%PDF-1.3 1 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Outlines 2 0 R /Pages 3 0 R >> endobj 2 0 obj << /Type /Outlines /Count 0 >> endobj 3 0 obj << /Type /Pages /Kids [6 0 R 14 0 R 16 0 R ] /Count 3 /Resources << /ProcSet 4 0 R /Font << /F1 8 0 R /F2 9 0 R /F3 10 0 R >> /XObject << /I1 11 0 R >> >> /MediaBox [0.000 0.000 595.280 841.890] >> endobj 4 0 obj [/PDF /Text /ImageC ] endobj 5 0 obj << /Creator (DOMPDF) /CreationDate (D:20140722080009+01'00') /ModDate (D:20140722080009+01'00') /Title (The Demography of Victorian England and Wales) >> endobj 6 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 12 0 R ] /Contents 7 0 R >> endobj 7 0 obj << /Length 4213 >> stream q 381.750 0 0 120.000 34.016 687.874 cm /I1 Do Q 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Published on )] TJ ET BT 99.356 676.469 Td /F2 12.0 Tf [(Reviews in History)] TJ ET BT 190.016 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [( \()] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 197.012 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 197.012 675.075 m 357.332 675.075 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 357.332 676.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(\))] TJ ET 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 653.743 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 615.321 Td /F3 18.0 Tf [(The Demography of Victorian England and Wales)] TJ ET BT 34.016 259.067 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This book seems to have been a long time coming. Its precursors were a slim volume in the popular )] TJ ET BT 34.016 244.811 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Macmillan Studies in Economic and Social History series in 1992, and more recently the Atlas of Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 230.555 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Mortality \(with Nicola Shelton\), published in 1997. Yet one feels that at the heart of every historical )] TJ ET BT 34.016 216.299 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographer is the urge to publish the 'big book' - the definitive statement for the discipline. There are )] TJ ET BT 34.016 202.043 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(several ground rules for a successful 'big book': it must be both geographically and chronologically )] TJ ET BT 34.016 187.787 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(comprehensive and provide a critique of its predecessors in a statistically rigorous fashion \(probably more so )] TJ ET BT 34.016 173.531 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(than in any other history-based discipline\). It must also provide some pointers for future research - a map )] TJ ET BT 34.016 159.275 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(into the uncharted territory of historical demography. Of course, the ghost lurking at the back of my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 145.019 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(preamble is Thomas McKeown. Since the publication of The Modern Rise of Population in 1976, his model )] TJ ET BT 34.016 130.763 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(has become the yardstick by which every subsequent historical demographer has been measured, and indeed )] TJ ET BT 34.016 116.507 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(measures oneself. Woods is coy about the ongoing relevance of McKeown's work to current research. He )] TJ ET BT 34.016 102.251 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would clearly love this book to be the one which finally lays to rest the debate on what caused the decline in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 87.995 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality rates in Britain in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Yet McKeown, for all his well-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 73.739 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(publicised failings provides the valuable organising framework within which subsequent researchers have )] TJ ET BT 34.016 59.483 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(organised their arguments. Even Woods is adept at this game, expertly dissecting McKeown's arguments in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.699 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Review Number:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.443 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(240)] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.187 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publish date:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 541.931 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Tuesday, 1 January, 2002)] TJ ET BT 34.016 527.675 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Author:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 513.419 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Robert Woods)] TJ ET BT 34.016 499.163 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(ISBN:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 484.907 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(9780521782548)] TJ ET BT 34.016 470.651 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Date of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 456.395 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(2000)] TJ ET BT 34.016 442.139 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Price:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 427.883 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(62.00)] TJ ET BT 34.016 413.627 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Pages:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 399.371 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(492pp.