationships can be understood without doing damage to the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(individuality and personality of the historical actors involved.)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 329.996 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1\))] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 329.996 262.371 m 343.988 262.371 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 343.988 263.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( Rather than allowing our assumptions )] TJ ET BT 34.016 249.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(about the impact of macro-economic change to guide our analysis, it is time, and these types of records )] TJ ET BT 34.016 235.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(allow us, to look at individuals first, and to build models from the ground up, rather than from the theory )] TJ ET BT 34.016 220.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(down.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 194.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Perhaps it is in the issues surrounding the relative authority and interests of working families and the state )] TJ ET BT 34.016 180.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that the impact of an overly theory led analysis can be seen. The period which witnessed the highest number )] TJ ET BT 34.016 166.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of incarcerations by poor families, 1770-1790, was also the period which saw a concerted attempt on the part )] TJ ET BT 34.016 151.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the state, under the leadership of Vilain XIIII, to reform the system of social policy. Panopticon-like )] TJ ET BT 34.016 137.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(institutions were established, work projects set on foot, and proposals for a professional police put forward. )] TJ ET BT 34.016 123.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Indeed, in a whole range of ways, elite social attitudes towards disorder seem to have hardened in these last )] TJ ET BT 34.016 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(two decades of the )] TJ ET BT 126.656 109.205 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Ancien Regime)] TJ ET BT 198.968 109.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(. The coincidence of the apparently co-terminus concerns of poor families )] TJ ET BT 34.016 94.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and elite opinion is explained by Lis as Soly as accidental, the two phenomenon having little real )] TJ ET BT 34.016 80.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(relationship. As a result, one is left with an analysis in which the elite figures who control the state apparatus )] TJ ET BT 34.016 66.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(are seen to be responding to the Enlightenment, and intellectual debate. For them social policy and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 52.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(control of disorder is a matter of choice, and in a broader sense a matter of cultural prejudice. At the same )] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj [16 0 R /Fit] endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 20 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 329.9957 262.6855 343.9877 274.5655 ] >> endobj 20 0 obj << /Type /Action >> endobj 21 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 23 0 R 25 0 R ] /Contents 22 0 R >> endobj 22 0 obj << /Length 5357 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(time, for the poor, the same issues are a matter of knee-jerk economic rationalism, in which culture and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(debate seem largely superfluous. This division seems unnecessarily patronising to plebeian people. For Lis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 767.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and Soly, this division between elite and plebeian interest is necessary because of their dialectic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 753.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(understanding of power. But, just as the individual conflicts which fill the petitions need a more nuanced and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 739.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complex explanatory model, so the broader understanding of power relations which inform this analysis, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 725.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(likewise needs to be rethought. As the historiography of the last twenty years, from Foucault to the New )] TJ ET BT 34.016 710.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Historicists, has amply demonstrated power is never invested in a single relationship. It is a complex )] TJ ET BT 34.016 696.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(interrelationship in which a wide variety of participants enter. Inevitably, the roles of the rich and the poor in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 682.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(creating the ?reformation of manners? which seems to have taken hold of the Austrian Netherlands are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 668.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(different, but they are surely not separate or accidental. And whether the links which bind these various )] TJ ET BT 34.016 653.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical actors are to be found in economics, or language, or symbol, in the changing patterns of the theatre )] TJ ET BT 34.016 639.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of social interaction, or in the demands placed on relationships by changing economic necessity, it cannot be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 625.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(enough to simply say they are coincidental, and by implication that the rich have culture and choice, and the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 611.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(poor are mere historical automatons responding to circumstances beyond their understanding or control. As )] TJ ET BT 34.016 596.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(when looking at the disputes and contentions which filled the lives of the petitioners and the incarcerated, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 582.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the broader history of the phenomenon which produced the hundreds of cases analysed here needs to be )] TJ ET BT 34.016 568.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(contextualised and rebuilt from the bottom up.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 542.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Having made these criticisms, I am very conscious that they are directed at the wrong object. Lis and Soly )] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(have created a brilliant piece of historical writing, which I do and will continue to recommend to any one )] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(willing to listen. My comments on their approach are more a reflection of the moment in the development of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(historical scholarship at which this volume was created, than it is a criticism of the work. More than any )] TJ ET BT 34.016 485.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(other example of eighteenth-century social history written in recent years, this volume is full of the words )] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(and lives of working people. In reading this book, one is continually struck by the wealth of material Lis and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Soly have uncovered, and continually moved by the tragedies and conflicts, the human stories and vignettes )] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(that fill these pages. If in the end, one is left frustrated, it is because one has become involved in the lives of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 428.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the individuals described, and wants more. This volume demonstrates that the lives and experiences of the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(eighteenth-century poor are there in the archives, and that it is down to historians to go out and reconstruct )] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(those lives in their full splendour of human fallibility and individuality.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 364.659 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(Notes)] TJ ET BT 48.816 334.042 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(1.)] TJ ET BT 64.016 334.037 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Laura Gowing, 'Gender and Language of Insult in Early Modern London', History Workshop, 35 )] TJ ET BT 64.016 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\(1993\) 1-21. )] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 127.004 319.781 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Back to \(1\))] TJ ET 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 127.004 318.387 m 180.992 318.387 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 293.525 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 279.269 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 274.543 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 256.763 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 256.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/24)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 255.369 m 316.316 255.369 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 230.392 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 215.992 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/242)] TJ ET BT 34.016 201.592 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 23 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 24 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 127.0037 318.7015 180.9917 330.5815 ] >> endobj 24 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /GoTo /D 18 0 R >> endobj 25 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 26 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 255.6835 316.3157 267.5635 ] >> endobj 26 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/24) >> endobj xref 0 27 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000342 00000 n 0000000379 00000 n 0000000575 00000 n 0000000657 00000 n 0000004571 00000 n 0000004680 00000 n 0000004790 00000 n 0000004899 00000 n 0000008460 00000 n 0000008588 00000 n 0000008672 00000 n 0000008737 00000 n 0000016445 00000 n 0000016529 00000 n 0000023987 00000 n 0000024017 00000 n 0000024145 00000 n 0000024181 00000 n 0000024272 00000 n 0000029682 00000 n 0000029810 00000 n 0000029865 00000 n 0000029993 00000 n trailer << /Size 27 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 30087 %%EOF