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 385.115 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 370.859 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge University Press)] TJ ET BT 34.016 356.603 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Publisher url:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 342.347 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.cambridge.org/uk/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521782548)] TJ ET BT 34.016 328.091 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Place of Publication:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 313.835 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Cambridge)] TJ ET BT 34.016 299.579 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Reviewer:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 285.323 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Sally Sheard)] TJ ET endstream endobj 8 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F1 /BaseFont /Times-Roman /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 9 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F2 /BaseFont /Times-Italic /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 10 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /Type1 /Name /F3 /BaseFont /Times-Bold /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding >> endobj 11 0 obj << /Type /XObject /Subtype /Image /Width 509 /Height 160 /Filter /FlateDecode /DecodeParms << /Predictor 15 /Colors 3 /Columns 509 /BitsPerComponent 8>> /Mask [ 255 255 255 255 255 255 ] /ColorSpace /DeviceRGB /BitsPerComponent 8 /Length 3280>> stream x[EQ㎦fVttҒ +3O{?lGDQԯDrB^.ϯ%~'0۠/2>0AG_>0j0GCfE67>rB^}@  !&y+r?INp:erc b8f=rQC!~-Wf^^zF[)G 2ޯe7V_Go3Ke GEGOo8rώ#\1ZY~N6^H}yLxS-!:412V+u\-LSO?xVvZ|GjǮT_8EYJF=Tw^ 7GxfN/S:Ʌ~ʟtt?5n÷J'JcF-GVξx{rO~tJd;#a\7}|~y'>}c2C vR}f׈**h.)_&@pfzjsx:5;S\vKhM5j=!Cn+h"u]a EUN]jn=k<,:Ք>sU!ni~6EJ)¦72?G}[y}_vc$t?iSܟ2Zݞ,VN?_`='RFK1A2qv&X_lLRWY'%:I㢖zb_UEx\>&ɆBˏ~K@ \gYØU4}$8Dv!'Q'*+Εj(UCGo[#< 2Ja(sZi9fZKE Rn`u\9r^Zmɯ׹}mstO4uc~#'jEvۼ Dx[z ޏQ4KL5,5u3>i^uÒ-53ba ~,~/pyt1fMU'CVm:qv~=Y'Es"WsφG?l_kN5}],Ow7 uh`xƫ?zMl7ٻv$A(4Dl(wwH} ?=[=S;yC]^BK>㕪9`Z'Wj;E|:bf>kCԘ#RY,iv쵗~}n'"1u" *uO΄/2^Sxr(!/DD\~mJyZ!MmrA!#u[if|99WB WΡpp}w}sh#,\ &:%˳X?D3 %W0cC?o̲^} F3XLVn]Cߖiϧ!7}yZJ#P7]=)7Ρp;>> Ye^xx{Oafw{ ;>4gfLt ʊ:q%#r/)pv!O4wGh|dS ӣݽހ-gVUC'pBxrB^} 7JA^} /'8!`:r?}}],X  }6y!`/~Br?}Q< >k7vx"] ,' .3jn{-i}|~%-};b6#U)7繎kiEw 㤳:E}[޼c"rꬊ7Dc$~"/Y&zSd:tFȌCrʙ`7u .#[-<)j ?TGS(j~oTup(hjU4PlJ=}|it.ҽ@\wʨuXÞZcx18Wo<~ikOg,ވ\^?EneyZcc0[R١z|zv7_m:_n]a?osS3~j^ hD.a_X'KfBX6w wݶ"Oa:,bvhrWH[uCF-Xfc}>x+Rz)2N-B 7y^٨;[/vg? | |2Sve}=o䑰j[vWjF0{굦?VI~}xM(_TlG__+]:#к?S} c>GŸD7 !w{S{B =x7a?oE#)+Gz:o_4Q<;n?\tt7?mGCџQGu4kņOF>F?#} hP&ђߴM#u!.СtL2^#o nIk_i.~7tr@n 1P~3?.[]=S5b߮~Yo^HFH YBi8a4iom>CKgMy*;?zqEӕ` >zB9iFzC?XF?ޟIܰ펉A}{I5ᄊx%ez#Mp@rߎpi]IOVjzuJt\۰f׺u5><,J~PTJp1)}){9N {!`/> endstream endobj 12 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 13 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 197.0117 675.3895 357.3317 687.2695 ] >> endobj 13 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews) >> endobj 14 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Contents 15 0 R >> endobj 15 0 obj << /Length 7406 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the course of constructing his own more robust analysis.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 770.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(How does this book rate on the 'big book' credentials outlined above? It certainly does well on the first count )] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of long chronology. Thankfully Queen Victoria's own life expectancy was considerably longer than that for )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the average upper-class female born in 1819. Her 82 years provide a neat chronological window through )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which to view a significant shift in demographic patterns. During the course of her life, demography became )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(deeply entrenched in the philosophy of governance in England and Wales. The introduction of civil )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(registration in 1837, together with the decennial census and increasingly more sophisticated nosologies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(meant that the state now had detailed information on where and how the population was living. Such )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic information was most useful for informing debates on the quality of life, in particular the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(quality of health. The gradual improvement during the late nineteenth century in life expectancy and trends )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in particular diseases and locations was evident even to the contemporary observers. Woods does not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(explicitly state why he has opted for a title that uses the term 'Victorian'. In 1992 he chose to use the term )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [('Nineteenth Century' for the Macmillan book. Is this change in terminology significant, given roughly the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(same chronological period in both books? Perhaps what Woods is trying to convey in this book, although )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(maybe not explicitly enough for my liking, is that by shifting the focus to the Victorian ethos and its people - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(as individuals and collectively as a population - he can place more emphasis on the relationship between )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demography and broader aspects of Victorian economy and society.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The chronology does usefully stray from the Victorian period when appropriate. Woods provides a concise )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(summary of what happened to earlier demographic patterns, which substantiate his arguments for a short )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(upswing in fertility in the late eighteenth century as the engine of the subsequent population growth. He is )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(also prepared to extrapolate his research to provide some thoughts on twentieth century demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(regimes. How does the book rate in terms of its geographical focus? England and Wales do form a complete )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(administrative unit in the Victorian era, with Scotland operating a distinctly separate system \(in terms of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(collection and tabulation of information, nosologies, etc.\), although an explicit explanation of this split )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(would perhaps be helpful for students new to historical demography. Woods is conscientious in placing the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(English and Welsh experience in a wider European and global perspective. He provides a valuable narrative )] TJ ET BT 34.016 401.813 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(on the perils of demographic modelling and the construction of 'regimes'. The discussion on the naivety of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 387.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some late twentieth century demographic modelling, which sought to transfer the British 'demographic )] TJ ET BT 34.016 373.301 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(transition' model en masse to developing countries, is particularly effective. He uses examples from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 359.045 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(twentieth century China, East Africa and Japan to illustrate the diversity of demographic experiences that )] TJ ET BT 34.016 344.789 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(can be generated from similar mortality/fertility trends.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 318.533 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The real beauty of this book, however, its in its construction and pace. The discussion flows naturally from )] TJ ET BT 34.016 304.277 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the very readable critique of previous demographic analyses through to a section on the sources and quality )] TJ ET BT 34.016 290.021 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of the data, which are used in the 'meat' of the text. Then follow clearly structured chapters that provide state-)] TJ ET BT 34.016 275.765 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of-the-art hypotheses on preventive checks, family limitation theory, occupational and social group )] TJ ET BT 34.016 261.509 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(mortality, secular decline in childhood mortality and the effect of place on disease patterns. He is prepared to )] TJ ET BT 34.016 247.253 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(sacrifice some of the tedious preamble \(or at least to consign it to footnotes\) to achieve a faster pace in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 232.997 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(arguments. This is a noticeable contrast with earlier demographic textbooks, such as E.A.Wrigley and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 218.741 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(R.S.Schofield's The Population History of England 1541-1871, which laboriously describes all the data and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 204.485 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(techniques employed in the formation of their hypotheses. The net result of Woods' style is to move this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 190.229 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book within the reach of the undergraduate student, yet retaining the level of sophisticated analysis )] TJ ET BT 34.016 175.973 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demanded by fellow demographers.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 149.717 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(This is a deceptive book, too. Although it has over 400 pages of text \(as well as the 28 page bibliography\), it )] TJ ET BT 34.016 135.461 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(manages to appear a slender volume. This is in part due to the production by Cambridge University Press, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 121.205 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which has used a high-quality thin paper, as well as efficient page layouts. The splash of colour provided by )] TJ ET BT 34.016 106.949 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(the section of maps in the centre of the book is welcome, but I'm afraid goes little way to console my )] TJ ET BT 34.016 92.693 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(frustration with the lack of pictures. Surely, in a book which is all about people - individuals or populations - )] TJ ET BT 34.016 78.437 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(we could have had more than the token line drawing of some insanitary property which is used on the cover? )] TJ ET BT 34.016 64.181 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Woods is so clearly a fan of William Farr, I would have at least expected a portrait of this great Victorian )] TJ ET BT 34.016 49.925 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographer. Perhaps also he could have used the brilliant pair of family photographs used by the Liverpool )] TJ ET endstream endobj 16 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Annots [ 18 0 R ] /Contents 17 0 R >> endobj 17 0 obj << /Length 4446 >> stream 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg 0.502 0.502 0.502 RG 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d BT 34.016 796.469 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(Medical Officer of Health, Dr W.E. Hope in the 1920s to show the benefits and perils of breastfeeding and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 782.213 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(bottle-feeding respectively.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 755.957 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of illustrations is more than a niggle on my part. It highlights one of the rare weaknesses of this )] TJ ET BT 34.016 741.701 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(book, which sets out \(on page 2 to be precise\) to provide a truly interdisciplinary text, integrating the work )] TJ ET BT 34.016 727.445 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(of 'statisticians, economists, sociologists, geographers and epidemiologists, as well as several branches of )] TJ ET BT 34.016 713.189 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(history'. Given that this book also comes from the Cambridge Studies in Population, Economy and Society )] TJ ET BT 34.016 698.933 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in Past Time series, I had hoped for far more about 'economy' and 'society'. Woods does collect and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 684.677 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(synthesise all possible available demographic data for England and Wales during this period. He is a master )] TJ ET BT 34.016 670.421 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(at the slick reconfigurations and 'guestimating' that characterise the advanced level at which demographers )] TJ ET BT 34.016 656.165 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(now work and play. But where is the exploration of the culture in which Victorian couples sought to limit )] TJ ET BT 34.016 641.909 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(their family sizes, or the analysis of the pressures on the state to provide a preventive health service in the )] TJ ET BT 34.016 627.653 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(late nineteenth century? I acknowledge that these subjects are not as amenable to quantitative analysis as )] TJ ET BT 34.016 613.397 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic data - but there are ways in which these valuable perspectives can be integrated. Woods )] TJ ET BT 34.016 599.141 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(indicates continually throughout this volume that he is alert to the weaknesses in some demographic studies, )] TJ ET BT 34.016 584.885 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(in which 'hypothesis has run far ahead of description, to the detriment of interpretation' \(p.112\). He gains our )] TJ ET BT 34.016 570.629 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(trust through his careful approach to numbers, but at times one wishes he was a little bit more daring in his )] TJ ET BT 34.016 556.373 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(use of supplementary material.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 530.117 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(The lack of illustrations is thus a small niggle relative to my broader concern for the gap which this volume )] TJ ET BT 34.016 515.861 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(fails to fill, but a related one all the same. This is essentially a highly accomplished demographic text, in )] TJ ET BT 34.016 501.605 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(which the integration of mortality, fertility and nuptiality themes within carefully chosen geographical and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 487.349 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(chronological parameters renders the value of the whole much greater than the sum of the individual )] TJ ET BT 34.016 473.093 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(demographic components. This volume builds on Woods' earlier mortality-focused research and )] TJ ET BT 34.016 458.837 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(complements the work of Szreter and others on the fertility side of the equation. This is certainly the current )] TJ ET BT 34.016 444.581 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(definitive statement on the demography of Victorian England and Wales, but I suggest that Woods has not )] TJ ET BT 34.016 430.325 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(yet produced a final 'map'. This volume has significantly reduced the uncharted territory, but also provided )] TJ ET BT 34.016 416.069 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(some interesting directions for new routes.)] TJ ET BT 34.016 389.813 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Other reviews:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 375.557 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2])] TJ ET 0.75 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 34.391 370.831 526.499 1.500 re S BT 34.016 353.051 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Source URL:)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 rg BT 104.672 353.051 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [(http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/240)] TJ ET 0.000 0.000 0.800 RG 0.24 w 0 J [ ] 0 d 104.672 351.657 m 322.316 351.657 l S 0.000 0.000 0.000 rg BT 34.016 326.680 Td /F3 12.0 Tf [(Links:)] TJ ET BT 34.016 312.280 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([1] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/item/1954)] TJ ET BT 34.016 297.880 Td /F1 12.0 Tf [([2] http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews)] TJ ET endstream endobj 18 0 obj << /Type /Annot /Subtype /Link /A 19 0 R /Border [0 0 0] /H /I /Rect [ 104.6717 351.9715 322.3157 363.8515 ] >> endobj 19 0 obj << /Type /Action /S /URI /URI (http://www.history.ac.uk/reviews/review/240) >> endobj xref 0 20 0000000000 65535 f 0000000008 00000 n 0000000073 00000 n 0000000119 00000 n 0000000335 00000 n 0000000372 00000 n 0000000541 00000 n 0000000623 00000 n 0000004888 00000 n 0000004997 00000 n 0000005107 00000 n 0000005216 00000 n 0000008777 00000 n 0000008905 00000 n 0000008989 00000 n 0000009054 00000 n 0000016513 00000 n 0000016597 00000 n 0000021096 00000 n 0000021224 00000 n trailer << /Size 20 /Root 1 0 R /Info 5 0 R >> startxref 21319 %%EOF